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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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81. Intradural Extramedullary and Subcutaneous Tumors in Neonate : Atypical Myxoid Spindle Cell Neoplasm Full Text available with Trip Pro

clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and treatment. A male infant was delivered normally, with uneventful development. At 16 days post-delivery, his family took him to a pediatrician because of a mass on his upper back. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine revealed a well-demarcated soft-tissue mass with central cystic change or necrosis at the subcutaneous layer of the posterior back (T2-7 level). Another mass was found with a fat component at the spinal canal of the T1-3 level, which (...) Intradural Extramedullary and Subcutaneous Tumors in Neonate : Atypical Myxoid Spindle Cell Neoplasm Tumors of the central nervous system are common in the pediatric population and constitute the second most prevalent tumor type in children. Within this group, spinal cord tumors are relatively rare and account for 1 to 10% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. We describe a very rare case of an intradural extramedullary spinal cord tumor with a subcutaneous mass and discuss its

2012 Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society

82. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration Is Associated With Hepatic and Visceral Fat Deposition, Hyperinsulinemia, and Stimulation of NF-{kappa}B Stress Pathway. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration Is Associated With Hepatic and Visceral Fat Deposition, Hyperinsulinemia, and Stimulation of NF-{kappa}B Stress Pathway. To examine in obese young adults the influence of ethnicity and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) inflammation on hepatic fat fraction (HFF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition, insulin sensitivity (SI), β-cell function, and SAT gene expression.SAT biopsies were obtained from 36 obese young adults (20 Hispanics, 16 (...) African Americans) to measure crown-like structures (CLS), reflecting SAT inflammation. SAT, VAT, and HFF were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and SI and β-cell function (disposition index [DI]) were measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test. SAT gene expression was assessed using Illumina microarrays.Participants with CLS in SAT (n = 16) were similar to those without CLS in terms of ethnicity, sex, and total body fat. Individuals with CLS had greater VAT (3.7 ± 1.3 vs. 2.6 ± 1.6 L; P

2011 Diabetes

83. Ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat area is a biomarker of complicated Crohn's disease. (Abstract)

Ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat area is a biomarker of complicated Crohn's disease. Fat wrapping and mesenteric hypertrophy are characteristics of Crohn's disease (CD). In patients with CD, mesenteric adipose tissue releases higher levels of adiponectin, which could up-regulate production of tumor necrosis factor-α and increase the risk for aggressive disease. We investigated whether a higher ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat was associated with complicated (fistulating or stricturing (...) ) CD.We identified patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CD who had computed tomography scans of their abdomens (n = 50). Areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured in 1 cross-sectional scan that was taken at the level of the umbilicus. The mesenteric fat index (MFI), defined as the ratio of areas of visceral to subcutaneous fat, was compared between patients with complicated (strictures and fistulas) and inflammatory CD.The mean age of the patients with complications (n = 29) was 49.3

2011 Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

84. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction. (Abstract)

Mesotherapy for local fat reduction. Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy (...) , the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric

2013 Obesity Reviews

85. Composite breast augmentation: soft-tissue planning using implants and fat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the overlying soft tissue was thin or insufficient to adequately cover the underlying prosthesis, in both breast implant revision and primary breast augmentation. In a subset of cases, quantitative three-dimensional breast imaging evaluated transplanted fat volume in the subcutaneous space of the breast. In primary cosmetic augmentation cases, preexpansion was not performed. In revision cases, preexpansion was performed to support the desired volume of fat required to achieve the aesthetic result (...) . In a second subset of patients, preoperative and 1-year postoperative mammograms were evaluated by breast radiologists.Fifty-seven percent of the volume of graft injected persisted at 1 year. Because fat provided soft-tissue implant coverage, there was less need to place the prosthesis beneath the muscle; many implants were placed in the subfascial plane. Evaluation revealed no cysts, masses, or fat necrosis, presumably because the recipient site was not overloaded with fat.Breast augmentation

2013 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

86. Immunophenotyping of Fresh Stromal Vascular Fraction From Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSC) Enriched Fat Grafts

