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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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941. Adipose Macrophage Infiltration Is Associated With Insulin Resistance and Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adipose Macrophage Infiltration Is Associated With Insulin Resistance and Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Subjects. Experimental studies suggest that adipose inflammation is etiologically linked to obesity-induced systemic disease. Our goal was to characterize the state of inflammation in human fat in relation to vascular function and metabolic parameters in obese individuals.We collected subcutaneous abdominal fat in 77 obese subjects (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) and quantified adipose (...) to subjects with quiescent noninflamed adipose architecture (n=27). Macrophage retention in fat was linked to upregulated tissue CD68 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expression in addition to increased plasma hs-CRP.In a cohort of obese subjects, we demonstrate that proinflammatory changes in adipose tissue are associated with systemic arterial dysfunction and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that adipose inflammation may be linked to vascular injury and increased cardiovascular risk

2008 Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

942. Expression of long pentraxin PTX3 in human adipose tissue and its relation with cardiovascular risk factors. (Abstract)

Expression of long pentraxin PTX3 in human adipose tissue and its relation with cardiovascular risk factors. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase protein strongly expressed by advanced atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated (a) PTX3 expression and secretion in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and omental visceral adipose tissue (VAT) obtained from 21 obese (37.4+/-8.15 yr) and 10 normal weight subjects (43.7+/-11.07 yr) and (b) the relationships of adipose PTX3 with tumour necrosis factor (...) alpha (TNFalpha) and adiponectin expression and with cardiometabolic risk factors. Real-time PCR was used to quantify specific mRNA for PTX3, CD68 (macrophage marker), TNFalpha and adiponectin. Fresh adipose tissue was cultured and PTX3 measured in the medium. Serum insulin, glucose, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, adiponectin, TNFalpha and PTX3 were measured. PTX3 expression was similar in the two fat compartments and tended to be higher in obese than

2008 Atherosclerosis

943. Microcystic/Reticular Schwannoma: A Distinct Variant With Predilection for Visceral Locations. (Abstract)

ranged from 0.4 to 23 cm (median size 4.3 cm). Five tumors arose in the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the submucosa. Two cases arose in subcutaneous tissue and 1 case each in the upper respiratory tract, the adrenal gland, and deep soft tissue. None of the patients had features of neurofibromatosis type 1 or type 2 (NF1, NF2). Histologically 8 tumors were circumscribed but unencapsulated and 2 cases located in the subcutaneous fat were circumscribed and encapsulated. At visceral locations (...) Microcystic/Reticular Schwannoma: A Distinct Variant With Predilection for Visceral Locations. Schwannomas are benign, generally nonrecurring tumors most frequently arising in the subcutaneous tissue of adults with no sex predilection. Herein we report 10 cases of a distinctive morphologic variant of schwannoma with predominantly microcystic-reticular morphology and characterize the clinicopathologic spectrum. The age at presentation ranged from 11 to 93 years (median age 63 y). The tumor size

2008 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

944. Differential gene expression indicates that 'buffalo hump' is a distinct adipose tissue disturbance in HIV-1-associated lipodystrophy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the expression of UCP2, UCP3 or of marker genes of adipogenesis in 'buffalo hump' patients relative to healthy controls. 'Buffalo hump' fat did not show the high expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and beta2-microglobulin identified in lipoatrophic subcutaneous fat from patients. The expression of the macrophage marker CD68 was also lower in 'buffalo hump' than in subcutaneous fat from patients. In contrast, 'buffalo hump' showed a higher expression of the cell proliferation marker PCNA.'Buffalo hump (...) and ten subcutaneous fat samples from HIV-1-infected/HAART-treated patients, and in ten healthy controls.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of mitochondrial DNA and gene transcripts, and immunoblot for specific proteins.'Buffalo hump' patients had lower levels of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial DNA-encoded transcripts with respect to healthy controls. The uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 gene was expressed only in 'buffalo hump' fat. There were no significant changes

2008 AIDS

945. Adipocyte death, adipose tissue remodeling, and obesity complications. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adipocyte death, adipose tissue remodeling, and obesity complications. We sought to determine the role of adipocyte death in obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and obesity complications.Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks to induce obesity. Every 4 weeks, insulin resistance was assessed by intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests, and epididymal (eAT) and inguinal subcutaneous AT (iAT) and livers were harvested for histological, immunohistochemical, and gene (...) expression analyses.Frequency of adipocyte death in eAT increased from <0.1% at baseline to 16% at week 12, coincident with increases in 1) depot weight; 2) AT macrophages (ATM Phi s) expressing F4/80 and CD11c; 3) mRNA for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and interleukin (IL)-10; and 4) insulin resistance. ATM Phi s in crown-like structures surrounding dead adipocytes expressed TNF-alpha and IL-6 proteins. Adipocyte number began to decline at week 12. At week 16

