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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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81. Increased FDG uptake in association with reduced extremity fat in HIV patients. (PubMed)

associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; r=0.6; P=0.02) and fasting hyperinsulinaemia (r=0.7; P=0.01), while fat percentage of extremities was not. Furthermore, extremity SAT FDG uptake was significantly associated with CD4(+) T-cell count (r=0.6; P=0.05). In multivariate modelling for HOMA-IR, extremity SAT FDG uptake remained significant after controlling for body mass index and tumour necrosis factor-α (R(2) for model =0.71, P=0.02; SUV in the extremity SAT β (...) Increased FDG uptake in association with reduced extremity fat in HIV patients. HIV lipodystrophy - characterized by peripheral lipoatrophy, with or without central fat accumulation - confers increased metabolic risk. However, the functional activity of HIV lipodystrophic tissue in relation to metabolic risk has yet to be fully explored in vivo through the use of non-invasive imaging techniques. This study assesses the relationship between FDG uptake in various fat depots and metabolic/immune

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2012 Antiviral Therapy

82. Effect of industrially produced trans fat on markers of systemic inflammation: evidence from a randomized trial in women. (PubMed)

Effect of industrially produced trans fat on markers of systemic inflammation: evidence from a randomized trial in women. Consumption of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) has been positively associated with systemic markers of low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in cross-sectional studies, but results from intervention studies are inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a 16 week double-blind parallel intervention study with the objective to examine the effect of IP (...) -TFA intake on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Fifty-two healthy overweight postmenopausal women (49 completers) were randomly assigned to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15.7 g/day IP-TFA) or control oil without IP-TFA. After 16 weeks, IP-TFA intake increased baseline-adjusted serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α by 12% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5-20; P = 0.002] more in the IP-TFA group compared with controls. Plasma soluble TNF

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2011 Journal of lipid research

83. Effects of telmisartan on insulin resistance and visceral fat distribution in Chinese hypertensive patients with obesity. (PubMed)

to January 2011. Parameters such as waist and hip circumference, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, serum adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured before and after treatment. The abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR).Compared with baseline, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (...) Effects of telmisartan on insulin resistance and visceral fat distribution in Chinese hypertensive patients with obesity. To investigate the effects of telmisartan on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertension and obesity.In this prospective, randomized study, outpatients from the Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China were treated with telmisartan (n=23), or losartan (n=22) for 16 weeks between December 2009

2011 Saudi medical journal

84. Altered endocannabinoid signalling after a high-fat diet in Apoe (-/-) mice: relevance to adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. (PubMed)

Altered endocannabinoid signalling after a high-fat diet in Apoe (-/-) mice: relevance to adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficiency is associated with reduced fat accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and high liver triacylglycerol content. Elevated levels of endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1)) receptors in the liver and in epididymal vs subcutaneous WAT are associated with fatty liver, visceral adipose (...) tissue, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance.We investigated, in Apoe (-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice, the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on: (1) subcutaneous and epididymal WAT accumulation, liver triacylglycerols, phospholipid-esterified fatty acids, inflammatory markers in WAT and liver, and insulin resistance; and (2) endocannabinoid levels, and the gene expression levels of the Cb ( 1 ) receptor and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes in liver and WAT.After a 16 week HFD, Apoe (-/-) mice

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2011 Diabetologia

85. Mesenteric fat as a source of C reactive protein and as a target for bacterial translocation in Crohn's disease. (PubMed)

fat of patients with ulcerative colitis and in the subcutaneous fat of the same CD subjects, respectively, and correlated with plasma levels. Escherichia coli (1230 ± 175-fold, p<0.01), lipopolysaccharide (26 ± 0.5-fold, p<0.01), tumour necrosis factor α (15 ± 0.3-fold, p<0.01) and interleukin-6 (10 ± 0.7-fold, p<0.05) increased CRP mRNA levels in adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric fat occurred in 13% and 27% of healthy and CD subjects, respectively, and was increased (...) Mesenteric fat as a source of C reactive protein and as a target for bacterial translocation in Crohn's disease. Mesenteric fat hyperplasia is a hallmark of Crohn's disease (CD), and C reactive protein (CRP) is correlated with disease activity. The authors investigated whether mesenteric adipocytes may be a source of CRP in CD and whether inflammatory and bacterial triggers may stimulate its production by adipocytes.CRP expression in the mesenteric and subcutaneous fats of patients with CD

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2011 Gut

86. The Use of Activated Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in Human Autologous Fat Transfer

interest with the ability to promote neo-angiogenesis in the graft, and thus, in theory, reducing fat necrosis and seroma formation. Current, scientifically validated, use of PRP include treatment of chronic and soft tissue ulcerations, applications in the periodontal and oral surgery, maxillofacial surgery, orthopaedic and trauma surgery, cosmetic and plastic surgery, spinal surgery, heart bypass surgery, and burns. In all mentioned applications, PRP showed to have a positive influence on the tissue (...) Coleman cannula. Between 13 and 23 mL of fat is injected into the deep subcutaneous plane of each side of the face, except for the lower lid/tear trough region (where the injection is performed in the supraperiosteal/submuscular plane) and the temporal area (where the level of injection was above the superficial fascia of the temporal muscle). Placebo Comparator: GROUP B: PRP - Group B ( 16 subjects) will receive lipofilling without addition PRP. 27 ml blood will be drawn from the patient