Study Completion Date : May 2015 Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Sham Comparator: centrifuged fat graft female patients who underwent breast reconstruction and present with volume insufficiency will undergo centrifuged fat graft for contour and volume refinements. Genetic: centrifuged fat graft fat from the abdominal subcutaneous tissue will be taken by vacuum assisted lipectomy and immediately prepared to be grafted in the reconstructed breast that presents contour (...) irregularities and/or volume insufficiency. No adipose derived stem cells will enrich the fat grafts in this group. Active Comparator: ADSCs enriched centrifuged fat graft female patients who underwent breast reconstruction and present volume insufficiency will undergo ADSCs enriched fat grafting for volume and irregularity contour improvement Genetic: ADSCs enriched fat graft fat from the abdominal subcutaneous tissue will be taken by suction assisted lipectomy and stromal vascular fraction will be isolated

2013 Clinical Trials

87. New waves for fat reduction: high-intensity focused ultrasound. (Abstract)

subcutaneous adipose tissue and causing molecular vibrations that increase the temperature of local tissue and induce rapid cell necrosis. Several studies reveal the safety and efficacy of HIFU for fat reduction in the abdomen and the flanks. These studies indicate consistent reduction in abdominal circumference > 2 cm after a single treatment. The adverse events are limited to transient tenderness, bruising, and edema. Increased utility of HIFU for fat reduction will likely increase over time. (...) New waves for fat reduction: high-intensity focused ultrasound. With the rising demand for body contouring, noninvasive devices for fat reduction have become increasingly popular and have grown dramatically over the past decade. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used for nearly half a century for the noninvasive treatment of tumors of various organs, but has only recently been evaluated as a method for the selective destruction of adipose tissue. HIFU works by ablating

2013 Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery

88. Mitochondrial function, inflammation, fat and bone in HIV lipoatrophy: randomized study of uridine supplementation or switch to tenofovir. Full Text available with Trip Pro

tNRTI to tenofovir (TDF) or added uridine (continuing tNRTI). End points were changes in limb fat (DEXA), subcutaneous abdominal fat mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA), inflammation markers (soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors, high-sensitivity C reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and spine, HIV-1 RNA, CD4(+) T-cells and fasting metabolic parameters.Fifty patients were enrolled (n (...) Mitochondrial function, inflammation, fat and bone in HIV lipoatrophy: randomized study of uridine supplementation or switch to tenofovir. Lipoatrophy modestly improves when the thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (tNRTI) is removed. In vitro, uridine (NucleomaxX(®); Pharma Nord, Vojens, Denmark) reversed tNRTI mitochondrial toxicity.All patients had lipoatrophy on a tNRTI-containing regimen with HIV RNA<400 copies/ml. A randomized 48-week study switched patients from

2012 Antiviral therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

89. Epicardial fat, abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal and early pubertal children. (Abstract)

], visceral (VAT), subcutaneous (SAT), epicardial adipose tissues (EAT) and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) were estimated. Lipid profile, liver function tests, circulating adipokines and markers of inflammation [leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factors-alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukins 6 and 10 (IL-6, IL-10)] were assayed. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray (...) Epicardial fat, abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal and early pubertal children. To assess the cross-sectional association of epicardial fat with insulin resistance, major abdominal adipose depots, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese pre-pubertal and early pubertal children.By using magnetic resonance imaging in 30 pre-pubertal and early pubertal patients [21 males, Tanner Stage I-II, median age 11.2 (2.95) y, BMI z-score 2.56 ± 0.11 SDS

2012 Atherosclerosis

90. Increased FDG uptake in association with reduced extremity fat in HIV patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; r=0.6; P=0.02) and fasting hyperinsulinaemia (r=0.7; P=0.01), while fat percentage of extremities was not. Furthermore, extremity SAT FDG uptake was significantly associated with CD4(+) T-cell count (r=0.6; P=0.05). In multivariate modelling for HOMA-IR, extremity SAT FDG uptake remained significant after controlling for body mass index and tumour necrosis factor-α (R(2) for model =0.71, P=0.02; SUV in the extremity SAT β (...) Increased FDG uptake in association with reduced extremity fat in HIV patients. HIV lipodystrophy - characterized by peripheral lipoatrophy, with or without central fat accumulation - confers increased metabolic risk. However, the functional activity of HIV lipodystrophic tissue in relation to metabolic risk has yet to be fully explored in vivo through the use of non-invasive imaging techniques. This study assesses the relationship between FDG uptake in various fat depots and metabolic/immune

