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Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

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821. Burns, Thermal (Treatment)

go completely through the eschar. The subcutaneous fat will appear to bubble up into the escharotomy wound. Bleeding is minimal and is easily controlled by pressure. Upon completion of the escharotomy, a dressing with antibiotics is placed on the wound, and the extremity is elevated to help maintain homeostasis. If the chest is involved and the eschar compromises ventilatory motion, perform an escharotomy involving the anterior chest. Incisions are made along the costal margin, along the anterior (...) hypertonic fluid solutions is notably less, yet fluid requirements and percent weight gain have not been shown to be lower with hypertonic saline than with Ringer solution. The anticipated benefits of fewer escharotomies and limited ileus have not been uniformly encountered either. On the contrary, hypertonic saline resuscitation has been associated with an increased incidence of acute tubular necrosis and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, which can exacerbate the metabolic acidosis of hypovolemic shock

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

823. Anemia, Sickle Cell (Treatment)

for the treatment of severe pain associated with a vasoocclusive crisis Use of analgesics and physical therapy for the treatment of avascular necrosis In July 2017, the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approved L-glutamine oral powder (Endari) for patients age 5 years and older to reduce severe complications of SCD. [ , ] L-glutamine increases the proportion of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in sickle cell erythrocytes; this probably reduces oxidative stress, which contributes (...) is an efficient iron chelator. It is administered as a prolonged infusion intravenously or subcutaneously for 5-7 days a week. Although effective, there are significant challenges associated with its use that can result in non-compliance. [ ] Deferiprone and deferasirox, oral iron chelators, are effective for iron overload treatment and have differences (eg, different pharmacokinetics and adverse effect profiles). Deferasirox has a capacity similar to deferoxamine in chelating iron, but it is administered

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

824. Toxicity, Warfarin and Superwarfarins (Overview)

and in patients with preexisting protein C deficiency and is found, less commonly, in men and in patients with protein S deficiency. Patients initially become hypercoagulable because warfarin depresses levels of the anticoagulant proteins C and S more quickly than it does coagulant proteins II, VII, IX, and X. Extensive thrombosis of the venules and capillaries occurs within the subcutaneous fat. Women note an intense, painful burning in areas such as the thigh, buttocks, waist, and/or breast several days (...) ) who underwent dialysis, warfarin was found to be associated with a 44% higher risk of bleeding and did not reduce the risk of stroke. [ ] Skin necrosis Skin necrosis, usually observed between the third and eighth days of therapy, is a relatively uncommon, adverse reaction to warfarin. When skin necrosis occurs, it can be extremely severe and disfiguring and may require treatment through debridement or amputation of the affected tissue, limb, breast, or penis. It occurs more frequently in women

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

825. Pediatrics, Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Overview)

permeability, influx of protein rich edema fluid into the alveolar sacs, dysfunction of surfactant production, and defective ion transport leading to impaired fluid clearance from alveolar cells. These changes are the hallmark of ARDS pathophysiology and are accompanied by dysregulated inflammation from dysfunctional leukocytes and influx of pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukins and tumor-necrosis factor. The role of neutrophils in this mechanism is controversial. Animal models have favored both (...) , if they are associated with shock and thrombocytopenia. [ ] Other more common etiologies include bronchiolitis, aspiration pneumonia, aspiration of gastric contents, major trauma, pulmonary contusion, burns, inhalational injury, massive transfusions or transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). [ , , , , , ] Transfusion of all type of blood products including packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and platelets has been associated with development of ARDS. [ , ] Other causes include acute pancreatitis, fat

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

826. Epiglottitis, Acute

thickening of the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, platysma muscle, and prevertebral fascia; obliteration of the pre-epiglottic fat planes; and reticulation of the subcutaneous fat. Emphysematous epiglottis is further characterized by soft-tissue lucencies representing gas within a swollen epiglottis. The finding of multiloculated fluid-density collections should raise the suspicion that an abscess exists. Edema and thickening of the supraglottic tissues with obliteration of the surrounding fat planes (...) safety, because patients must be supine for a lengthy period of time without direct surveillance. Few studies have reported MRI findings in acute epiglottitis. T1- and T2-weighted imaging shows thickening of the epiglottis, and there is marked enhancement of the epiglottis and often of the adjacent aryepiglottic folds following gadolinium administration. Areas of nonenhancement may represent necrosis or phlegmon. Cervical lymphadenopathy may also be seen. Previous Next: Ultrasonography Findings

