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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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981. Adiponectin and other adipocytokines as predictors of markers of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. (PubMed)

= 0.012), RLP-cholesterol (beta coefficient = -0.377; P = 0.016), and triglycerides (beta coefficient = -0.374; P = 0.013). By contrast, leptin was not an independent predictor of these TRL markers. Plasma apoB-48, apoC-III, RLP-cholesterol, and triglycerides were all significantly and positively associated with plasma insulin, HOMA, and visceral, subcutaneous, and total ATMs (P <0.05).These data suggest that the plasma adiponectin concentration may not only link abdominal fat, insulin resistance (...) Adiponectin and other adipocytokines as predictors of markers of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. Adipocytokines are bioactive peptides that may play an important role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. In this study, we investigated the association of plasma adipocytokine concentrations with markers of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism in men.Fasting adiponectin, leptin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha

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2005 Clinical Chemistry

982. Decreased expression of adipogenic genes in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. (PubMed)

), insulin-like growth factor 1, PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha, PPARgamma coactivator 1beta, and PPARdelta] in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 42 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and 25 non-diabetic subjects matched for age and obesity.Insulin sensitivity was measured by a 3-hour 80 mU/m2 per minute hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (100 mg/dL). As expected, subjects with type 2 diabetes had lower glucose disposal (4.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 7.5 +/- 2.8 mg/min per kilogram fat-free mass; p < 0.001) and larger (...) fat cells (0.90 +/- 0.26 vs. 0.78 +/- 0.17 microm; p = 0.04) as compared with obese control subjects. Three genes (SREBP1c, p < 0.01; STAT5A, p = 0.02; and PPARgamma2, p = 0.02) had significantly lower expression in obese type 2 diabetics, whereas C/EBPbeta only tended to be lower (p = 0.07).This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that impaired expression of adipogenic genes may result in impaired adipogenesis, potentially leading to larger fat cells in subcutaneous adipose tissue

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2006 Obesity

983. Mesenteric adipose tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays a crucial role in adipose tissue macrophage migration and activation in obese mice. (PubMed)

Mesenteric adipose tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays a crucial role in adipose tissue macrophage migration and activation in obese mice. To determine whether chemokines, which play a pivotal role in monocyte/macrophage trafficking, modulate macrophage infiltration into and activation in the adipose tissues.Various types of adipose tissue were isolated from different fat depots (e.g., mesenteric, epididymal, renal, and subcutaneous adipose tissues) from obese mice fed (...) oxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha.The level of MCP-1 mRNA expression, protein content, and the amount of protein released significantly increased in the adipose tissues from the obese mice compared with those from the non-obese mice. The mesenteric adipose tissue produced the highest levels of MCP-1 protein among the four different fat depots. Mesenteric adipose tissue-conditioned medium induced the highest degree of macrophage migration and strongly induced macrophages to produce

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2006 Obesity

984. Effects of different hypocaloric diets on protein secretion from adipose tissue of obese women. (PubMed)

-linked immunosorbent assays) from subcutaneous adipose tissue in 40 obese but otherwise healthy women. Similar results were obtained by the two diets. Body weight decreased by approximately 7.5%. The secretion rate of leptin decreased by approximately 40%, as did that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin (IL)-6 and -8 decreased by 25-30%, whereas the secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and adiponectin did not show any changes. Regarding mRNA expression (...) Effects of different hypocaloric diets on protein secretion from adipose tissue of obese women. Little is known about common factors (e.g., macronutrients and energy supply) regulating the protein secretory function of adipose tissue. We therefore compared the effects of randomly assigned 10-week hypoenergetic (-600 kcal/day) diets with moderate-fat/moderate-carbohydrate or low-fat/high-carbohydrate content on circulating levels and production of proteins (using radioimmunoassays and enzyme

2004 Diabetes Controlled trial quality: uncertain

985. Influence of parturition and diets enriched in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune response of dairy cows during the transition period. (PubMed)

Influence of parturition and diets enriched in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune response of dairy cows during the transition period. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the functional properties of immunocompetent cells in dairy cows fed diets enriched in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during the transition period. Six weeks before calving, 21 primiparous and 27 multiparous pregnant Holstein dairy cows were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary fat treatments (...) : calcium salts of palm oil (Megalac), micronized soybeans, or whole flaxseed, which are, respectively, rich in saturated, n-6, or n-3 fatty acids. On wk 6 and 3 before parturition, cows received a subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin to measure the antibody response in colostrum and serum. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and blood samples were taken 6, 3, and 1 wk before the expected calving date and 1, 3, and 6 wk after calving. Blood mononuclear cells were cultured