2011 Clinical Trials

87. Relationships between fat deposition in the liver and skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity in Japanese individuals: a pilot study (PubMed)

Relationships between fat deposition in the liver and skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity in Japanese individuals: a pilot study To evaluate the relationships between insulin sensitivity (IS), body fat accumulation, and aerobic capacity in middle- to older-aged Japanese participants with visceral adiposity.Aerobic capacity was measured during an incremental ramp exercise test. Computed tomography was used to measure visceral (VFA) and subcutaneous (SFA) fat area, the fat in liver-to-spleen (...) , SFA, alcohol consumption, and aerobic capacity (oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold), L/S, and LDMA accounted for 70% of the total variance in IS. Percentage body fat and SFA, but not VFA, were significantly correlated with high molecular-weight adiponectin levels (r = 0.58, P < 0.01 and r = 0.54, P < 0.05, respectively). IS and L/S were significantly and negatively correlated with tumor necrosis factor-α (r = -0.67 and -0.63, respectively; both P < 0.01) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

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2011 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy

88. Downregulation of ADIPOQ and PPARgamma2 Gene Expression in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adolescents With Hepatic Steatosis. (PubMed)

Downregulation of ADIPOQ and PPARgamma2 Gene Expression in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adolescents With Hepatic Steatosis. Hepatic steatosis is associated with hypoadiponectinemia. The mechanism(s) resulting in lower serum adiponectin levels in obese adolescents with fatty liver is unknown. In two groups of equally obese adolescents, but discordant for hepatic fat content, we measured adiponectin, leptin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ2) and tumor necrosis factor (...) -α (TNFα) gene expression in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Twenty six adolescents with similar degrees of obesity underwent a subcutaneous periumbilical adipose tissue biopsy, in addition to metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, and hyperinsulinemic--euglycemic clamp), and imaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), DEXA). Using quantitative real-time-PCR; adiponectin, PPARγ2, TNFα, and leptin mRNA were measured. Based on a hepatic fat content (hepatic fat fraction

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2010 Obesity

89. Anti-inflammatory effects of excessive weight loss: potent suppression of adipose interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor {alpha} expression. (PubMed)

insulin resistance via modification of liver suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS-3) expression.We examined the effect of excessive weight loss on systemic levels, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and liver expression of IL-6 and TNFalpha in 20 severely obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Furthermore, we studied liver expression of SOCS3, an important regulator of insulin resistance, and fat tissue expression of the anti-inflammatory adipocytokine (...) Anti-inflammatory effects of excessive weight loss: potent suppression of adipose interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor {alpha} expression. Severe obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease where various cytokines/adipocytokines play a key role. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) are produced by human adipose tissue dependent on the degree of obesity. Mouse studies suggest a key role of adipose tissue-derived IL-6 in hepatic

2010 Gut

90. Critical Assessment of Diabetes Guidelines

(90,000 USD)/24 weeks Page 4 · MED CHECK April 2019/ Vol.5 No.13 New Products New Products Known facts Hepatitis C virus (HCV) interferes with utilization of triglyceride to form lipoprotein in hepatocytes and causes fatty liver and hepatocellular necrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatic cancer over a long period of time. Table 1a is a summary of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) which have been approved in Japan in prior to the approval of the new combination: sofosbuvir (SOF) and velpatasvir (...) , and causes fatty liver. As a result, hepatocellular function and glucose metabolism are impaired, leading to hepatocellular necrosis [4,5]. When HCV turns negative, hepatocellular function and glucose metabolism improve. Therefore, if hypoglycemic agents are not reduced or discontinued, hypoglycemia might occur. Cited from Ref.1 and revised by MedCheck DAAs: direct-acting antivirals comb Tab: combination tablet, comb. Tx: combination therapy ASV:Asunaprevir, BCV:Beclabuvir, DCV: Daclatasvir, EBV:Elbasvir

2019 Med Check - The Informed Prescriber

91. New Direct-acting Antiviral for Hepatitis C (Epclusa?

(90,000 USD)/24 weeks Page 4 · MED CHECK April 2019/ Vol.5 No.13 New Products New Products Known facts Hepatitis C virus (HCV) interferes with utilization of triglyceride to form lipoprotein in hepatocytes and causes fatty liver and hepatocellular necrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatic cancer over a long period of time. Table 1a is a summary of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) which have been approved in Japan in prior to the approval of the new combination: sofosbuvir (SOF) and velpatasvir (...) , and causes fatty liver. As a result, hepatocellular function and glucose metabolism are impaired, leading to hepatocellular necrosis [4,5]. When HCV turns negative, hepatocellular function and glucose metabolism improve. Therefore, if hypoglycemic agents are not reduced or discontinued, hypoglycemia might occur. Cited from Ref.1 and revised by MedCheck DAAs: direct-acting antivirals comb Tab: combination tablet, comb. Tx: combination therapy ASV:Asunaprevir, BCV:Beclabuvir, DCV: Daclatasvir, EBV:Elbasvir

