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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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961. Resistin Full Text available with Trip Pro

, chemicals such as , , and pro-inflammatory . As cited, it has recently been discovered that resistin also participates in the inflammatory response. In further support of its inflammatory profile, resistin has been shown to increase transcriptional events, leading to an increased expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines including (but not limited to) (IL-1), (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor-α ( ) in an -mediated (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (...) is increased in obese humans". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab . 88 (11): 5452–5. : . . ^ Gabriely I, Ma XH, Yang XM, Atzmon G, Rajala MW, Berg AH, Scherer P, Rossetti L, Barzilai N (October 2002). "Removal of visceral fat prevents insulin resistance and glucose intolerance of aging: an adipokine-mediated process?". Diabetes . 51 (10): 2951–8. : . . Levy JR, Davenport B, Clore JN, Stevens W (March 2002). "Lipid metabolism and resistin gene expression in insulin-resistant Fischer 344 rats". Am. J. Physiol

2012 Wikipedia

962. List of cutaneous conditions

panniculitis, stasis panniculitis) (enzymatic panniculitis, pancreatic fat necrosis, subcutaneous fat necrosis) (paraffinoma) (relapsing febrile nonsuppurative panniculitis) Congenital anomalies [ ] See also: Cutaneous congenital anomalies are a diverse group of disorders that result from faulty , the biological process that forms the shape of a . (ear tag, preauricular appendage, preauricular tag) (ADAM complex, amniotic band sequence, congenital constriction bands, pseudoainhum) (cutis aplasia (...) , to modulate inflammation, and to participate in wound healing. The subcutaneous tissue is a layer of fat between the dermis and underlying . This tissue may be further divided into two components, the actual fatty layer, or , and a deeper vestigial layer of muscle, the . The main cellular component of this tissue is the , or fat cell. The structure of this tissue is composed of septal (i.e. linear strands) and compartments, which differ in microscopic appearance. Functionally, the subcutaneous fat

2012 Wikipedia

963. Lipoma

, connective tissue, and fat. : 627 are painful subcutaneous nodules having all other features of a typical lipoma. : 624 and lipomas are deep-seated, firm, yellow tumors that characteristically occur on the legs of women. : 625 lipoma is a rare congenital brain condition that may or may not present with symptoms. This occurs in the corpus callosum, also known as the calossal , which is a wide, flat bundle of neural fibers beneath the cortex in the human brain. are lipomas of . are distinct (...) a predilection for the posterior back, neck, and shoulders of older men. : 625 Superficial subcutaneous lipomas, the most common type of lipoma, lie just below the surface of the skin. Most occur on the , , and , although they may be found anywhere in the body where fat is located. Causes [ ] The tendency to develop a lipoma is not necessarily hereditary, although hereditary conditions such as might include lipoma development. Genetic studies in mice have shown a correlation between the HMG I-C gene

2012 Wikipedia

964. Breast reduction

of the breasts are conferred by the adipose fat interspersed amongst the lobules — except during and , when constitutes most of the breast volume. Composition [ ] Surgically, the breast is an overlaying the chest — attached at the nipple and suspended with ligaments from the chest — which is integral to the skin, the of the woman. The dimensions and weight of the breasts vary with her age and habitus (body build and physical constitution); hence small-to-medium-sized breasts weigh approximately 500 gm (...) (when standing and when walking), compression forces (when lying supine), and tension forces (when kneeling on four limbs). Pectoralis fascia. The pectoralis major muscle is covered with a thin superficial membrane, the , which has many prolongations intercalated among its fasciculi (fascicles); at the midline, it is attached to the front of the , above it is attached to the (collar bone), while laterally and below, it is continuous with the fascia. Suspensory ligaments. The subcutaneous layer

2012 Wikipedia

965. Breast augmentation Full Text available with Trip Pro

– with subcutaneous fat grafts to the superficial planes of the breast. This greater degree of breast sculpting is unlike the global augmentation realised with a breast implant emplaced below the breast or below the pectoralis major muscle, respectively expanding the and the retropectoral space. The greatest proportion of the grafted fat usually is infiltrated to the pectoralis major muscle, then to the retropectoral space, and to the prepectoral space, (before and behind the pectoralis major muscle). Moreover (...) aliquots with each pass of the maximizes the surface area contact, between the grafted fat-tissue and the recipient breast-tissue, because proximity to a vascular system ( ) encourages survival and minimizes the potential for fat necrosis. Transplanted autologous fat tissue undergoes histologic changes like those undergone by a bone transplant; if the body accepts the fat-tissue graft, it is replaced with new fat tissue, if the fat-graft dies it is replaced by . New fat tissue is generated