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2004 Journal of dairy science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

986. Changes in serum levels of E-selectin correlate to improved glycaemic control and reduced obesity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

the effect of physical exercise and pravastatin (40 mg daily) on serum levels of CAMs and a possible role of adipose tissue in regulating serum levels of CAMs were investigated.The study was designed as an unmasked randomized 2x2 factorial trial of 12 weeks duration in 32 subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Changes from baseline were studied, and correlations between changes in CAMs, anthropometric measures, regional fat distribution, glycaemic control and the adipocytokine tumour necrosis factor (...) -a (TNF-a) and adiponectin were investigated.No significant changes in CAMs were observed in any of the intervention groups. However, when examining the whole study population regardless of intervention, changes in serum E-selectin were significantly correlated to changes in body mass index (r=0.48, p=0.006), waist circumference (r=0.48, p=0.006), fasting glucose (r=0.43, p=0.02) and HbA1c (r=0.45, p=0.01), but not to changes in visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, TNF-a or adiponectin.Changes in glycaemic

2005 Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

987. Association between altered expression of adipogenic factor SREBP1 in lipoatrophic adipose tissue from HIV-1-infected patients and abnormal adipocyte differentiation and insulin resistance. (PubMed)

compared fat morphology and mRNA and protein expression of major adipocyte differentiation markers and cytokines in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from 26 HIV-1-infected patients who developed peripheral lipoatrophy while on protease inhibitors and from 18 HIV-1-seronegative healthy controls.Patients' fat contained a higher proportion of small adipocytes than control fat, together with lower mRNA concentrations of the adipogenic differentiation factors CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) beta (...) and alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, and the 1c isoform of SREBP1, with a median decrease of 93% in the latter. The SREBP1 protein concentration was increased 2.6-fold, whereas the PPARgamma protein concentration was decreased by 70%. The expression of adipocyte-specific markers, including leptin, was lower in fat from patients than in fat from controls, whereas expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha was higher and correlated negatively with the expression

2002 Lancet

988. A case of breast sparganosis (PubMed)

A case of breast sparganosis A 29-year-old Korean woman visited the Department of Surgery in MizMedi Hospital with a palpable itching mass on the right breast that had existed for the past 7 months. She had no history to eat either frogs or snakes, but had the history of drinking impure water. Sonography revealed a serpiginous hypoechoic tubular structure associated with partial fat necrosis in breast parenchymal layer and subcutaneous fat layer. It also revealed oval cystic lesions

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2002 The Korean journal of parasitology

989. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Face and Bones

: Joseph A Kovacs, M.D. National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) More Information Go to Publications: Layout table for additonal information ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: 980070 98-I-0070 First Posted: November 4, 1999 Last Update Posted: April 4, 2019 Last Verified: July 26, 2013 Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC): Protease Inhibitor HIV Infection Appearance Subcutaneous Fat Facial Wasting Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout (...) Description Go to Brief Summary: This study will examine risk factors for facial wasting and avascular necrosis (AVN, a type of damage to the hip and other bones) in HIV-infected patients. The prevalence and natural history of AVN are also being evaluated. This study will use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify and monitor these conditions in patients with and without diagnosed AVN and to identify risk factors. HIV-infected patients 18 years of age and older may be eligible for this study. HIV

1999 Clinical Trials

990. Amelanotic cellular blue nevus: a hypopigmented variant of the cellular blue nevus: clinicopathologic analysis of 20 cases. (PubMed)

age of 24 years (range 6-74 years). Both sexes were affected, with a female-to-male ratio of approximately 2:1. The lower back, distal extremities, and scalp were the most common sites of occurrence. Importantly, the lack of pigmentation resulted in an atypical clinical appearance. A diagnosis of blue nevus by the attending physician was not considered in any of the reported lesions. All of the tumors extended deep into the reticular dermis or subcutaneous fat with a mean thickness of 5.5 mm (...) (range 1.7-11 mm). Ulceration was present in two lesions. Mild cytologic atypia and pleomorphism were present in five cases. Mitotic activity (up to 3 mitoses/mm ) was observed in 11 lesions. A brisk lymphocytic host response was present in only one lesion. Tumor necrosis was not observed. Most, but not all, tumors showed reactivity for S-100 and HMB-45. Clinical follow-up (mean 32 months) was consistent with a benign course. Local recurrence was not observed after complete excision. None