2012 Antiviral Therapy

91. Subcutaneous fat necrosis as a complication of whole-body cooling for birth asphyxia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Subcutaneous fat necrosis as a complication of whole-body cooling for birth asphyxia. Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) of the newborn is a form of panniculitis that affects full-term neonates who often have suffered either birth asphyxia or hypothermia. The induction of hypothermia in newborns is becoming frequently used to reduce the neurologic sequelae associated with birth asphyxia. The risk of SCFN in neonates undergoing this therapy is unknown. Observation We describe a neonate who

2010 Archives of Dermatology

92. Can Necrotizing Infectious Fasciitis Be Differentiated from Nonnecrotizing Infectious Fasciitis with MR Imaging? (Abstract)

or extensive), and (e) degree of compartment involvement (fewer than three compartments or three or more compartments). On contrast material-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, the contrast enhancement patterns of the abnormal deep fascia (no enhancement, enhancement, or enhancement with nonenhancing portion) and the muscle (no abnormality, peripheral bandlike signal intensity, or patchy high signal intensity) were evaluated. The presence of abscesses in the subcutaneous fat layer was evaluated (...) Can Necrotizing Infectious Fasciitis Be Differentiated from Nonnecrotizing Infectious Fasciitis with MR Imaging? To retrospectively evaluate whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings can be used to differentiate necrotizing infectious fasciitis (NIF) from nonnecrotizing infectious fasciitis (non-NIF).Institutional review board approval was obtained, but patient consent was not required for this retrospective review of records and images because patient anonymity was preserved. Thirty

2011 Radiology

93. Locoregional Management of In-Transit Metastasis in Melanoma

of development of new lesions, and depth of lesions within the skin, subcutaneous fat, or muscle all need to be considered. While there is no precise categorization, for the purposes of this guideline, we defined minimal ITM as lesions in a location with limited spread (generally 1-4 lesions); lesions are generally superficial, often clustered together, and surgically resectable. Moderate disease is considered to be >5 lesions covering a wider area or when new in-transit lesions develop rapidly (over weeks (...) medicine doctors, and pathologists. RECOMMENDATIONS, KEY EVIDENCE, AND INTERPRETATION OF EVIDENCE Preamble In the following recommendations the terms minimal, moderate, and maximal ITM are used. This determination is a clinical decision best made by experts in melanoma surgery. Size, location, number of lesions, rapidity of development of new lesions, and depth of lesions within the skin, subcutaneous fat, or muscle all need to be considered. While there is no precise categorization, for the purposes

2020 Cancer Care Ontario

94. Mesenteric fat as a source of C reactive protein and as a target for bacterial translocation in Crohn's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

fat of patients with ulcerative colitis and in the subcutaneous fat of the same CD subjects, respectively, and correlated with plasma levels. Escherichia coli (1230 ± 175-fold, p<0.01), lipopolysaccharide (26 ± 0.5-fold, p<0.01), tumour necrosis factor α (15 ± 0.3-fold, p<0.01) and interleukin-6 (10 ± 0.7-fold, p<0.05) increased CRP mRNA levels in adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric fat occurred in 13% and 27% of healthy and CD subjects, respectively, and was increased (...) Mesenteric fat as a source of C reactive protein and as a target for bacterial translocation in Crohn's disease. Mesenteric fat hyperplasia is a hallmark of Crohn's disease (CD), and C reactive protein (CRP) is correlated with disease activity. The authors investigated whether mesenteric adipocytes may be a source of CRP in CD and whether inflammatory and bacterial triggers may stimulate its production by adipocytes.CRP expression in the mesenteric and subcutaneous fats of patients with CD

2011 Gut

95. Effects of telmisartan on insulin resistance and visceral fat distribution in Chinese hypertensive patients with obesity. (Abstract)

to January 2011. Parameters such as waist and hip circumference, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, serum adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured before and after treatment. The abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR).Compared with baseline, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (...) Effects of telmisartan on insulin resistance and visceral fat distribution in Chinese hypertensive patients with obesity. To investigate the effects of telmisartan on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertension and obesity.In this prospective, randomized study, outpatients from the Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China were treated with telmisartan (n=23), or losartan (n=22) for 16 weeks between December 2009