2012 Wikipedia

966. Hepatitis

in the liver cells in a process called . This initially reversible process overwhelms the 's ability to maintain lipid homeostasis leading to a toxic effect as fat molecules accumulate and are broken down in the setting of an . Over time, this abnormal lipid deposition triggers the via (TLR4) resulting in the production of inflammatory such as TNF that cause liver cell injury and death. These events mark the transition to and in the setting of chronic injury, eventually develops setting up events that lead (...) to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Microscopically, changes that can be seen include steatosis with large and swollen hepatocytes ( ), evidence of cellular injury and cell death (apoptosis, necrosis), evidence of inflammation in particular in , variable degrees of fibrosis and . Diagnosis [ ] Predominantly elevated aminotransferase Cause ALT Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D Nonalcoholic liver disease Acute viral hepatitis Medications/toxins Autoimmune hepatitis Wilson's disease Alpha-1-antitrypsin

2012 Wikipedia

967. Polycystic ovary syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Approximately three-quarters of women with PCOS (by the diagnostic criteria of NIH/NICHD 1990) have evidence of . : This appears as a tendency towards and other symptoms associated with . Serum , insulin resistance, and levels are higher in women with PCOS. Asians affected by PCOS are less likely to develop hirsutism than those of other ethnic backgrounds. Women with PCOS tend to have central obesity, but studies are conflicting as to whether visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat is increased, unchanged (...) , or decreased in women with PCOS relative to reproductively normal women with the same . In any case, androgens, such as , (dihydrotestosterone), and , have been found to increase visceral fat deposition in both female animals and women. Cause [ ] PCOS is a of uncertain cause. There is some evidence that it is a . Such evidence includes the familial clustering of cases, greater in compared with twins and heritability of endocrine and metabolic features of PCOS. There is some evidence that exposure to higher

2012 Wikipedia

968. Insulin resistance Full Text available with Trip Pro

, a great deal of evidence suggests two strong links with insulin resistance. First, unlike subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose cells produce significant amounts of proinflammatory such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( ), and -1 and −6, etc. In numerous experimental models, these proinflammatory cytokines disrupt normal insulin action in fat and muscle cells, and may be a major factor in causing the whole-body insulin resistance observed in patients with visceral adiposity. Much (...) , in protein function throughout the body. Insulin resistance often is found in people with visceral adiposity (i.e., a high degree of fatty tissue within the abdomen—as distinct from subcutaneous adiposity or fat between the skin and the muscle wall, especially elsewhere on the body, such as hips or thighs), hypertension, hyperglycemia, and involving elevated triglycerides, small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles, and decreased HDL cholesterol levels. With respect to visceral adiposity

2012 Wikipedia

969. Buruli ulcer Full Text available with Trip Pro

not seem to be accompanied by any tissue damage similar to the ulcerative skin lesions developed by bitten individuals and mediated by the cytotoxic activity of the mycolactone and other toxins produced by M. ulcerans . The inactivation of the latter toxins could be the result of salivary enzymatic activities, which remain to be determined. Mycobacterium ulcerans was first cultivated and characterized from the environment in 2008. Pathology [ ] The disease is primarily an infection of subcutaneous fat (...) , resulting in a focus of necrotic (dead) fat containing myriads of the mycobacteria in characteristic spherules formed within the dead fat cells. is a secondary event. M. ulcerans releases a lipid toxin, , which functions as an , necrotising agent and activator of cellular . Healing may occur spontaneously but more often the disease is slowly progressive with further ulceration, granulation, scarring, and contractures. Satellite infection may occur with other nodules developing and infection may occur

2012 Wikipedia

970. Acute pancreatitis

Miscellaneous Subcutaneous fat necrosis Arthalgia Causes [ ] Most common [ ] Biliary Pancreatitis due to gallstones or constriction of in 40% of cases in 30% of cases Idiopathic in 15-25% of cases Metabolic disorders: , , , Post- Abdominal trauma Penetrating ulcers of the , and other Drugs: (e.g., , ), (e.g., , , , ), , , , and , , , , [ ] Infections: , , , , , Structural abnormalities: , Less common [ ] from other than mumps, including Hyperparathyroidism or reaction Pathology [ ] Pathogenesis [ ] Acute (...) by intrapancreatic activation of pancreatic enzymes. Lipase activation produces the necrosis of fat tissue in pancreatic and peripancreatic spaces as well as vessel damage. Necrotic fat cells appear as shadows, contours of cells, lacking the nucleus, pink, finely granular cytoplasm. It is possible to find calcium precipitates (hematoxylinophilic). Digestion of vascular walls results in thrombosis and hemorrhage. Inflammatory infiltrate is rich in . Due to the pancreas lacking a capsule, the inflammation

