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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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961. Diabetic (lymphocytic) mastopathy with exuberant lymphohistiocytic and granulomatous response: a case report with review of the literature. (PubMed)

a fibrotic breast parenchyma with foci of dense fibrosis and scattered inconspicuous breast epithelium surrounded by lymphocytes that formed aggregates and follicles with germinal centers. The inflammation was in a periductal, perilobular, and perivascular distribution. In addition, an exuberant inflammatory response with histiocytes and fibroblasts was present. This inflammatory response focally surrounded areas of fat necrosis and formed noncaseating granulomas with rare multinucleated giant cells (...) . This process had infiltrative, ill-defined edges and involved the subcutaneous tissues. The overlying epidermis was normal. The final diagnosis was diabetic mastopathy with an exuberant lymphohistiocytic response. The differential diagnosis included Rosai-Dorfman disease, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, granulomatous mastitis, sclerosing lipogranulomatous response/sclerosing lipogranuloma, lupus panniculitis, and rheumatoid nodules. Immunohistochemical studies and flow cytometry confirmed

2006 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

962. Cellular angiofibroma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 51 cases. (PubMed)

with intermittent genital bleeding and a painful mass. Most lesions were located primarily in subcutaneous tissue. Most cases were grossly well marginated. Two cases showed foci of hemorrhage and 1 case showed foci of necrosis. Microscopically, 41 tumors were well circumscribed, and 2 tumors infiltrated into the surrounding tissue. All tumors consisted of bland, spindle-shaped cells, short bundles of wispy collagen and numerous small- to medium-sized thick-walled vessels. Intralesional fat was present in 12

2004 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

963. Studies of adipose tissue metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy. (PubMed)

Studies of adipose tissue metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy. We studied aspects of metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in 40 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with and without lipodystrophy and in healthy control subjects. HIV-infected subjects without lipodystrophy had less SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Glycerol release was higher in both HIV-infected groups, especially those without fat redistribution. Tumor necrosis

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2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

964. The effect of pioglitazone on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma target genes related to lipid storage in vivo. (PubMed)

The effect of pioglitazone on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma target genes related to lipid storage in vivo. Pioglitazone is a member of the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), insulin-sensitizing agents used to treat type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to define the effect of pioglitazone on the expression of genes related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in subcutaneous fat obtained from type 2 diabetic patients.Forty-eight volunteers with type 2 diabetes were divided (...) for LPL, CAP, ACS, 11beta HSD 1, GyK, fatty acid synthase, leptin, and GPDH, whereas PPAR-gamma2 mRNA was correlated with CAP, PEPCK-C, leptin, and GPDH.Treatment with pioglitazone increased body weight, and this is associated with upregulation of some, but not all, genes previously demonstrated as "TZD responsive" in subcutaneous fat. The results suggest that TZDs might increase body weight through the upregulation of genes facilitating adipocyte lipid storage in vivo.

2004 Diabetes Care

965. Impact of adiposity and plasma adipocytokines on diabetic angiopathies in Japanese Type 2 diabetic subjects. (PubMed)

studied 231 Japanese Type 2 diabetic subjects (135 men and 96 women, aged 60.4 +/- 12.3 years, body mass index 24.8 +/- 5.2 kg/m2). We measured adipocytokine [adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] levels, lipid profiles and urine albumin excretion. We also performed optic fundus examination and measured carotid intramedia thickness (IMT) using B-mode ultrasonography, and the localization of fat with abdominal computed tomography. A group of 93 subjects (...) with microalbuminuria or overt proteinuria was compared with the other 148 to assess the effect on nephropathy. A group of 191 eyes with simple retinopathy or more advanced changes was compared with 263 eyes without retinal changes to assess the effect on retinopathy.Plasma adiponectin level was negatively correlated with both visceral (r = -0.37, P < 0.01) and subcutaneous (r = -0.25, P < 0.01) fat areas. Resistin concentration was positively related with visceral fat area (r = 0.15, P < 0.05). Adiponectin

