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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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941. Neonatal Hypercalcemia

causes of neonatal hypercalcemia include Maternal hypoparathyroidism Subcutaneous fat necrosis Parathyroid hyperplasia Abnormal renal function Williams syndrome Idiopathic Maternal hypoparathyroidism or maternal hypocalcemia may cause secondary fetal hyperparathyroidism, with changes in fetal mineralization (eg, osteopenia). Subcutaneous fat necrosis may occur after major trauma and causes hypercalcemia that usually resolves spontaneously. Neonatal hyperparathyroidism is very rare. Williams (...) hypercalcemia may be noted when total serum calcium is > 12 mg/dL ( > 3 mmol/L). These signs can include anorexia, , nausea, vomiting, lethargy or seizures or generalized irritability, and hypertension. Other symptoms and signs include constipation, abdominal pain, dehydration, feeding intolerance, and failure to thrive. Some neonates have weakness. With subcutaneous fat necrosis, firm purple nodules may be observed on trunk, buttocks, or legs. Diagnosis Total or ionized serum calcium level Diagnosis

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

942. Amyloidosis

. Aspiration of subcutaneous abdominal fat is positive in about 80% of patients with AL, 50% in AF, but less than 25% of patients with ATTRwt. If the fat biopsy result is negative, a clinically involved organ should be biopsied. The diagnostic sensitivity of kidney and heart biopsies is nearly 100% when these organs are clinically involved. Tissue sections are stained with Congo red dye and examined with a polarizing microscope for characteristic birefringence. Nonbranching 10-nm fibrils can also (...) (secondary amyloidosis) This form can occur secondary to several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant conditions and is caused by aggregation of isoforms of the acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A. Common causative infections include Predisposing inflammatory conditions include Inherited periodic fever syndromes such as Castleman disease Inflammatory cytokines (eg, IL-1, tumor necrosis factor [TNF], IL-6) that are produced in these disorders or ectopically by tumor cells cause increased hepatic

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

943. Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

adults, plasma glucose levels reach higher levels after eating than in younger adults, especially after meals with high carbohydrate loads. Glucose levels also take longer to return to normal, in part because of increased accumulation of visceral and abdominal fat and decreased muscle mass. Type 2 DM is becoming increasingly common among children as childhood obesity has become epidemic. Over 90% of adults with DM have type 2 disease. There are clear genetic determinants, as evidenced by the high (...) and muscle glycogen synthase activity. Adipose tissue also appears to function as an endocrine organ, releasing multiple factors (adipocytokines) that favorably (adiponectin) and adversely (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, leptin, resistin) influence glucose metabolism. Intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight have also been associated with insulin resistance in later life and may reflect adverse prenatal environmental influences on glucose metabolism. Miscellaneous types of diabetes

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

944. Cachexia in Cancer

tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1b, and IL-6, which are produced by tumor cells and host cells in the tissue mass. The ATP-ubiquitin-protease pathway plays a role as well. Cachexia is easy to recognize, primarily by weight loss, which is most apparent with loss of temporalis muscle mass in the face (Hippocratic facies). The loss of subcutaneous fat increases the risk of pressure ulcers over bony prominences. Treatment Treatment involves treatment of the cancer. If the cancer can be controlled

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

945. Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN)

in the deep dermis and subcutaneous fat. Genital: Orchitis with testicular pain and tenderness can occur. Diagnosis Clinical findings Biopsy Arteriography if no clinically involved tissue is available for biopsy PAN can be difficult to diagnose because findings can be nonspecific. The diagnosis should be considered in patients with various combinations of symptoms, such as unexplained fever, arthralgia, subcutaneous nodules, skin ulcers, pain in the abdomen or extremities, new footdrop or wristdrop (...) marked parenchymal inflammation. If clinical findings are absent or minimal, electromyography and nerve conduction studies may help select the site of muscle or nerve biopsy. If skin lesions are present, surgical skin biopsies that include deeper dermis and subcutaneous fat should be done. (Punch biopsies of the skin that sample the epidermis and superficial dermis miss the lesions of PAN.) Even though microscopic lesions in the testes are common, testicular biopsy should not be done if testicular