2012 Wikipedia

971. Lymphedema

d'orange and/or an inverted nipple) can be confused with post surgery fat necrosis. In Western countries, secondary lymphedema is most commonly due to cancer treatment. Between 38 and 89% of breast cancer patients suffer from lymphedema due to axillary lymph node dissection and/or radiation. Unilateral lymphedema occurs in up to 41% of patients after gynecologic cancer. For men, a 5-66% incidence of lymphedema has been reported in patients treated with incidence depending on whether staging or radical (...) draws fluid from the interstitial to the undamaged lymphatic tissue and into the venous system by means of lymphaticovenous channels around the nodes in the transferred flap. The “catchment effect” may recruit more lymph from the surrounding tissue into the transferred lymph nodes as the subcutaneous interstitial pressure in the lesion limb decreases. A “gravity effect” may gradually drain from the upper arm to the forearm, and from the forearm to the wrist. Further investigation is mandatory

2012 Wikipedia

972. Sex- and Depot-Dependent Differences in Adipogenesis in Normal-Weight Humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, differentiation of femoral preadipocytes was less than that of abdominal subcutaneous preadipocytes (P = 0.04), and femoral subcutaneous preadipocytes tended to be more resistant to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced apoptosis (P = 0.06). Thus, turnover and utilization of the preadipocyte pool may be reduced in lower vs. the upper-body fat in women. Collectively, these data indicate that the microenvironment, rather than differences in inherent properties of preadipocytes between genders, may explain (...) ) and premenopausal women (n = 20) (age: 18-49 years, BMI: 18-26 kg/m(2)). Women had more subcutaneous and less visceral fat than men. The proportion of early differentiated adipocytes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue SVF of women was greater than in men (P = 0.01), especially in the femoral depot, although in vitro adipogenesis, as assessed by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression, was not increased in femoral preadipocytes cultured from women compared with men. In women

2010 Obesity

973. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease as the Transducer of Hepatic Oversecretion of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein-Apolipoprotein B-100 in Obesity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in 25 obese subjects. In univariate analysis, liver fat content was significantly (P<0.05 in all) associated with body mass index (r=0.65), visceral fat area (r=0.45), triglycerides (r=0.40), homeostasis model assessment score (r=0.40), VLDL-apoB-100 concentrations (r=0.44), and secretion rate (r=0.45). However, liver fat content was not associated with plasma concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4, fetuin A, adiponectin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Of these 25 subjects, 9 (...) diagnosed as having nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (which is highly prevalent in obese individuals and strongly associated with dyslipidemia) underwent a weight loss program. The low-fat diet achieved significant reduction in body weight, body mass index, liver fat, visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, homeostasis model assessment score, triglycerides, VLDL-apoB-100 concentrations, and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion rate. The percentage reduction of liver fat with weight loss was significantly associated

2010 Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

974. HIV type-1 transgene expression in mice alters adipose tissue and adipokine levels: towards a rodent model of HIV type-1 lipodystrophy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

reduced. Gene expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was induced in visceral and subcutaneous fat, whereas tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were induced in visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissues, respectively. Adiponectin and leptin gene expression was repressed in all white fat depots, in concert with reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, a master controller of adipogenesis. In brown fat, a coordinate induction in the expression (...) mice expressing a 7.7 kb HIV-1 construct (Tg26+/-) were used. Cytokine and adipokine levels were quantified using multiplex procedures. Gene expression and mitochondrial DNA abundance in visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissues and in brown fat were determined using quantitative real-time PCR.The amount of visceral, but not subcutaneous, adipose depot was lower in Tg26+/- mice. Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels were increased in Tg26+/- mice, whereas adiponectin and leptin levels were

2010 Antiviral Therapy

975. Magnetic Anchoring and Guidance System Instrumentation for Laparo-endoscopic Single-site Surgery/Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery: Lack of Histologic Damage After Prolonged Magnetic Coupling Across the Abdominal Wall. (Abstract)

. Histologic assessment was then performed.Beyond mild blanching of the peritoneal surface with a few petechiae immediately after internal component removal, no gross tissue damage was seen. These changes were undetectable by 48 hours and no intra-abdominal adhesions were identified at necropsy. NADH stain for tissue viability in the 4 nonsurvival specimens showed no tissue damage. Hematoxylin and eosin stain showed no necrosis of either superficial or deep muscle, skin, or subcutaneous fat tissue in all

