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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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981. Exercise-induced reversal of insulin resistance in obese elderly is associated with reduced visceral fat. (PubMed)

) and fat mass (P < 0.001), while fat-free mass was not altered (P > 0.05). VF (176 +/- 20 vs. 136 +/- 17 cm2, P < 0.0001), subcutaneous fat (351 +/- 34 vs. 305 +/- 28 cm2, P < 0.03), and total abdominal fat (525 +/- 40 vs. 443 +/- 34 cm2, P < 0.003) were reduced through training. Circulating leptin was lower (P < 0.003) after training, but total adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained unchanged. Insulin resistance was reversed by exercise (40.1 +/- 7.7 vs. 27.6 +/- 5.6 units, P < 0.01 (...) supervised exercise program (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, treadmill/cycle ergometry at 85% of heart rate maximum). Visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat, and total abdominal fat were measured by computed tomography. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by hydrostatic weighing. An oral glucose tolerance test was used to determine changes in insulin resistance. Exercise training increased maximal oxygen consumption (21.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 24.3 +/- 1.0 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), P < 0.0001), decreased body weight (P < 0.0001

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2006 Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)

982. Fat depot-specific characteristics are retained in strains derived from single human preadipocytes. (PubMed)

Fat depot-specific characteristics are retained in strains derived from single human preadipocytes. Fat depots vary in size, function, and potential contribution to disease. Since fat tissue turns over throughout life, preadipocyte characteristics could contribute to this regional variation. To address whether preadipocytes from different depots are distinct, we produced preadipocyte strains from single abdominal subcutaneous, mesenteric, and omental human preadipocytes by stably expressing (...) human telomere reverse transcriptase (hTERT). These strains could be subcultured repeatedly and retained capacity for differentiation, while primary preadipocyte adipogenesis and replication declined with subculturing. Primary omental preadipocytes, in which telomeres were longest, replicated more slowly than mesenteric or abdominal subcutaneous preadipocytes. Even after 40 population doublings, replication, abundance of the rapidly replicating preadipocyte subtype, and resistance to tumor necrosis

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2006 Diabetes

983. Adipocytokines and VLDL metabolism: independent regulatory effects of adiponectin, insulin resistance, and fat compartments on VLDL apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics? (PubMed)

Adipocytokines and VLDL metabolism: independent regulatory effects of adiponectin, insulin resistance, and fat compartments on VLDL apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics? We investigated the relationship of plasma adipocytokine concentrations with VLDL apolipoprotein B (apoB)-100 kinetics in men. Plasma adiponectin, leptin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were measured using enzyme immunoassays and insulin resistance by homeostasis model (...) assessment (HOMA) score in 41 men with BMI of 22-35 kg/m(2). VLDL apoB kinetics were determined using an intravenous infusion of 1-[(13)C]leucine, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and compartmental modeling. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue mass (ATM) were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, and total ATM was measured by bioelectrical impedance. In univariate regression, plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations were inversely and directly associated, respectively, with plasma

2005 Diabetes

984. Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model. (PubMed)

donor site for fat harvesting.This in vivo experiment using the nude mice model enables the study of the long-term survival of human fat in an animal model. The fat was harvested from three donor areas: the thigh, abdomen, and breast of a 48-year-old woman who came for an elective esthetic procedure. After centrifugation, 1 cc of fat was injected subcutaneously into the scalp of the nude mouse. There were 15 mice in each of the three groups, according to the selected donor sites. The animals were (...) sacrificed 16 weeks after the procedure. The extracted fat was evaluated in terms of weight, volume, and six histologic parameters: integrity, vascularization, cyst formation, fibrosis, necrosis, and inflammation.This study could not find any statistically significant differences between the three investigated donor sites in the evaluated parameters.On the basis of this study, there is no favorable area for harvesting fat grafts. The donor site can be chosen according to the preference of the surgeon

2005 Dermatologic Surgery

985. Adiponectin gene expression and adipocyte NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in elderly overweight and obese women: inter-relationships with fat distribution, hs-CRP, leptin and insulin resistance. (PubMed)

inflammation, insulin resistance, leptin and the serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), adiponectin and the inhibitor kappa B-alpha (IkB-alpha), in subjects with a wide range of body mass index (BMI). We also wanted to determine which of these variables was most closely related to adiponectin gene expression and adipocyte NF-kB transcriptional power.A total of 27 women aged between 50 and 80 years, with BMI ranging from 22.1 to 53.3 kg/m(2 (...) Adiponectin gene expression and adipocyte NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in elderly overweight and obese women: inter-relationships with fat distribution, hs-CRP, leptin and insulin resistance. The regulatory processes that modulate adiponectin production and the mechanisms involved in nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) transcriptional activity in human adipocytes are not yet fully known. The aim of our study was to evaluate the inter-relationships between body fat, fat distribution, systemic