2011 Saudi medical journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

96. Altered endocannabinoid signalling after a high-fat diet in Apoe (-/-) mice: relevance to adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Altered endocannabinoid signalling after a high-fat diet in Apoe (-/-) mice: relevance to adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficiency is associated with reduced fat accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and high liver triacylglycerol content. Elevated levels of endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1)) receptors in the liver and in epididymal vs subcutaneous WAT are associated with fatty liver, visceral adipose (...) tissue, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance.We investigated, in Apoe (-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice, the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on: (1) subcutaneous and epididymal WAT accumulation, liver triacylglycerols, phospholipid-esterified fatty acids, inflammatory markers in WAT and liver, and insulin resistance; and (2) endocannabinoid levels, and the gene expression levels of the Cb ( 1 ) receptor and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes in liver and WAT.After a 16 week HFD, Apoe (-/-) mice

2011 Diabetologia

97. Relationships between fat deposition in the liver and skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity in Japanese individuals: a pilot study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relationships between fat deposition in the liver and skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity in Japanese individuals: a pilot study To evaluate the relationships between insulin sensitivity (IS), body fat accumulation, and aerobic capacity in middle- to older-aged Japanese participants with visceral adiposity.Aerobic capacity was measured during an incremental ramp exercise test. Computed tomography was used to measure visceral (VFA) and subcutaneous (SFA) fat area, the fat in liver-to-spleen (...) , SFA, alcohol consumption, and aerobic capacity (oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold), L/S, and LDMA accounted for 70% of the total variance in IS. Percentage body fat and SFA, but not VFA, were significantly correlated with high molecular-weight adiponectin levels (r = 0.58, P < 0.01 and r = 0.54, P < 0.05, respectively). IS and L/S were significantly and negatively correlated with tumor necrosis factor-α (r = -0.67 and -0.63, respectively; both P < 0.01) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

2011 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy

98. The Use of Activated Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in Human Autologous Fat Transfer

interest with the ability to promote neo-angiogenesis in the graft, and thus, in theory, reducing fat necrosis and seroma formation. Current, scientifically validated, use of PRP include treatment of chronic and soft tissue ulcerations, applications in the periodontal and oral surgery, maxillofacial surgery, orthopaedic and trauma surgery, cosmetic and plastic surgery, spinal surgery, heart bypass surgery, and burns. In all mentioned applications, PRP showed to have a positive influence on the tissue (...) Coleman cannula. Between 13 and 23 mL of fat is injected into the deep subcutaneous plane of each side of the face, except for the lower lid/tear trough region (where the injection is performed in the supraperiosteal/submuscular plane) and the temporal area (where the level of injection was above the superficial fascia of the temporal muscle). Placebo Comparator: GROUP B: PRP - Group B ( 16 subjects) will receive lipofilling without addition PRP. 27 ml blood will be drawn from the patient

2011 Clinical Trials

99. Effect of industrially produced trans fat on markers of systemic inflammation: evidence from a randomized trial in women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of industrially produced trans fat on markers of systemic inflammation: evidence from a randomized trial in women. Consumption of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) has been positively associated with systemic markers of low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in cross-sectional studies, but results from intervention studies are inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a 16 week double-blind parallel intervention study with the objective to examine the effect of IP (...) -TFA intake on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Fifty-two healthy overweight postmenopausal women (49 completers) were randomly assigned to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15.7 g/day IP-TFA) or control oil without IP-TFA. After 16 weeks, IP-TFA intake increased baseline-adjusted serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α by 12% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5-20; P = 0.002] more in the IP-TFA group compared with controls. Plasma soluble TNF

2011 Journal of lipid research Controlled trial quality: predicted high

100. Liposuction for chronic lymphoedema

Recommendations 1.1 Current evidence on the safety and efficacy of liposuction for chronic lymphoedema is adequate to support the use of this procedure provided that standard arrangements are in place for clinical governance, consent and audit. 1.2 Patient selection should only be done by a multidisciplinary team as part of a lymphoedema service. 2 2 Indications and current treatments Indications and current treatments 2.1 Lymphoedema is the abnormal accumulation of subcutaneous fat and fluid in body tissue (...) are stopped the patient is fitted with a custom- made compression garment, which is worn every day. These techniques aim to reduce the pain and discomfort associated with lymphoedema. In very severe cases, surgical treatment can be used to reduce the size of the limb or to restore lymphatic flow. Repeated debulking procedures to excise skin and subcutaneous tissue may be needed. Procedures to restore lymphatic flow from the limb include constructing an alternative lymph drainage pathway via lymphovenous

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Interventional Procedures

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