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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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981. Amelanotic cellular blue nevus: a hypopigmented variant of the cellular blue nevus: clinicopathologic analysis of 20 cases. (Abstract)

age of 24 years (range 6-74 years). Both sexes were affected, with a female-to-male ratio of approximately 2:1. The lower back, distal extremities, and scalp were the most common sites of occurrence. Importantly, the lack of pigmentation resulted in an atypical clinical appearance. A diagnosis of blue nevus by the attending physician was not considered in any of the reported lesions. All of the tumors extended deep into the reticular dermis or subcutaneous fat with a mean thickness of 5.5 mm (...) (range 1.7-11 mm). Ulceration was present in two lesions. Mild cytologic atypia and pleomorphism were present in five cases. Mitotic activity (up to 3 mitoses/mm ) was observed in 11 lesions. A brisk lymphocytic host response was present in only one lesion. Tumor necrosis was not observed. Most, but not all, tumors showed reactivity for S-100 and HMB-45. Clinical follow-up (mean 32 months) was consistent with a benign course. Local recurrence was not observed after complete excision. None

2002 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

982. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Face and Bones

: Joseph A Kovacs, M.D. National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) More Information Go to Publications: Layout table for additonal information ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: 980070 98-I-0070 First Posted: November 4, 1999 Last Update Posted: April 4, 2019 Last Verified: July 26, 2013 Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC): Protease Inhibitor HIV Infection Appearance Subcutaneous Fat Facial Wasting Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout (...) Description Go to Brief Summary: This study will examine risk factors for facial wasting and avascular necrosis (AVN, a type of damage to the hip and other bones) in HIV-infected patients. The prevalence and natural history of AVN are also being evaluated. This study will use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify and monitor these conditions in patients with and without diagnosed AVN and to identify risk factors. HIV-infected patients 18 years of age and older may be eligible for this study. HIV

1999 Clinical Trials

983. Studies of adipose tissue metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy. (Full text)

Studies of adipose tissue metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy. We studied aspects of metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in 40 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with and without lipodystrophy and in healthy control subjects. HIV-infected subjects without lipodystrophy had less SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Glycerol release was higher in both HIV-infected groups, especially those without fat redistribution. Tumor necrosis

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

984. Exercise-induced reversal of insulin resistance in obese elderly is associated with reduced visceral fat. (Full text)

) and fat mass (P < 0.001), while fat-free mass was not altered (P > 0.05). VF (176 +/- 20 vs. 136 +/- 17 cm2, P < 0.0001), subcutaneous fat (351 +/- 34 vs. 305 +/- 28 cm2, P < 0.03), and total abdominal fat (525 +/- 40 vs. 443 +/- 34 cm2, P < 0.003) were reduced through training. Circulating leptin was lower (P < 0.003) after training, but total adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained unchanged. Insulin resistance was reversed by exercise (40.1 +/- 7.7 vs. 27.6 +/- 5.6 units, P < 0.01 (...) supervised exercise program (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, treadmill/cycle ergometry at 85% of heart rate maximum). Visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat, and total abdominal fat were measured by computed tomography. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by hydrostatic weighing. An oral glucose tolerance test was used to determine changes in insulin resistance. Exercise training increased maximal oxygen consumption (21.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 24.3 +/- 1.0 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), P < 0.0001), decreased body weight (P < 0.0001

2006 Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) PubMed abstract

985. Adiponectin gene expression and adipocyte NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in elderly overweight and obese women: inter-relationships with fat distribution, hs-CRP, leptin and insulin resistance. (Full text)

inflammation, insulin resistance, leptin and the serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), adiponectin and the inhibitor kappa B-alpha (IkB-alpha), in subjects with a wide range of body mass index (BMI). We also wanted to determine which of these variables was most closely related to adiponectin gene expression and adipocyte NF-kB transcriptional power.A total of 27 women aged between 50 and 80 years, with BMI ranging from 22.1 to 53.3 kg/m(2 (...) Adiponectin gene expression and adipocyte NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in elderly overweight and obese women: inter-relationships with fat distribution, hs-CRP, leptin and insulin resistance. The regulatory processes that modulate adiponectin production and the mechanisms involved in nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) transcriptional activity in human adipocytes are not yet fully known. The aim of our study was to evaluate the inter-relationships between body fat, fat distribution, systemic