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2007 International Journal of Obesity

986. Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. (PubMed)

concentrations, and insulin-stimulated serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt), insulin receptor activation, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in subcutaneous fat and muscle were measured in subsets of animals.TFA-fed monkeys gained significant weight with increased intra-abdominal fat deposition. Impaired glucose disposal was implied by significant postprandial hyperinsulinemia, elevated fructosamine, and trends toward higher glucose concentrations. Significant reduction in muscle Akt (...) Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. There is conflicting evidence about the propensity of trans fatty acids (TFAs) to cause obesity and insulin resistance. The effect of moderately high intake of dietary monounsaturated TFAs on body composition and indices of glucose metabolism was evaluated to determine any pro-diabetic effect in the absence of weight gain.Male African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops; n=42) were assigned to diets

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2007 Obesity

987. Fat cell size, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in obese children. (PubMed)

scanning), subcutaneous adipocyte diameter (needle biopsy of subcutaneous abdominal fat), blood tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 concentrations and insulin sensitivity (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) were assessed.Adipocyte diameter, more than BMI and fat mass, was significantly associated with interleukin-6 (r = 0.62, P < .001) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (r = 0.61, P < .001). Moreover adipocyte size was associated with insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.15, F = 4.69 (...) Fat cell size, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in obese children. To assess the association between adiposity indexes (body mass index [BMI], fat mass, adipocyte size) and circulating inflammation markers with known metabolic relevance or insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese children.Twenty-eight children (males/females: 13/15) with different degrees of overweight (BMI z-score: 1.64-3.1; fat mass: 14.1-49.8 kg) were studied. BMI, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

2007 Journal of Pediatrics

988. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the spine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis before and after therapy with the tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor fusion protein etanercept. (PubMed)

Magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the spine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis before and after therapy with the tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor fusion protein etanercept. To assess spinal inflammation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after treatment with the tumor necrosis factor receptor fusion protein etanercept compared with placebo.As part of a recently published randomized, controlled trial, 40 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) underwent MRI (...) of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine at 4 different time points: baseline, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and 48 weeks. Nineteen patients received subcutaneous etanercept twice weekly (25 mg twice daily) for 1 year, and 21 patients received placebo for 6 months before being switched to etanercept. The mean age of the patients was 39.7 years, 75% were male, 89% were HLA-B27 positive, and the mean disease duration was 13 years. MRI examinations included T1-weighted sequences before and after application of gadolinium

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2005 Arthritis and rheumatism

989. Metabolic and vascular effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade with etanercept in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. (PubMed)

Metabolic and vascular effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade with etanercept in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) impairs insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as fat, muscle and endothelium, and causes endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha blockade with etanercept could reverse vascular and metabolic insulin resistance.Twenty obese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized (...) to etanercept treatment (25 mg subcutaneously twice weekly for 4 weeks) or used as controls in an open parallel study. Forearm blood flow and glucose uptake were measured during intra-arterial infusions of serotonin, sodium nitroprusside and insulin co-infused with serotonin. Beta-cell function was assessed with oral and intra-venous glucose tolerance tests and whole-body insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 decreased significantly

2005 Journal of vascular research

990. Behavior of insulin sensitivity and its relation to leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese women undergoing liposuction: 6-month follow-up. (PubMed)

Behavior of insulin sensitivity and its relation to leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese women undergoing liposuction: 6-month follow-up. Metabolic syndrome is a group of pathological processes which involve insulin resistance, a biochemical and molecular disorder. Obesity appears to be the most frequent clinical component in metabolic syndrome. Subcutaneous fat, independent from visceral fat, is still controversial as a marker of the pathophysiology of insulin resistance.An open (...) parallel-group clinical trial was performed of 12 women (age 30-40 years), with BMI from 30-33 kg/m2 and fasting glucose < or =110 mg/dl. 6 women were included in the "liposuction plus diet" group, and 6 were included in the "diet-only" group. Metabolic profile, including insulin tolerance test (ITT), leptin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), was performed at baseline, 1 and 6 months in both groups. Subcutaneous and visceral fat was quantified with spiral tomography at baseline and after 6