2019 Med Check - The Informed Prescriber

92. Management of Dyslipidaemias

lipoprotein cholesterol levels 25 7.4 Lifestyle recommendations to improve the plasma lipid profile 25 7.4.1 Body weight and physical activity 25 7.4.2 Dietary fat 25 7.4.3 Dietary carbohydrate and fibre 26 7.4.4 Alcohol 26 7.4.5 Smoking 26 7.5 Dietary supplements and functional foods for the treatment of dyslipidaemias 26 7.5.1 Phytosterols 26 7.5.2 Monacolin and red yeast rice 26 7.5.3 Dietary fibre 27 7.5.4 Soy 27 7.5.5 Policosanol and berberine 27 7.5.6 n-3 unsaturated fatty acids 27 8 Drugs (...) TGs Triglycerides TIA Transient ischaemic attack TIMI Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction TNF Tumour necrosis factor TNT Treating to New Targets TRL Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein ULN Upper limit of normal VA-HIT Veterans Affairs High Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial VITAL VITamin D and OmegA-3 Trial VLDL Very low-density lipoprotein WHO World Health Organization WOSCOPS West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study 1 Preamble Guidelines summarize and evaluate available evidence with the aim

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2019 European Society of Cardiology

93. Body Fat Distribution and Inflammation Among Obese Older Adults With and Without Metabolic Syndrome. (PubMed)

. Data were from 729 obese men and women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), aged 70-79 participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. Thirty-one percent of these obese men and women did not have metabolic syndrome. Obese persons with metabolic syndrome had significantly more abdominal visceral fat (men: P = 0.04; women: P < 0.01) and less thigh subcutaneous fat (men: P = 0.09; women: P < 0.01) than those without metabolic syndrome. Additionally, those with metabolic syndrome had (...) significantly higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) than individuals without metabolic syndrome. Per standard deviation higher in visceral fat, the likelihood of metabolic syndrome significantly increased in women (odds ratio (OR): 2.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59-2.94). In contrast, the likelihood of metabolic syndrome decreased in both men (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39-0.80) and women (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.34-0.69) with each

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2010 Obesity

94. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

tax was greatest among households of the lowest socioeconomic status. A similar 1 cent per ounce excise tax on SSBs was implemented in Berkeley, California, in January 2015, and SSB sales declined by 9.6% after 1 year compared with predicted SSB purchases based on pretax trends. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food package was revised in 2009 to include more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lower-fat milk. These food package revisions were

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2019 American Heart Association

95. Radiation Therapy for the Whole-Breast (ASTRO)

or excellent in approximately 70% of women in both groups. There were similarly no reported differences in 10-year skin and subcutaneous tissue complications. The Royal Marsden Hospital and Gloucestershire Oncology Centre (RMH/GOC), or Standardization of Breast Radiotherapy (START) pilot trial, was a three-arm trial that used 3900 cGy or 4290 cGy in 13 fractions, compared to 5000 cGy in 25 fractions, all delivered in 5 weeks. 3,4 Eligibility was T1-3, N0-1, age 1 mm. A tumor bed boost was permitted

2019 American Society for Radiation Oncology

97. ACR–ASNR–SPR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Head and Neck

for delineating fine anatomic detail when the structure in question is surrounded by soft tissue or when fat- containing tissue is present [9]. For structures surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, such as the cranial nerves in the cisterns and internal auditory canals, thin, 3-D T2-weighted images provide excellent delineation of detail [10]. Fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted imaging (long TR/long TE FSE) or equivalent sequences demonstrate greater detail in a shorter time than conventional T2-weighted imaging (...) and is favored in the head and neck as physiologic and gross patient motion commonly degrade images [11,12]. As fat remains hyperintense on T2-weighted FSE images, and because of the amount of fat in the head and neck, using fat-suppression techniques such as frequency-selective fat saturation, chemical selective partial inversion recovery (SPIR), Dixon-type fat- suppression techniques, or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) produces images with better delineation of pathology [11,13,14]. Diffusion-weighted

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

99. Male Sexual Dysfunction

to successful intercourse with vardenafil determined in an at-home setting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Sex Med, 2004. 1: 168. 205. Padma-Nathan, H., et al. Minimal time to successful intercourse after sildenafil citrate: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology, 2003. 62: 400. 206. Rajagopalan, P., et al. Effect of high-fat breakfast and moderate-fat evening meal on the pharmacokinetics of vardenafil, an oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor

2019 European Association of Urology

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