2007 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

986. Fat depot-specific characteristics are retained in strains derived from single human preadipocytes. (Full text)

Fat depot-specific characteristics are retained in strains derived from single human preadipocytes. Fat depots vary in size, function, and potential contribution to disease. Since fat tissue turns over throughout life, preadipocyte characteristics could contribute to this regional variation. To address whether preadipocytes from different depots are distinct, we produced preadipocyte strains from single abdominal subcutaneous, mesenteric, and omental human preadipocytes by stably expressing (...) human telomere reverse transcriptase (hTERT). These strains could be subcultured repeatedly and retained capacity for differentiation, while primary preadipocyte adipogenesis and replication declined with subculturing. Primary omental preadipocytes, in which telomeres were longest, replicated more slowly than mesenteric or abdominal subcutaneous preadipocytes. Even after 40 population doublings, replication, abundance of the rapidly replicating preadipocyte subtype, and resistance to tumor necrosis

2006 Diabetes PubMed abstract

987. Adipocytokines and VLDL metabolism: independent regulatory effects of adiponectin, insulin resistance, and fat compartments on VLDL apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics? (Abstract)

Adipocytokines and VLDL metabolism: independent regulatory effects of adiponectin, insulin resistance, and fat compartments on VLDL apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics? We investigated the relationship of plasma adipocytokine concentrations with VLDL apolipoprotein B (apoB)-100 kinetics in men. Plasma adiponectin, leptin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were measured using enzyme immunoassays and insulin resistance by homeostasis model (...) assessment (HOMA) score in 41 men with BMI of 22-35 kg/m(2). VLDL apoB kinetics were determined using an intravenous infusion of 1-[(13)C]leucine, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and compartmental modeling. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue mass (ATM) were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, and total ATM was measured by bioelectrical impedance. In univariate regression, plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations were inversely and directly associated, respectively, with plasma

2005 Diabetes

988. Fat cell size, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in obese children. (Abstract)

scanning), subcutaneous adipocyte diameter (needle biopsy of subcutaneous abdominal fat), blood tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 concentrations and insulin sensitivity (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) were assessed.Adipocyte diameter, more than BMI and fat mass, was significantly associated with interleukin-6 (r = 0.62, P < .001) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (r = 0.61, P < .001). Moreover adipocyte size was associated with insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.15, F = 4.69 (...) Fat cell size, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in obese children. To assess the association between adiposity indexes (body mass index [BMI], fat mass, adipocyte size) and circulating inflammation markers with known metabolic relevance or insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese children.Twenty-eight children (males/females: 13/15) with different degrees of overweight (BMI z-score: 1.64-3.1; fat mass: 14.1-49.8 kg) were studied. BMI, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

2007 Journal of Pediatrics

989. Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. (Full text)

concentrations, and insulin-stimulated serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt), insulin receptor activation, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in subcutaneous fat and muscle were measured in subsets of animals.TFA-fed monkeys gained significant weight with increased intra-abdominal fat deposition. Impaired glucose disposal was implied by significant postprandial hyperinsulinemia, elevated fructosamine, and trends toward higher glucose concentrations. Significant reduction in muscle Akt (...) Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. There is conflicting evidence about the propensity of trans fatty acids (TFAs) to cause obesity and insulin resistance. The effect of moderately high intake of dietary monounsaturated TFAs on body composition and indices of glucose metabolism was evaluated to determine any pro-diabetic effect in the absence of weight gain.Male African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops; n=42) were assigned to diets

2007 Obesity PubMed abstract

990. Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model. (Abstract)

donor site for fat harvesting.This in vivo experiment using the nude mice model enables the study of the long-term survival of human fat in an animal model. The fat was harvested from three donor areas: the thigh, abdomen, and breast of a 48-year-old woman who came for an elective esthetic procedure. After centrifugation, 1 cc of fat was injected subcutaneously into the scalp of the nude mouse. There were 15 mice in each of the three groups, according to the selected donor sites. The animals were (...) sacrificed 16 weeks after the procedure. The extracted fat was evaluated in terms of weight, volume, and six histologic parameters: integrity, vascularization, cyst formation, fibrosis, necrosis, and inflammation.This study could not find any statistically significant differences between the three investigated donor sites in the evaluated parameters.On the basis of this study, there is no favorable area for harvesting fat grafts. The donor site can be chosen according to the preference of the surgeon