2007 Obesity Surgery

991. Downregulation of electron transport chain genes in visceral adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes independent of obesity and possibly involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (PubMed)

, and eight obese type 2 diabetic women. Downregulation of several genes in the electron transport chain was the most prominent finding in visceral fat of type 2 diabetic women independent of obesity, but the gene pattern was distinct from that previously reported in skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. A similar but much weaker effect was observed in subcutaneous fat. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a major factor behind inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. TNF-alpha treatment (...) Downregulation of electron transport chain genes in visceral adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes independent of obesity and possibly involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Impaired oxidative phosphorylation is suggested as a factor behind insulin resistance of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. The role of oxidative phosphorylation in adipose tissue was elucidated from results of Affymetrix gene profiling in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of eight nonobese healthy, eight obese healthy

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2006 Diabetes

992. Relation of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and fibrinogen to abdominal adipose tissue, blood pressure, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels in healthy postmenopausal women. (PubMed)

hormone therapy. Body fat distribution was measured by computed tomography, and insulin sensitivity was determined by an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. hs-CRP (0.10 < or = r(2) < or =0.37) and IL-6 (0.06 < or = r(2) < or =0.31) were significantly associated with anthropometric and metabolic variables, including visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and insulin sensitivity (p <0.05). Women (...) Relation of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and fibrinogen to abdominal adipose tissue, blood pressure, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels in healthy postmenopausal women. The associations of inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and fibrinogen) with anthropometric and metabolic variables were examined in a sample of 112 postmenopausal women not receiving

2005 American Journal of Cardiology

993. Action of sodium deoxycholate on subcutaneous human tissue: local and systemic effects. (PubMed)

Action of sodium deoxycholate on subcutaneous human tissue: local and systemic effects. Phosphatidylcholine injections have been used as a nonsurgical alternative to the surgical removal of undesired fat. Studies in cell culture suggest that sodium deoxycholate (SD) has a detergent action in fat reduction.The objective was to study SD in subcutaneous human tissue.Thirty volunteers underwent four sessions of subcutaneous abdominal injections of diluted 2.5 or 1% SD stock solutions or placebo (...) . Clinical, hematologic, and ultrasonographic evaluations were performed for 3 months and histology at 3 and 6 months.Both concentrations of SD induced an inflammatory response at the injection site, with dose-dependent adipocyte lysis. Patients reported mild, localized heat, erythema, swelling, and intense pain. Microscopic evaluation revealed necrosis of adipose tissue with adipocyte lysis, fat dissolution, acute lymphomononuclear inflammatory reaction, and intense phagocytosis of fat cells

2007 Dermatologic Surgery

994. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes are cross-sectionally related to markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: the Framingham Heart Study. (PubMed)

Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes are cross-sectionally related to markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: the Framingham Heart Study. Excess adiposity is associated with greater systemic inflammation. Whether visceral adiposity is more proinflammatory than subcutaneous abdominal adiposity is unclear.We examined the relations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), assessed by multidetector computerized tomography, to circulating (...) , intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-6, P-selectin, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (multivariable model R2 0.06 to 0.28 [SAT] and 0.07 to 0.29 [VAT]). However, compared with SAT, VAT was more highly associated with urinary isoprostanes and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (SAT versus VAT comparison: isoprostanes, R2 0.07 versus 0.10, P=0.002; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, R2 0.07 versus 0.08, P=0.04). When body mass index and waist circumference were added to the models, VAT remained

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2007 Circulation

995. Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathological, immunophenotypic and molecular analysis of six patients. (PubMed)

, and three had systemic symptoms. All biopsies exhibited an infiltrate of medium to large pleomorphic cells involving the subcutis with characteristic rimming of fat spaces. Five showed areas of necrosis, but only one showed marked cytophagia. In three cases the neoplastic cells did not express TCR-beta. One was strongly p53 positive, and the other two were CD56 positive. Both these patients showed epidermal involvement with lichenoid changes histologically, and both developed the haemophagocytic (...) Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathological, immunophenotypic and molecular analysis of six patients. Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the World Health Organization classification of T-cell and natural killer cell lymphoma it is listed as an example of extranodal lymphoma. In practice, however, it is most likely to present to a dermatologist.To describe the clinicopathological, immunophenotypic