2002 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

991. Systemic administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor induces cachexia in rodents. (PubMed)

Systemic administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor induces cachexia in rodents. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has previously been shown to promote the survival of several classes of neurons and glial. We report here that in addition to its effects on the nervous system, CNTF can induce potent effects in extra-neural tissues. Implantation of C6 glioma cells engineered to secrete CNTF either subcutaneously or into the peritoneal cavity of adult mice, or systemic injections of purified (...) rat or human recombinant CNTF, resulted in a rapid syndrome of weight loss resulting in death over a period of 7-10 d. This weight loss could not be explained by a reduction in food intake and involved losses of both fat and skeletal muscle. CNTF also induced the synthesis of acute phase proteins such as haptoglobin. Implantation of C6 lines expressing a nonsecreted form of CNTF, or the parental C6 line itself, did not result in wasting effects. Analysis of this CNTF-induced wasting indicates

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1994 Journal of Clinical Investigation

992. Streptococcal necrotising fasciitis: comparison between histological and clinical features. (PubMed)

Streptococcal necrotising fasciitis: comparison between histological and clinical features. Nineteen acute and 17 subacute cases of necrotising fasciitis due to beta haemolytic streptococci are described. Excised tissue from seven and four cases, respectively, was available for histological examination. The two clinical types showed remarkable similarities, with inflammation and necrosis from epidermis to subcutaneous fat. Haemorrhage was present in variable amounts in both types. Gram positive

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1987 Journal of Clinical Pathology

993. Exercise-induced reversal of insulin resistance in obese elderly is associated with reduced visceral fat. (PubMed)

) and fat mass (P < 0.001), while fat-free mass was not altered (P > 0.05). VF (176 +/- 20 vs. 136 +/- 17 cm2, P < 0.0001), subcutaneous fat (351 +/- 34 vs. 305 +/- 28 cm2, P < 0.03), and total abdominal fat (525 +/- 40 vs. 443 +/- 34 cm2, P < 0.003) were reduced through training. Circulating leptin was lower (P < 0.003) after training, but total adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained unchanged. Insulin resistance was reversed by exercise (40.1 +/- 7.7 vs. 27.6 +/- 5.6 units, P < 0.01 (...) supervised exercise program (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, treadmill/cycle ergometry at 85% of heart rate maximum). Visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat, and total abdominal fat were measured by computed tomography. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by hydrostatic weighing. An oral glucose tolerance test was used to determine changes in insulin resistance. Exercise training increased maximal oxygen consumption (21.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 24.3 +/- 1.0 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), P < 0.0001), decreased body weight (P < 0.0001

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2006 Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)

994. Fat depot-specific characteristics are retained in strains derived from single human preadipocytes. (PubMed)

Fat depot-specific characteristics are retained in strains derived from single human preadipocytes. Fat depots vary in size, function, and potential contribution to disease. Since fat tissue turns over throughout life, preadipocyte characteristics could contribute to this regional variation. To address whether preadipocytes from different depots are distinct, we produced preadipocyte strains from single abdominal subcutaneous, mesenteric, and omental human preadipocytes by stably expressing (...) human telomere reverse transcriptase (hTERT). These strains could be subcultured repeatedly and retained capacity for differentiation, while primary preadipocyte adipogenesis and replication declined with subculturing. Primary omental preadipocytes, in which telomeres were longest, replicated more slowly than mesenteric or abdominal subcutaneous preadipocytes. Even after 40 population doublings, replication, abundance of the rapidly replicating preadipocyte subtype, and resistance to tumor necrosis

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2006 Diabetes

995. Adipocytokines and VLDL metabolism: independent regulatory effects of adiponectin, insulin resistance, and fat compartments on VLDL apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics? (PubMed)

Adipocytokines and VLDL metabolism: independent regulatory effects of adiponectin, insulin resistance, and fat compartments on VLDL apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics? We investigated the relationship of plasma adipocytokine concentrations with VLDL apolipoprotein B (apoB)-100 kinetics in men. Plasma adiponectin, leptin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were measured using enzyme immunoassays and insulin resistance by homeostasis model (...) assessment (HOMA) score in 41 men with BMI of 22-35 kg/m(2). VLDL apoB kinetics were determined using an intravenous infusion of 1-[(13)C]leucine, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and compartmental modeling. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue mass (ATM) were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, and total ATM was measured by bioelectrical impedance. In univariate regression, plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations were inversely and directly associated, respectively, with plasma