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

946. Male Hypogonadism

Male Hypogonadism Male Hypogonadism - Genitourinary Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Acute Tubular Necrosis (...) Which of the following is a more common cause of acute tubular necrosis (ATN)? Ethylene glycol poisoning Burns Renal hypoperfusion Rhabdomyolysis NEWS & VIDEOS Adjuvant Tx for Early Testicular Cancer Does Not Harm Sperm WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For clinical stage I testicular cancer (TC) patients, adjuvant treatment after orchiectomy has no long-term significant effect on sperm production... 3D Model Male Reproductive System Video How to Catheterize the Urethra in Women SOCIAL

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

947. Pressure Ulcers

PU, subcutaneous tissue can become necrotic before the epidermis erodes. Thus, a small ulcer may in fact represent extensive subcutaneous necrosis and damage. Pearls & Pitfalls Suspect deeper tissue damage than is clinically evident in patients who have PUs. Complications PUs are a reservoir for hospital-acquired antibiotic-resistant organisms. High bacteria counts within the wound can hinder tissue healing. If wound healing is delayed despite proper treatment, underlying (present in up to 32 (...) %, a rate over 5 times the increase of hospital admissions overall. The rate increased most in patients who developed PUs during hospitalization. Today, an estimated 1.3 to 3 million patients in the US have PUs, resulting in a significant financial burden to patients and health care institutions. Etiology Risk factors for PUs include the following: Age > 65 (possibly due to reduced subcutaneous fat and capillary blood flow) Decreased mobility (eg, due to prolonged hospital stay, bed rest, spinal cord

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

948. Specific Poisons

generally Ingestion: Salty or soapy taste With large doses: Tremors, seizures, CNS depression, shock, renal failure Skin and mucosal contact: Painful superficial or deep burns Inhalation: Intense eye and nasal irritation, headache, dyspnea, sense of suffocation, glottal edema, pulmonary edema, bronchitis, pneumonia, mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema due to bleb rupture Ingestion: Dilution with milk or water, IV glucose and saline, 10% Ca gluconate 30 mL IV (in children, 0.6 mL/kg) or 10% CaCl 2 10 (...) — Formaldehyde Formalin (may contain methyl alcohol) Ingestion: Oral and gastric pain, nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, shock, hematuria, anuria, coma, respiratory failure Skin contact: Irritation, coagulation necrosis (with high concentrations), dermatitis, hypersensitivity Inhalation: Eye, nose, and respiratory tract irritation; laryngeal spasm and edema; dysphagia; bronchitis; pneumonia Ingestion: Dilution with water or milk; treatment of shock, NaHCO 3 to correct acidosis, respiratory support, observation

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

949. Exercise For Sub-acute Stroke Patients in Jamaica

diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and recurrent stroke. By the time individuals reach chronic stroke (>6 months), we report hemiparetic body composition abnormalities including paretic leg muscular atrophy, increased intramuscular area fat, and a major shift to fast myosin heavy chain (MHC). All of these factors promote IR, which has been linked to reduced muscle protein synthesis in aging that may be reversible with exercise. We also find elevated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in paretic leg muscle (...) and Abdominal muscle and fat [ Time Frame: Baseline and 6 months ] CT scans to determine 1) mid-thigh cross sectional area for muscle area, intramuscular and subcutaneous fat area, and quality of lean tissue mass, 2) abdominal fat area. Whole body protein and skeletal muscle synthesis and breakdown [ Time Frame: Baseline and 6 months ] Serial blood sampling and pre-/post-muscle biopsies in the fasted and fed state Muscle myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC) proportions [ Time Frame: Baseline and 6 months

2011 Clinical Trials

950. Conventional Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy, V-Y Anoplasty and Tailored Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy With V-YF in Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissure(CAF)