2004 Diabetic Medicine

966. Early cutaneous alterations in experimental sepsis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (PubMed)

for the estimation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Skin biopsies were collected along with a subcutaneous fat specimen for culture.The mean survival was 0.85, 1.75 and 11.00 days after challenge by isolates A, B and C, respectively. The main histologic findings of skin were: inflammation and swelling of the dermis; thickening of the endothelium and infiltration of vessel wall and lumen by polymorphonuclear leukocytes; extravasation of red blood cells, and necrobiotic changes (...) of the hair follicles. Serum TNF-alpha was elevated in animals challenged by isolate A compared to challenge by isolates B and C. Concentrations of MDA were similar for all isolates. Mean log(10) of viable cells isolated from subcutaneous fat were 5.74, 2.74 and 1.40 after challenge by isolates A, B and C, respectively.Prolongation of survival was accompanied by lower serum TNF-alpha, decreased viable cells from subcutaneous fat and intensified inflammatory response in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue

2004 Dermatology

967. Recurrent and self-healing cutaneous monoclonal plasmablastic infiltrates in a patient with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma. (PubMed)

-old man with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma (KS) previously treated with doxorubicin who, following treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy, developed an erythematous infiltrated nodule on the right arm. Histology showed subcutaneous fat necrosis and clusters of atypical large plasma cells (plasmablastic cells). Immunohistochemistry revealed lambda light chain restriction. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization within the plasmablastic cells. Polymerase chain

2005 British Journal of Dermatology

968. Congenital Volkmann ischaemic contracture: a case report and review. (PubMed)

fat necrosis and epidermolysis bullosa, dermatologists play a significant role in the diagnosis and, consequently, the treatment of the patient. We describe a premature newborn who had a unilateral, well-demarcated necrotic plaque with a central pallor at birth. The plaque extended circumferentially over the left forearm from the wrist to the elbow. Left wrist oedema, bullae over the fingers and flaccid paralysis at the wrist were also noted. (...) Congenital Volkmann ischaemic contracture: a case report and review. Congenital Volkmann ischaemic contracture or neonatal compartment syndrome has rarely been discussed in the literature of dermatology. The condition often involves the upper extremity with cutaneous lesions, contractures and neuropathy. Because the lesions can be mistaken for other entities including necrotizing fasciitis, neonatal gangrene, congenital varicella, aplasia cutis congenita, amniotic band syndrome, subcutaneous

2004 British Journal of Dermatology

969. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: an analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. (PubMed)

. 0.71; p=0.009). Late subcutaneous toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 in 55%, 15%, 12%, 5%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 0/1 vs. Grade 2-4 subcutaneous toxicity was significantly associated only with a lower value of DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p=0.02). To further explore factors that might contribute to the risk of fat necrosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic), a separate analysis showed that only dose hotspots as reflected in V150 and V200 were significantly associated (...) with elevated risk. The use of adriamycin-based chemotherapy after APBI was found to be associated with a significant increase in the incidence of higher-grade skin toxicity and a higher risk of fat necrosis and suboptimal cosmetic outcome. Patient age, volume of resection, extent of axillary surgery, a history of diabetes or hypertension, and the use of tamoxifen were not found to be significantly associated with cosmetic outcome or late normal tissue complications.Long-term cosmetic results and the risk

2006 Biology and Physics

970. Partial breast irradiation with interstitial 60CO brachytherapy results in frequent grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Evidence based on a 12-year follow-up of 70 patients. (PubMed)

, 85% of the patients experienced Grade > or =2 telangiectasis and 41% had Grade 3 telangiectasis. Eighty-eight percent had fibrosis of some form, and 35% had grade > or =3 fibrosis. Forty-one percent of the cohort displayed fat necrosis, which was always accompanied by Grade > or =3 fibrosis or telangiectasis. The cosmetic results were poor in 50% (17/34) of the patients. The radiosensitivity of the fibroblasts was increased in only 2/24 patients (8% of the investigated cases, in agreement (...) postoperative lumpectomy cavity (i.e., plane). For radiobiologic considerations, the clinical target volume (CTV) was calculated retrospectively with a 10-mm safety margin, resulting in a 72-cm(3) median CTV (range, 36-108 cm(3)) irradiated with a reference dose of 28 Gy. In the assessment of the skin and subcutaneous toxicity, the RTOG late radiation morbidity scoring system was applied. The radiosensitivity of the cultured fibroblasts was determined by clonogenic assay to check whether individual