2005 Diabetes

996. Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model. (PubMed)

donor site for fat harvesting.This in vivo experiment using the nude mice model enables the study of the long-term survival of human fat in an animal model. The fat was harvested from three donor areas: the thigh, abdomen, and breast of a 48-year-old woman who came for an elective esthetic procedure. After centrifugation, 1 cc of fat was injected subcutaneously into the scalp of the nude mouse. There were 15 mice in each of the three groups, according to the selected donor sites. The animals were (...) sacrificed 16 weeks after the procedure. The extracted fat was evaluated in terms of weight, volume, and six histologic parameters: integrity, vascularization, cyst formation, fibrosis, necrosis, and inflammation.This study could not find any statistically significant differences between the three investigated donor sites in the evaluated parameters.On the basis of this study, there is no favorable area for harvesting fat grafts. The donor site can be chosen according to the preference of the surgeon

2005 Dermatologic Surgery

997. Adiponectin gene expression and adipocyte NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in elderly overweight and obese women: inter-relationships with fat distribution, hs-CRP, leptin and insulin resistance. (PubMed)

inflammation, insulin resistance, leptin and the serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), adiponectin and the inhibitor kappa B-alpha (IkB-alpha), in subjects with a wide range of body mass index (BMI). We also wanted to determine which of these variables was most closely related to adiponectin gene expression and adipocyte NF-kB transcriptional power.A total of 27 women aged between 50 and 80 years, with BMI ranging from 22.1 to 53.3 kg/m(2 (...) Adiponectin gene expression and adipocyte NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in elderly overweight and obese women: inter-relationships with fat distribution, hs-CRP, leptin and insulin resistance. The regulatory processes that modulate adiponectin production and the mechanisms involved in nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) transcriptional activity in human adipocytes are not yet fully known. The aim of our study was to evaluate the inter-relationships between body fat, fat distribution, systemic

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2007 International Journal of Obesity

998. Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. (PubMed)

concentrations, and insulin-stimulated serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt), insulin receptor activation, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in subcutaneous fat and muscle were measured in subsets of animals.TFA-fed monkeys gained significant weight with increased intra-abdominal fat deposition. Impaired glucose disposal was implied by significant postprandial hyperinsulinemia, elevated fructosamine, and trends toward higher glucose concentrations. Significant reduction in muscle Akt (...) Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. There is conflicting evidence about the propensity of trans fatty acids (TFAs) to cause obesity and insulin resistance. The effect of moderately high intake of dietary monounsaturated TFAs on body composition and indices of glucose metabolism was evaluated to determine any pro-diabetic effect in the absence of weight gain.Male African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops; n=42) were assigned to diets

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2007 Obesity

999. Fat cell size, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in obese children. (PubMed)

scanning), subcutaneous adipocyte diameter (needle biopsy of subcutaneous abdominal fat), blood tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 concentrations and insulin sensitivity (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) were assessed.Adipocyte diameter, more than BMI and fat mass, was significantly associated with interleukin-6 (r = 0.62, P < .001) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (r = 0.61, P < .001). Moreover adipocyte size was associated with insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.15, F = 4.69 (...) Fat cell size, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in obese children. To assess the association between adiposity indexes (body mass index [BMI], fat mass, adipocyte size) and circulating inflammation markers with known metabolic relevance or insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese children.Twenty-eight children (males/females: 13/15) with different degrees of overweight (BMI z-score: 1.64-3.1; fat mass: 14.1-49.8 kg) were studied. BMI, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

2007 Journal of Pediatrics

1000. Downregulation of electron transport chain genes in visceral adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes independent of obesity and possibly involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (PubMed)

, and eight obese type 2 diabetic women. Downregulation of several genes in the electron transport chain was the most prominent finding in visceral fat of type 2 diabetic women independent of obesity, but the gene pattern was distinct from that previously reported in skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. A similar but much weaker effect was observed in subcutaneous fat. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a major factor behind inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. TNF-alpha treatment (...) Downregulation of electron transport chain genes in visceral adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes independent of obesity and possibly involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Impaired oxidative phosphorylation is suggested as a factor behind insulin resistance of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. The role of oxidative phosphorylation in adipose tissue was elucidated from results of Affymetrix gene profiling in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of eight nonobese healthy, eight obese healthy

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2006 Diabetes

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