. The V-shaped flap formed of skin and subcutaneous fat was mobilized sufficiently to allow advancement into the anal canal to cover the fissure defect. Care was taken to preserve enough pedicles to ensure adequate blood supply. The base of flap was sutured to the lower anal mucosa with interrupted 000 Vicryl Rapide. Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 illustrate the procedure. GroupIII: Tailored lateral internal sphincterotomy with V-Y advancement flap: Tailored lateral sphincterotomy was performed (...) of skin and subcutaneous fat was mobilized sufficiently to allow advancement into the anal canal to cover the fissure defect. Care was taken to preserve enough pedicles to ensure adequate blood supply. The base of flap was sutured to the lower anal mucosa with interrupted 000 Vicryl Rapide. Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 illustrate the procedure. Procedure: GroupII: V-Y advancement flap GroupII: V-Y advancement flap: The V-Y advancement flap was performed by making a V-shaped incision from the edges

2011 Clinical Trials

951. Adipokines in Hemodialysis Patients

for 24 weeks. Baseline: Participants will have fasting blood drawn for adipokines: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), high molecular weight Adiponectin (HMW-A), and leptin. All patients will undergo MRI scans on the mid-week non-dialysis day. Twenty each of overweight/obese patients randomized to pioglitazone or placebo will also undergo subcutaneous fat biopsy on the mid-week non-dialysis day. Study Period: Participants (...) ] The percent difference in hsCRP concentration geometric mean values from baseline to 6 months was calculated for each arm Secondary Outcome Measures : Change in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) Concentration in Plasma From Baseline to 6 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline and 6 months ] The percent difference in TNF-α concentration geometric mean values from baseline to 6 months was calculated for each arm Change in Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Concentration in Plasma From Baseline to 6 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline

2011 Clinical Trials

952. Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta

[ Time Frame: 36 Months ] Body composition (including weight, hip circumference, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, total body fat, subcutaneous fat, intra-abdominal fat, lean body mass, body mass index) Secondary Outcome Measures : Insulin resistance [ Time Frame: 36 months ] Measurements taken of Insulin Levels, Glucose Levels, Insulin Resistance (HOMA Score) Sex Hormone Levels [ Time Frame: 36 months ] Measure levels of Estrone, Estradiol, Androstenedione and Testosterone Inflammation [ Time (...) to an exercise facility, body composition assessment. Other: High Volume Participate in one-year high volume (300 minutes per week)aerobic exercise. Active Comparator: Moderate Volume Participate in one year of moderate volume (150 minutes per week) aerobic exercise with free provision of a personal trainer, membership to an exercise facility, body composition assessment. Other: Moderate Volume Moderate volume (150 minutes per week) aerobic exercise Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Body Fat

2011 Clinical Trials

953. Pancreatic Panniculitis Associated with Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report Full Text available with Trip Pro

was found on the laboratory examinations. The biopsy specimens from the skin lesions showed subcutaneous fat necrosis. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a large mass with central necrosis in the body and tail of the pancreas. Distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy and partial transverse colectomy were successfully performed on day 17 of the hospitalization. The histopathologic findings supported the diagnosis of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas (ACCP). Postoperatively, the level of serum

2011 Annals of dermatology

954. Expression and secretion of the novel adipokine tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase from adipose tissues of obese and lean women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

from lean or obese women.TRAP is a novel human adipokine produced by macrophages and secreted from the subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo and in vitro. Secretion is linked to the size and number of adipocytes, as well as to concomitant secretion of inflammatory mediators, suggesting that TRAP is involved in fat accumulation and adipose inflammation. (...) of 11%. Adipose secretion of total TRAP was linear in vitro with time and was evident in vivo. Total TRAP secretion in vitro was similar in lean and obese women expressed per unit weight of the adipose tissue but correlated positively with the number/size of adipocytes (P ≤ 0.01) and with adipose secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 (P<0.01). TRAP 5b was not secreted from the adipose tissue. ATMs displayed highest cellular expression of TRAP mRNA in adipose tissue cells derived

2011 International Journal of Obesity

955. No difference in markers of adipose tissue inflammation between overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome and weight-matched controls. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue.Twenty overweight patients with PCOS, 10 lean patients with PCOS and 20 overweight controls had subcutaneous fat biopsies and blood samples taken. Adipose tissue levels of mRNA of inflammatory markers were determined by use of real-time PCR.Overweight patients with PCOS had higher relative adipose tissue chemokine ligand 2 (P < 0.01), and its cognate receptor (P < 0.05), tumour necrosis factor-α (P < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-10 (P < 0.001) and IL-18 (P < 0.001