2004 Biology and Physics

971. Visceral adipose tissue zinc finger protein 36 mRNA levels are correlated with insulin, insulin resistance index, and adiponectinemia in women. (PubMed)

protein 36 (ZFP36), which is known to down-regulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-alpha) expression.The objective of this study was to further examine the relationship between ZFP36 gene expression levels, obesity-related phenotypes, and adipokines.Abdominal subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue samples were obtained from 46 women undergoing elective gynecological surgery. Adipose tissue ZFP36 mRNA abundance was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Body fat accumulation and distribution were (...) measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Fasting blood levels of glucose, insulin, and lipids, and circulating TNF-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, and adiponectin were also measured.No correlation was observed between s.c. ZFP36 mRNA levels and any of the phenotypes tested. However, although omental ZFP36 mRNA levels were not correlated with measures of body fatness and lipid profile, they were negatively correlated with fasting insulin levels (R = -0.31; P = 0.05

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2007 European Journal of Endocrinology

972. Adiponectin and other adipocytokines as predictors of markers of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. (PubMed)

= 0.012), RLP-cholesterol (beta coefficient = -0.377; P = 0.016), and triglycerides (beta coefficient = -0.374; P = 0.013). By contrast, leptin was not an independent predictor of these TRL markers. Plasma apoB-48, apoC-III, RLP-cholesterol, and triglycerides were all significantly and positively associated with plasma insulin, HOMA, and visceral, subcutaneous, and total ATMs (P <0.05).These data suggest that the plasma adiponectin concentration may not only link abdominal fat, insulin resistance (...) Adiponectin and other adipocytokines as predictors of markers of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. Adipocytokines are bioactive peptides that may play an important role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. In this study, we investigated the association of plasma adipocytokine concentrations with markers of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism in men.Fasting adiponectin, leptin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha

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2005 Clinical Chemistry

973. Decreased expression of adipogenic genes in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. (PubMed)

), insulin-like growth factor 1, PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha, PPARgamma coactivator 1beta, and PPARdelta] in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 42 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and 25 non-diabetic subjects matched for age and obesity.Insulin sensitivity was measured by a 3-hour 80 mU/m2 per minute hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (100 mg/dL). As expected, subjects with type 2 diabetes had lower glucose disposal (4.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 7.5 +/- 2.8 mg/min per kilogram fat-free mass; p < 0.001) and larger (...) fat cells (0.90 +/- 0.26 vs. 0.78 +/- 0.17 microm; p = 0.04) as compared with obese control subjects. Three genes (SREBP1c, p < 0.01; STAT5A, p = 0.02; and PPARgamma2, p = 0.02) had significantly lower expression in obese type 2 diabetics, whereas C/EBPbeta only tended to be lower (p = 0.07).This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that impaired expression of adipogenic genes may result in impaired adipogenesis, potentially leading to larger fat cells in subcutaneous adipose tissue

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2006 Obesity

974. Mesenteric adipose tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays a crucial role in adipose tissue macrophage migration and activation in obese mice. (PubMed)

Mesenteric adipose tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays a crucial role in adipose tissue macrophage migration and activation in obese mice. To determine whether chemokines, which play a pivotal role in monocyte/macrophage trafficking, modulate macrophage infiltration into and activation in the adipose tissues.Various types of adipose tissue were isolated from different fat depots (e.g., mesenteric, epididymal, renal, and subcutaneous adipose tissues) from obese mice fed (...) oxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha.The level of MCP-1 mRNA expression, protein content, and the amount of protein released significantly increased in the adipose tissues from the obese mice compared with those from the non-obese mice. The mesenteric adipose tissue produced the highest levels of MCP-1 protein among the four different fat depots. Mesenteric adipose tissue-conditioned medium induced the highest degree of macrophage migration and strongly induced macrophages to produce

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2006 Obesity

975. Association between altered expression of adipogenic factor SREBP1 in lipoatrophic adipose tissue from HIV-1-infected patients and abnormal adipocyte differentiation and insulin resistance. (PubMed)

compared fat morphology and mRNA and protein expression of major adipocyte differentiation markers and cytokines in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from 26 HIV-1-infected patients who developed peripheral lipoatrophy while on protease inhibitors and from 18 HIV-1-seronegative healthy controls.Patients' fat contained a higher proportion of small adipocytes than control fat, together with lower mRNA concentrations of the adipogenic differentiation factors CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) beta (...) and alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, and the 1c isoform of SREBP1, with a median decrease of 93% in the latter. The SREBP1 protein concentration was increased 2.6-fold, whereas the PPARgamma protein concentration was decreased by 70%. The expression of adipocyte-specific markers, including leptin, was lower in fat from patients than in fat from controls, whereas expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha was higher and correlated negatively with the expression