2010 Urology

976. Cutaneous sclerosis: a previously undescribed manifestation of sclerosing mesenteritis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with biopsy-proven MP presented with multiple asymptomatic, indurated subcutaneous nodules on both arms, as well as 2 indurated plaques on her abdomen. The cutaneous changes preceded the diagnosis of SM by roughly 3 years. The arm lesions were centrally depressed with a prominent groove and a peau d'orange appearance. Biopsy findings revealed a subcutaneous process with almost total replacement of adipocytes by zones of woody sclerosis and fat necrosis identical to that observed in the mesentery. To our

2010 Archives of Dermatology

977. Combination excision and liposuction in a single-stage treatment of various skin disorders. (Abstract)

a harmonious result and simultaneously the body contour was well-balanced.Some large skin disorders at sites rich in subcutaneous fat can be treated in one stage by combining excision and liposuction with good functional and esthetic outcomes with few complications. Although the indications for this technique are limited, it is really a good option for appropriate cases. (...) by complete excision. The sliding flaps on both sides of the defect created by liposuction were pulled together to cover the defect. In our study, 40 skin disorders located on the upper arm, thigh, and trunk were treated by this technique.Forty skin disorders were excised and resulting skin defects were repaired in one stage by the surrounding sliding flaps without wound dehiscence, infection, incision edge necrosis, sensory deficit, or severe scar recurrence. The regions of liposuction presented

2010 International Journal of Dermatology

978. Visceral adiposity is not associated with inflammatory markers in trauma patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of adult trauma patients requiring >48 hours of intensive care unit care over a 55-month period was analyzed. Body fat distribution was determined by radiologist review of computed tomography scans at L1. Concentric freeform regions were defined manually, and area was calculated. Visceral adiposity was defined as subcutaneous fat area: visceral area >1.35 (the median), whereas subcutaneous adiposity was defined as a ratio <1.35. Primary outcomes were proinflammatory biomarkers known to be associated (...) with chronic visceral obesity (white blood cell count, interleukin 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha). Secondary outcomes were all-cause in-hospital mortality, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and nosocomial infections.Two hundred eighty-one (19%) obese patients with available computed tomography scans from 1,510 trauma patients were included. Visceral adiposity included 140 patients, subcutaneous adiposity included 141 patients. The two groups were similar in regards to age, Trauma

2010 Journal of Trauma

979. Lupus Mastitis: An Uncommon Complication of Systemic or Discoid Lupus. (Abstract)

Lupus Mastitis: An Uncommon Complication of Systemic or Discoid Lupus. Lupus mastitis is an uncommon presentation of lupus erythematosus profundus or lupus panniculitis, a rare variant of lupus erythematosus characterized by inflammation of the subcutaneous fat. Lupus mastitis can present as single or multiple subcutaneous or deep breast masses, often clinically mimicking malignancy. Although lupus mastitis is rare, with less than 25 cases reported, the histologic features are distinct (...) . Awareness of the entity and familiarity with the histologic features allow for accurate diagnosis and appropriate patient management. It most commonly affects women with a mean age at diagnosis of 40 years and an age range of 18 to 70 years. Typical histologic findings in lupus mastitis include a lymphocytic lobular panniculitis with plasma cells and hyaline fat necrosis. The lymphocytic infiltrate can be nodular, diffuse, periductal, and/or perilobular and germinal centers can frequently be identified

2010 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

980. Long-term evaluation of elongating columella using conchal composite graft in bilateral secondary cleft lip and nose deformity. (Abstract)

. The average age at operation was 7.3 years. The conchal cartilage was harvested. The preauricular or postauricular skin-subcutaneous fat composite tissue was harvested. Through a transcolumellar incision, the conchal cartilage was inset and the defect was covered with skin-fat composite tissue. The serial nasal profiles were evaluated before and after surgery. Also, the postoperative nasal profiles were compared with normal profiles. The postoperative color difference with surrounding skin was measured (...) by the L*a*b* photographic analysis method.The mean height and width of skin-subcutaneous fat composite tissue were 9.81 and 22.14 mm, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative measuring for columella height was 5.1 + or - 1.1 mm and 14.2 + or - 1.5 mm. The columella-lip angle was 120.30 + or - 12.97 preoperatively degrees and 98.76 + or - 10.98 degrees postoperatively, whereas the angle of columellar-alar triangle was 111.56 + or - 11.39 degrees and 97.91 + or - 11.49 degrees, respectively

2010 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

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