2005 Dermatologic Surgery

991. Macrophages regulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in adipocytes through the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-3. (Full text)

with THP-1 Mphi or the Mphi-conditioned medium were used to investigate the role of Mphi-MMP on the TNF-alpha gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by the addition of MMP inhibitors. For animal experiments, male C57BL/6J mice were rendered insulin resistant by feeding a high-fat diet, and the expression of an Mphi marker F4/80, and MMP-3 genes in mesenteric and subcutaneous fat tissue specimens were examined.Mphi-conditioned media (Mphi-CM) increased the levels of TNF-alpha mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (...) Macrophages regulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in adipocytes through the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-3. Adipocytes accumulated in the visceral area change their function to induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion with concomitant matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 induction in mice. This study was performed to clarify the role of macrophages (Mphi)-secreted MMP on the functional changes in adipocytes using a culture system.Cultures of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

2008 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

992. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the spine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis before and after therapy with the tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor fusion protein etanercept. (Full text)

Magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the spine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis before and after therapy with the tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor fusion protein etanercept. To assess spinal inflammation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after treatment with the tumor necrosis factor receptor fusion protein etanercept compared with placebo.As part of a recently published randomized, controlled trial, 40 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) underwent MRI (...) of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine at 4 different time points: baseline, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and 48 weeks. Nineteen patients received subcutaneous etanercept twice weekly (25 mg twice daily) for 1 year, and 21 patients received placebo for 6 months before being switched to etanercept. The mean age of the patients was 39.7 years, 75% were male, 89% were HLA-B27 positive, and the mean disease duration was 13 years. MRI examinations included T1-weighted sequences before and after application of gadolinium

2005 Arthritis and rheumatism Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

993. Metabolic and vascular effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade with etanercept in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. (Abstract)

Metabolic and vascular effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade with etanercept in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) impairs insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as fat, muscle and endothelium, and causes endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha blockade with etanercept could reverse vascular and metabolic insulin resistance.Twenty obese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized (...) to etanercept treatment (25 mg subcutaneously twice weekly for 4 weeks) or used as controls in an open parallel study. Forearm blood flow and glucose uptake were measured during intra-arterial infusions of serotonin, sodium nitroprusside and insulin co-infused with serotonin. Beta-cell function was assessed with oral and intra-venous glucose tolerance tests and whole-body insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 decreased significantly

2005 Journal of vascular research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

994. Behavior of insulin sensitivity and its relation to leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese women undergoing liposuction: 6-month follow-up. (Abstract)

Behavior of insulin sensitivity and its relation to leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese women undergoing liposuction: 6-month follow-up. Metabolic syndrome is a group of pathological processes which involve insulin resistance, a biochemical and molecular disorder. Obesity appears to be the most frequent clinical component in metabolic syndrome. Subcutaneous fat, independent from visceral fat, is still controversial as a marker of the pathophysiology of insulin resistance.An open (...) parallel-group clinical trial was performed of 12 women (age 30-40 years), with BMI from 30-33 kg/m2 and fasting glucose < or =110 mg/dl. 6 women were included in the "liposuction plus diet" group, and 6 were included in the "diet-only" group. Metabolic profile, including insulin tolerance test (ITT), leptin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), was performed at baseline, 1 and 6 months in both groups. Subcutaneous and visceral fat was quantified with spiral tomography at baseline and after 6

2007 Obesity Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

995. Downregulation of electron transport chain genes in visceral adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes independent of obesity and possibly involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (Full text)

, and eight obese type 2 diabetic women. Downregulation of several genes in the electron transport chain was the most prominent finding in visceral fat of type 2 diabetic women independent of obesity, but the gene pattern was distinct from that previously reported in skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. A similar but much weaker effect was observed in subcutaneous fat. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a major factor behind inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. TNF-alpha treatment (...) Downregulation of electron transport chain genes in visceral adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes independent of obesity and possibly involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Impaired oxidative phosphorylation is suggested as a factor behind insulin resistance of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. The role of oxidative phosphorylation in adipose tissue was elucidated from results of Affymetrix gene profiling in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of eight nonobese healthy, eight obese healthy