2003 British Journal of Dermatology

996. Subcutaneous adipose tissue cytokine production is not responsible for the restoration of systemic inflammation markers during weight loss. (PubMed)

. During weight maintenance, circulating inflammatory parameters increased and in some cases returned to baseline.A low-calorie diet is associated with an improvement in the systemic inflammatory status. This seems to be due to energy restriction rather than to adipose mass loss, since inflammatory levels return to baseline soon after weight stabilisation. Furthermore, a negative energy balance and fat mobilisation are associated with increased subcutaneous cytokine adipose expression. (...) Subcutaneous adipose tissue cytokine production is not responsible for the restoration of systemic inflammation markers during weight loss. It has been suggested that weight loss can improve systemic inflammation associated with obesity by decreasing the adipose production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This suggestion, however, remains controversial.To analyse the effect of weight loss on peripheral inflammatory markers and subcutaneous adipocytokine production.Patients were studied

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2006 International Journal of Obesity

997. Comparison of autologous fat transfer in fresh, refrigerated, and frozen specimens: an animal model. (PubMed)

Comparison of autologous fat transfer in fresh, refrigerated, and frozen specimens: an animal model. The rising popularity of autologous fat transfer (AFT) has raised the questions whether cryopreserved adipocytes are a suitable substrate for soft-tissue augmentation, and which storage techniques may be most suitable for a maximally successful surgical result. An animal model of AFT was conceived using isogeneic Sprague-Dawley rats. Suction harvesting of fat and subcutaneous implantation (...) was performed with specimens stored at -16 degrees C or 1 degrees C for a period of 1 or 2 weeks, as well as a group that underwent immediate implantation. A histological comparison of the experimental and control groups clearly demonstrated a decrease in viable adipocytes and an increase in signs of inflammation and fat cell necrosis in those animals that received stored fat instead of immediate fat implantation. These changes became more severe with increased length of storage and the use of refrigeration

2000 Annals of plastic surgery

998. Tumor necrosis factor can induce fever in rats without activating protein breakdown in muscle or lipolysis in adipose tissue. (PubMed)

Tumor necrosis factor can induce fever in rats without activating protein breakdown in muscle or lipolysis in adipose tissue. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, cachectin) is a macrophage product that has been suggested to signal the loss of body weight, the decrease in adipose tissue and muscle mass, and anorexia during infections or chronic illness. To test this possibility, young growing rats were injected subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with human or murine recombinant TNF. After 3-4 h (...) addition in vitro did not enhance lipolysis in epididymal fat pads or proteolysis in soleus muscles. Thus, TNF treatment can induce fever without producing a catabolic state similar to that induced by endotoxin.

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1988 Journal of Clinical Investigation

999. Effect of aerobic training on plasma levels and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in obese women. (PubMed)

Effect of aerobic training on plasma levels and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in obese women. Adipocytokines secreted by adipose tissue are suggested to play a role in the development of obesity-related complications. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic complications in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training on gene (...) ergometer. Before and after the aerobic training, (V(.-)(O(2)max)) and body composition were measured and plasma and SCAAT biopsy samples (in a subgroup of 8 subjects) were obtained for determination of plasma and messenger RNA levels of adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha). The aerobic training resulted in an increase of subjects' V o(2)max by 12.8% (24.6 +/- 3.9 vs 27.7 +/- 4.8 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1), P < .05). Body weight and fat mass were reduced by 5.9

2006 Metabolism: clinical and experimental

1000. Pancreatic carcinoma with polyarthritis, fat necrosis, and high serum lipase and trypsin activity. (PubMed)

Pancreatic carcinoma with polyarthritis, fat necrosis, and high serum lipase and trypsin activity. A 46 year old white man presented with subcutaneous and intramedullary fat necrosis, destructive polyarthritis, and osteolytic bone lesions, complicating a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the tail of the pancreas with metastases in the liver and omentum. There was a 100-fold increase in serum lipase and trypsin activity. His condition deteriorated rapidly, was characterised by rapid tumour (...) growth, formation of ascites, a 20 kg weight loss, extensive subcutaneous fat necrosis, and fistula formation in the left calf. Treatment with 5-fluorouracil 300 mg/m2 on days 1-5 and doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 and cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 1, every three weeks, was well tolerated and resulted in rapid clinical improvement. After three courses of treatment a partial remission was seen and after seven courses further improvement occurred with a return to normal of serum lipase and trypsin activity. One

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1990 Gut

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