2007 Diabetes

946. Fulminant pulmonary calciphylaxis and metastatic calcification causing acute respiratory failure in a uremic patient. (Abstract)

Fulminant pulmonary calciphylaxis and metastatic calcification causing acute respiratory failure in a uremic patient. Calciphylaxis is a rare and life-threatening disorder characterized by small-vessel mural calcification with intimal proliferation, fibrosis, and thrombosis, resulting in tissue ischemic necrosis. Although it has been viewed as a systemic disease involving mainly the dermis, subcutaneous fat, or muscle, calciphylaxis of other organs rarely is reported. We describe the case

2006 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

947. Cellular angiofibroma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 51 cases. (Abstract)

with intermittent genital bleeding and a painful mass. Most lesions were located primarily in subcutaneous tissue. Most cases were grossly well marginated. Two cases showed foci of hemorrhage and 1 case showed foci of necrosis. Microscopically, 41 tumors were well circumscribed, and 2 tumors infiltrated into the surrounding tissue. All tumors consisted of bland, spindle-shaped cells, short bundles of wispy collagen and numerous small- to medium-sized thick-walled vessels. Intralesional fat was present in 12

2004 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

948. Diabetic (lymphocytic) mastopathy with exuberant lymphohistiocytic and granulomatous response: a case report with review of the literature. (Abstract)

a fibrotic breast parenchyma with foci of dense fibrosis and scattered inconspicuous breast epithelium surrounded by lymphocytes that formed aggregates and follicles with germinal centers. The inflammation was in a periductal, perilobular, and perivascular distribution. In addition, an exuberant inflammatory response with histiocytes and fibroblasts was present. This inflammatory response focally surrounded areas of fat necrosis and formed noncaseating granulomas with rare multinucleated giant cells (...) . This process had infiltrative, ill-defined edges and involved the subcutaneous tissues. The overlying epidermis was normal. The final diagnosis was diabetic mastopathy with an exuberant lymphohistiocytic response. The differential diagnosis included Rosai-Dorfman disease, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, granulomatous mastitis, sclerosing lipogranulomatous response/sclerosing lipogranuloma, lupus panniculitis, and rheumatoid nodules. Immunohistochemical studies and flow cytometry confirmed

2006 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

949. Primary Cutaneous PEComa: Distinctive Clear Cell Lesions of Skin. (Abstract)

on the back. The tumors involved the dermis and commonly showed infiltration into the subcutaneous fat. Architecturally, a nested, focally trabecular growth pattern with prominent vasculature composed of delicate thin-walled capillaries was observed. Six tumors were composed of epithelioid cells and 4 showed mixed epithelioid and spindle cell morphology. Tumor cells had clear, palely eosinophilic or granular cytoplasm. Multinucleate tumor giant cells were observed in 3 cases. Mitotic activity ranged from (...) 0 to 2 mitoses per 30 high power fields (mean < 1/10 HPF). Pleomorphism or necrosis was absent. All cases showed at least focal positivity for HMB-45. Melan A was positive in 5/7. In cases where HMB-45 was positive in fewer than 5% of tumor cells (5/10), microphthalmia transcription factor was positive in the majority of the tumor cell nuclei. Desmin positivity was observed in 5 and smooth muscle actin in 1 case, respectively. The other muscle markers (caldesmon, calponin) and also pan-keratin

2008 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

950. Radiation Therapy, Cyclophosphamide, and Doxorubicin in Treating Women With Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer Who Have Undergone Surgery

atrophy, moderate telangectasias, total hair loss, 3= Marked atrophy, gross telangectasias, 4= Ulceration; Subcutaneous Tissue Toxicity: 0= None, 1= Slight induration (fibrosis) and loss of subcutaneous fat, 2= Moderate fibrosis but asymptomatic; slight field contracture; <10% linear reduction, 3= Severe induration and loss subcutaneous tissue; field contracture >10% linear reduction; 4= Necrosis Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate (...) : Assess the potential acute and late skin and subcutaneous toxicities in women with resected stage I or II breast cancer treated with partial breast irradiation (PBI) and concurrent cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin (AC) chemotherapy. Assess the cosmetic effects of partial breast irradiation/chemotherapy (PBIC) in these patients. Assess the local control rate in patients treated with this regimen. OUTLINE: Patients undergo partial breast radiotherapy once daily, 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Patients also