2006 Diabetes PubMed abstract

996. Relation of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and fibrinogen to abdominal adipose tissue, blood pressure, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels in healthy postmenopausal women. (Abstract)

hormone therapy. Body fat distribution was measured by computed tomography, and insulin sensitivity was determined by an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. hs-CRP (0.10 < or = r(2) < or =0.37) and IL-6 (0.06 < or = r(2) < or =0.31) were significantly associated with anthropometric and metabolic variables, including visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and insulin sensitivity (p <0.05). Women (...) Relation of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and fibrinogen to abdominal adipose tissue, blood pressure, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels in healthy postmenopausal women. The associations of inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and fibrinogen) with anthropometric and metabolic variables were examined in a sample of 112 postmenopausal women not receiving

2005 American Journal of Cardiology

997. Subcutaneous adipose tissue cytokine production is not responsible for the restoration of systemic inflammation markers during weight loss. (Full text)

. During weight maintenance, circulating inflammatory parameters increased and in some cases returned to baseline.A low-calorie diet is associated with an improvement in the systemic inflammatory status. This seems to be due to energy restriction rather than to adipose mass loss, since inflammatory levels return to baseline soon after weight stabilisation. Furthermore, a negative energy balance and fat mobilisation are associated with increased subcutaneous cytokine adipose expression. (...) Subcutaneous adipose tissue cytokine production is not responsible for the restoration of systemic inflammation markers during weight loss. It has been suggested that weight loss can improve systemic inflammation associated with obesity by decreasing the adipose production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This suggestion, however, remains controversial.To analyse the effect of weight loss on peripheral inflammatory markers and subcutaneous adipocytokine production.Patients were studied

2006 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

998. Action of sodium deoxycholate on subcutaneous human tissue: local and systemic effects. (Abstract)

Action of sodium deoxycholate on subcutaneous human tissue: local and systemic effects. Phosphatidylcholine injections have been used as a nonsurgical alternative to the surgical removal of undesired fat. Studies in cell culture suggest that sodium deoxycholate (SD) has a detergent action in fat reduction.The objective was to study SD in subcutaneous human tissue.Thirty volunteers underwent four sessions of subcutaneous abdominal injections of diluted 2.5 or 1% SD stock solutions or placebo (...) . Clinical, hematologic, and ultrasonographic evaluations were performed for 3 months and histology at 3 and 6 months.Both concentrations of SD induced an inflammatory response at the injection site, with dose-dependent adipocyte lysis. Patients reported mild, localized heat, erythema, swelling, and intense pain. Microscopic evaluation revealed necrosis of adipose tissue with adipocyte lysis, fat dissolution, acute lymphomononuclear inflammatory reaction, and intense phagocytosis of fat cells

2007 Dermatologic Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

999. Treatment of Obese Diabetic Mice with an Heme Oxygenase Inducer Reduces Visceral and Subcutaneous Adiposity, Increases Adiponectin Levels and Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance. (Full text)

caused a sustained increase in HO-1 protein, prevented weight gain, decreased visceral and subcutaneous fat content (P < 0.03 and 0.01, respectively, compared with vehicle animals), increased serum adiponectin, and decreased plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1beta levels (P < 0.05). HO-1 induction improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance and decreased insulin levels. Upregulation of HO-1 decreased adipogenesis in bone marrow in vivo and in cultured (...) Treatment of Obese Diabetic Mice with an Heme Oxygenase Inducer Reduces Visceral and Subcutaneous Adiposity, Increases Adiponectin Levels and Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance. We hypothesized that the induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and increased HO activity, which induces arterial antioxidative enzymes and vasoprotection in a mouse and a rat model of diabetes, would ameliorate insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes in the ob mouse model of type 2 diabetes.Lean and ob

2008 Diabetes PubMed abstract

1000. Remodeling Phenotype of Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Macrophages. (Full text)

Remodeling Phenotype of Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Macrophages. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) have become a focus of attention recently because they have been shown to accumulate with an increase in fat mass and to be involved in the genesis of insulin resistance in obese mice. However, the phenotype and functions of human ATMs are still to be defined.The present study, performed on human subcutaneous AT, showed that ATMs from lean to overweight individuals are composed of distinct (...) macrophage subsets based on the expression of several cell surface markers: CD45, CD14, CD31, CD44, HLA-DR, CD206, and CD16, as assessed by flow cytometry. ATMs isolated by an immunoselection protocol showed a mixed expression of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-23, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-8, cyclooxygenase-2) and antiinflammatory (IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta, alternative macrophage activation-associated cc chemokine-1, cyclooxygenase-1

2008 Circulation PubMed abstract

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