2002 Lancet

976. A case of breast sparganosis (PubMed)

A case of breast sparganosis A 29-year-old Korean woman visited the Department of Surgery in MizMedi Hospital with a palpable itching mass on the right breast that had existed for the past 7 months. She had no history to eat either frogs or snakes, but had the history of drinking impure water. Sonography revealed a serpiginous hypoechoic tubular structure associated with partial fat necrosis in breast parenchymal layer and subcutaneous fat layer. It also revealed oval cystic lesions

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2002 The Korean journal of parasitology

977. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Face and Bones

: Joseph A Kovacs, M.D. National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) More Information Go to Publications: Layout table for additonal information Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: 980070 98-I-0070 First Posted: November 4, 1999 Last Update Posted: April 4, 2019 Last Verified: July 26, 2013 Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC): Protease Inhibitor HIV Infection Appearance Subcutaneous Fat Facial Wasting Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout (...) Description Go to Brief Summary: This study will examine risk factors for facial wasting and avascular necrosis (AVN, a type of damage to the hip and other bones) in HIV-infected patients. The prevalence and natural history of AVN are also being evaluated. This study will use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify and monitor these conditions in patients with and without diagnosed AVN and to identify risk factors. HIV-infected patients 18 years of age and older may be eligible for this study. HIV

1999 Clinical Trials

978. Amelanotic cellular blue nevus: a hypopigmented variant of the cellular blue nevus: clinicopathologic analysis of 20 cases. (PubMed)

age of 24 years (range 6-74 years). Both sexes were affected, with a female-to-male ratio of approximately 2:1. The lower back, distal extremities, and scalp were the most common sites of occurrence. Importantly, the lack of pigmentation resulted in an atypical clinical appearance. A diagnosis of blue nevus by the attending physician was not considered in any of the reported lesions. All of the tumors extended deep into the reticular dermis or subcutaneous fat with a mean thickness of 5.5 mm (...) (range 1.7-11 mm). Ulceration was present in two lesions. Mild cytologic atypia and pleomorphism were present in five cases. Mitotic activity (up to 3 mitoses/mm ) was observed in 11 lesions. A brisk lymphocytic host response was present in only one lesion. Tumor necrosis was not observed. Most, but not all, tumors showed reactivity for S-100 and HMB-45. Clinical follow-up (mean 32 months) was consistent with a benign course. Local recurrence was not observed after complete excision. None

2002 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

979. Systemic administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor induces cachexia in rodents. (PubMed)

Systemic administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor induces cachexia in rodents. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has previously been shown to promote the survival of several classes of neurons and glial. We report here that in addition to its effects on the nervous system, CNTF can induce potent effects in extra-neural tissues. Implantation of C6 glioma cells engineered to secrete CNTF either subcutaneously or into the peritoneal cavity of adult mice, or systemic injections of purified (...) rat or human recombinant CNTF, resulted in a rapid syndrome of weight loss resulting in death over a period of 7-10 d. This weight loss could not be explained by a reduction in food intake and involved losses of both fat and skeletal muscle. CNTF also induced the synthesis of acute phase proteins such as haptoglobin. Implantation of C6 lines expressing a nonsecreted form of CNTF, or the parental C6 line itself, did not result in wasting effects. Analysis of this CNTF-induced wasting indicates

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1994 Journal of Clinical Investigation

980. Streptococcal necrotising fasciitis: comparison between histological and clinical features. (PubMed)

Streptococcal necrotising fasciitis: comparison between histological and clinical features. Nineteen acute and 17 subacute cases of necrotising fasciitis due to beta haemolytic streptococci are described. Excised tissue from seven and four cases, respectively, was available for histological examination. The two clinical types showed remarkable similarities, with inflammation and necrosis from epidermis to subcutaneous fat. Haemorrhage was present in variable amounts in both types. Gram positive

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1987 Journal of Clinical Pathology

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