2006 Clinical Trials

951. BMS-Reyataz Study in Treatment in Naive Subjects to Compare the Efficacy and Safety Between Boosted Reyataz and Kaletra When in Combination With Fixed Dose Truvada

plasma concentration versus time data. AUC (TAU) of Tenofovir at Week 4 [ Time Frame: Predose, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 Hrs post dosing with ATV/RTV and TDF all given QD and at predose, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 Hrs post dosing with LPV/RTV given BID and TDF given QD. ] AUC (TAU) was derived from plasma concentration versus time data.It was calculated from time 0-24 hours for tenofovir in LPV/RPV and ATV/RTV regimen at Week 4. Mean Change From Baseline in Trunk-to-Limb Fat Ratio as Measured (...) by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) at Week 96 [ Time Frame: Baseline (Day 1) and Week 96. ] Mean changes from baseline in trunk-to-limb fat ratio as measured by DEXA, an x-ray scan used to measure bone mineral density. Clinical improvement is associated with a decrease in values. Number of Participants With Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Included in Genotype-Phenotype Analysis [ Time Frame: Baseline visit ] 19 genes of interest were selected from previous results or literature, and 34

2006 Clinical Trials

952. Telmisartan-Induced Reduction in Intra-Myocellular Lipids Trial

) Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada Medtronic Information provided by: McMaster University Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to determine whether telmisartan and/or a low-glycemic index diet are effective in reducing intra-myocellular lipid (muscle fat) content. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Metabolic Syndrome X Drug: Telmisartan (Micardis®) vs. Placebo Behavioral: Low-Glycemic Index Diet vs. Control Diet Phase 3 Detailed (...) Description: The metabolic syndrome currently affects over 20% of the adult population in Canada. Patients with abdominal obesity are at markedly increased risk for diabetes and heart disease. Recent studies have shown that decreased sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance), a hallmark of the metabolic syndrome, is related to increased storage of fat in muscle cells (muscle fat). Several recent studies indicate that blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may improve insulin sensitivity and prevent

2005 Clinical Trials

953. Latino Study

microgram (mcg)/0.5 mL by subcutaneous injection once a week in combination with ribavirin 1000 or 1200 mg per day, which was taken orally in split doses for 48 weeks. Participants with <75 kg (165 lbs) of body weight received 1000 mg/day (400 mg in the morning and 600 mg in the evening). Participants with >=75 kg (165 lbs) of body weight received 1200 mg/day (600 mg in the morning and 600 mg in the evening). Drug: Ribavirin 1000-1200mg po daily for 48 weeks Drug: Peginterferon alfa-2a 180 micrograms sc (...) /week for 48 weeks Experimental: Non-Latino White Participants received peginterferon alfa-2a 180 mcg/0.5 mL by subcutaneous injection once a week in combination with ribavirin 1000 or 1200 mg per day which was taken orally in split doses. Participants with <75 kg (165 lbs) of body weight received 1000 mg/day. Participants with >=75 kg (165 lbs) of body weight received 1200 mg/day for 48 weeks. Drug: Ribavirin 1000-1200mg po daily for 48 weeks Drug: Peginterferon alfa-2a 180 micrograms sc/week

2005 Clinical Trials

954. A 6-month interruption of antiretroviral therapy improves adipose tissue function in HIV-infected patients: the ANRS EP29 Lipostop Study. (Abstract)

tissue both at inclusion and at month 6. Changes in fat morphology, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and gene expression were examined in 29, 23 and 20 patients, respectively.Body fat distribution was not clearly modified at month 6. Adipose tissue inflammation improved markedly, with fewer infiltrating macrophages and fewer tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)- and interleukin 6 (IL6)-expressing cells. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) and of markers (...) A 6-month interruption of antiretroviral therapy improves adipose tissue function in HIV-infected patients: the ANRS EP29 Lipostop Study. To examine the reversibility of adipose tissue alterations in HIV-infected patients after a 6-month interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART).Forty HIV-infected patients on stable effective ART were enrolled, 33 of them completed the study. Patients underwent a physical examination, laboratory tests and needle biopsy of subcutaneous abdominal adipose

2007 Antiviral Therapy

955. Early cutaneous alterations in experimental sepsis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (Abstract)

for the estimation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Skin biopsies were collected along with a subcutaneous fat specimen for culture.The mean survival was 0.85, 1.75 and 11.00 days after challenge by isolates A, B and C, respectively. The main histologic findings of skin were: inflammation and swelling of the dermis; thickening of the endothelium and infiltration of vessel wall and lumen by polymorphonuclear leukocytes; extravasation of red blood cells, and necrobiotic changes (...) of the hair follicles. Serum TNF-alpha was elevated in animals challenged by isolate A compared to challenge by isolates B and C. Concentrations of MDA were similar for all isolates. Mean log(10) of viable cells isolated from subcutaneous fat were 5.74, 2.74 and 1.40 after challenge by isolates A, B and C, respectively.Prolongation of survival was accompanied by lower serum TNF-alpha, decreased viable cells from subcutaneous fat and intensified inflammatory response in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue

2004 Dermatology

956. Mesenteric adipose tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays a crucial role in adipose tissue macrophage migration and activation in obese mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mesenteric adipose tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays a crucial role in adipose tissue macrophage migration and activation in obese mice. To determine whether chemokines, which play a pivotal role in monocyte/macrophage trafficking, modulate macrophage infiltration into and activation in the adipose tissues.Various types of adipose tissue were isolated from different fat depots (e.g., mesenteric, epididymal, renal, and subcutaneous adipose tissues) from obese mice fed (...) oxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha.The level of MCP-1 mRNA expression, protein content, and the amount of protein released significantly increased in the adipose tissues from the obese mice compared with those from the non-obese mice. The mesenteric adipose tissue produced the highest levels of MCP-1 protein among the four different fat depots. Mesenteric adipose tissue-conditioned medium induced the highest degree of macrophage migration and strongly induced macrophages to produce

2006 Obesity

957. Decreased expression of adipogenic genes in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

), insulin-like growth factor 1, PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha, PPARgamma coactivator 1beta, and PPARdelta] in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 42 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and 25 non-diabetic subjects matched for age and obesity.Insulin sensitivity was measured by a 3-hour 80 mU/m2 per minute hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (100 mg/dL). As expected, subjects with type 2 diabetes had lower glucose disposal (4.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 7.5 +/- 2.8 mg/min per kilogram fat-free mass; p < 0.001) and larger (...) fat cells (0.90 +/- 0.26 vs. 0.78 +/- 0.17 microm; p = 0.04) as compared with obese control subjects. Three genes (SREBP1c, p < 0.01; STAT5A, p = 0.02; and PPARgamma2, p = 0.02) had significantly lower expression in obese type 2 diabetics, whereas C/EBPbeta only tended to be lower (p = 0.07).This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that impaired expression of adipogenic genes may result in impaired adipogenesis, potentially leading to larger fat cells in subcutaneous adipose tissue

2006 Obesity

958. Inducible Toll-like receptor and NF-kappaB regulatory pathway expression in human adipose tissue. Full Text available with Trip Pro

adipose tissue.We biopsied subcutaneous abdominal fat from 16 obese subjects (age 39+/-11 years, BMI 49+/-14 kg/m2) and characterized TLR expression using quantitative real-time PCR and confocal immunofluorescence imaging. In tissue culture, we stimulated isolated human adipocytes with Pam3CSK4 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (TLR2 and TLR4 agonists, respectively) and quantified TLR activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB (...) Inducible Toll-like receptor and NF-kappaB regulatory pathway expression in human adipose tissue. Inflammatory activity in fat tissue has recently been implicated in mechanisms of insulin resistance and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses and recent studies implicate the TLR pathway in mechanisms of inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to examine differential TLR expression and function in human

2008 Obesity

959. Adiponectin and resistin response in the onset of obesity in male and female rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

adiponectin and resistin and tissue mRNA levels were analyzed by western blot and reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. Serum levels of insulin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), and glucose were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by a glucose sensor. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA).Energy intake and adipose-tissue weight were significantly increased in the CAF rats, with higher increase in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, especially (...) Adiponectin and resistin response in the onset of obesity in male and female rats. Studying the sex-dependent response of adiponectin and resistin adipose tissue expression and circulating levels in the onset of dietary obesity.Male and female 4-week-old Wistar rats were fed a control or cafeteria (CAF) diet for 15 days. Body weight and energy intake were monitored. Gonadal (visceral), retroperitoneal (visceral) and inguinal (subcutaneous) white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were collected. Serum

2008 Obesity

960. Impact of adiposity and plasma adipocytokines on diabetic angiopathies in Japanese Type 2 diabetic subjects. (Abstract)

studied 231 Japanese Type 2 diabetic subjects (135 men and 96 women, aged 60.4 +/- 12.3 years, body mass index 24.8 +/- 5.2 kg/m2). We measured adipocytokine [adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] levels, lipid profiles and urine albumin excretion. We also performed optic fundus examination and measured carotid intramedia thickness (IMT) using B-mode ultrasonography, and the localization of fat with abdominal computed tomography. A group of 93 subjects (...) with microalbuminuria or overt proteinuria was compared with the other 148 to assess the effect on nephropathy. A group of 191 eyes with simple retinopathy or more advanced changes was compared with 263 eyes without retinal changes to assess the effect on retinopathy.Plasma adiponectin level was negatively correlated with both visceral (r = -0.37, P < 0.01) and subcutaneous (r = -0.25, P < 0.01) fat areas. Resistin concentration was positively related with visceral fat area (r = 0.15, P < 0.05). Adiponectin

2004 Diabetic Medicine

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