2011 Human Reproduction

956. Cutaneous and mucous mucormycosis mimicking pancreatic panniculitis and gouty panniculitis. (Abstract)

Cutaneous and mucous mucormycosis mimicking pancreatic panniculitis and gouty panniculitis. Histopathologic study of lesions of cutaneous mucormycosis usually shows suppurative granulomas involving the deep dermis and subcutaneous fat. Large, broad and non-septate fungal hyphae are easily identified within the necrotic areas.The main goal of our study is to describe the histopathologic features of 13 cases of cutaneo-mucous mucormycosis, which mimicked the findings of pancreatic and/or gouty (...) hue due to calcium salts deposition. In other areas, groups of necrotic adipocytes filled with radially oriented needle-shaped and slightly eosinophilic crystals were seen. These intracellular crystals were refractile under polarized light examination. Numerous thick-walled non-septate fungal hyphae scattered throughout the necrotic areas were also seen in all cases.The study was limited to 13 cases.Histopathologic study of 13 cases of subcutaneous mucormycosis demonstrated features closely

2011 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

957. Radial nerve palsy in the newborn: a case series. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the current literature.During the study period, 953 infants presented to our clinic. Of these patients, 25 were identified as having isolated radial nerve palsy (i.e., a radial nerve palsy in isolation with good shoulder function and intact flexion of the elbow). Seventeen infants (68.0%) had a subcutaneous nodule representing fat necrosis in the inferior posterolateral portion of the affected arm. Full recovery occurred in all patients within a range of one week to six months, and 72.0% of the patients

2011 Canadian Medical Association Journal

958. Effect of resistance training during hemodialysis on circulating cytokines: a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

care control (n = 25). The PRT group performed two sets of 10 exercises at high intensity using free-weights, 3 times per week for 12 weeks during dialysis, while the control group did not exercise. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1b, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10, and interleukin-12 were measured in serum before and after the intervention period. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), intramuscular lipid, intermuscular adipose tissue, and subcutaneous and total (...) thigh fat, evaluated via computed tomography of the non-dominant mid-thigh, were also collected at both time points. All cytokines were significantly elevated in the total cohort at baseline compared with normative data. There were no cytokine changes over time or between groups (p > 0.05). In secondary analyses pooling the groups, changes in logIL-6 and IL-8 were inversely related to changes subcutaneous thigh fat (p < 0.05) while changes in logIL-6 were also inversely related to changes in thigh

2011 European journal of applied physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

959. Epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 16 cases of a morphologically distinct variant of rhabdomyosarcoma. (Abstract)

, 10 were intramuscular, and 2 were subcutaneous. Tumor size ranged from 3 to 8.5 cm; the tumors had nodular fleshy cut surfaces, grossly appreciable necrosis, and infiltrative edges. Microscopically, tumors showed sheet-like growth of uniformly sized epithelioid cells with abundant amphophilic-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, large vesicular nuclei, and frequently prominent nucleoli. Necrosis and infiltration into adjacent structures (such as skeletal muscle or fat) were present in all cases

2011 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

960. Polycystic ovary syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Approximately three-quarters of women with PCOS (by the diagnostic criteria of NIH/NICHD 1990) have evidence of . : This appears as a tendency towards and other symptoms associated with . Serum , insulin resistance, and levels are higher in women with PCOS. Asians affected by PCOS are less likely to develop hirsutism than those of other ethnic backgrounds. Women with PCOS tend to have central obesity, but studies are conflicting as to whether visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat is increased, unchanged (...) , or decreased in women with PCOS relative to reproductively normal women with the same . In any case, androgens, such as , (dihydrotestosterone), and , have been found to increase visceral fat deposition in both female animals and women. Cause [ ] PCOS is a of uncertain cause. There is some evidence that it is a . Such evidence includes the familial clustering of cases, greater in compared with twins and heritability of endocrine and metabolic features of PCOS. There is some evidence that exposure to higher

2012 Wikipedia

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