2014 eMedicine Radiology

827. Cystic Fibrosis, Thoracic

-fluid level in the right upper lobe and subcutaneous emphysema. Extrapulmonary air, including pneumothorax, is a common complication in the presence of large air pockets (cysts). Pancreatic abnormalities In the advanced stages of CF, the exocrine tissues of the pancreas are often completely replaced by fat. On CT scans, the pancreas is composed purely of fat, which is isoattenuating relative to the adjacent retroperitoneal fat. (This finding is in contrast to the fatty replacement in aged and obese (...) successfully. Overall, false-positive and false-negative rates are relatively high. Stool fecal fat and pancreatic-enzyme secretion tests Stool fecal fat and pancreatic-enzyme secretion can be measured by collecting duodenal fluids after simulation with secretin and pancreatozymin. Decreased levels of pancreatic enzymes or elevated stool fat are expressed as the percentage of ingested fat in a 72-hour stool collection and can be indicative of CF, respectively. Molecular diagnostic tests The molecular

2014 eMedicine Radiology

828. Toxicity, Cocaine (Overview)

aspiration pneumonitis or after an intravenous injection of bacteria or toxic organic or inorganic materials Aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm: May be noted with mainlining (ie, directly injecting into a central artery or vein); this finding is an indication for further imaging studies In addition, radiography may be useful for evaluating cellulitis, an abscess, or a nonhealing wound in an intravenous drug user; it may reveal a foreign body or subcutaneous emphysema produced by gas-forming organisms (...) is fat soluble and freely crosses the blood-brain barrier. Cocaine appears to stimulate the CNS, with particular activity in the limbic system. There, it potentiates dopaminergic transmission in the ventral basal nuclei, producing the pleasurable behavioral effects that result in its widespread use. Cocaine enters the United States in the form of a hydrochloride salt, having undergone numerous steps in refinement from the original coca leaf. In its hydrochloride form, cocaine may be absorbed

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

829. Necrotising fasciitis of the thigh Full Text available with Trip Pro

Necrotising fasciitis of the thigh Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is an extremely virulent form of infectious fasciitis. It affects skin, subcutaneous fat and superficial and deep muscular fascia by rapidly progressive necrosis. Expeditious diagnosis and radical debridement is necessary to prevent the onset of sepsis, multisystem organ failure and possible death. Perforated rectal cancer resulting in NF can spread to the perineum and genitals known as Fournier gangrene. This case describes

2013 BMJ case reports

830. Role of lipomodelling in improving aesthetic outcomes in patients undergoing immediate and delayed reconstructive breast surgery. (Abstract)

October 2008 to October 2011. Fat was harvested using a low-negative pressure syringe method and centrifuged at 3000 r.p.m. for 3 min. The purified fat was injected in 1 mL increments into multilayered microtunnels, starting from deeper layers and moving to superficial layers in the subcutaneous tissue. Patient satisfaction was assessed using validated Picker questions in a face-to-face consultation during follow-up visits, and the results were documented in the case notes.Thirty-one patients (...) necrosis and 1 patient with oil cysts) developed postoperative complications. Twenty-nine patients (93%) were satisfied with the postoperative cosmetic outcome.Lipomodelling offers an additional tool to refine breast reconstructive surgery. This study demonstrates that large volumes of fat can be injected for sculpture optimisation and for reshaping reconstructed breasts with improved softness and a natural feel.Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2013 European Journal of Surgical Oncology

831. Inverse correlation of serum inflammatory markers with metabolic parameters in healthy, black and white pre-pubertal youth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(magnetic resonance imaging)); total body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), ectopic, intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) fat (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were measured in 40 obese and non-obese children. Relationships between inflammatory cytokines and obesity were assessed by analysis of variance and Spearman's rank (...) Inverse correlation of serum inflammatory markers with metabolic parameters in healthy, black and white pre-pubertal youth. To examine for the first time the associations between pro-inflammatory cytokines and obesity-related metabolic biomarkers in, exclusively prepubertal, otherwise healthy obese and non-obese Black and White children, 7-9 years of age.Body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT

2013 International Journal of Obesity

832. The Morel-Lavallée lesion revisited: management in spinopelvic dissociation. (Abstract)

The Morel-Lavallée lesion revisited: management in spinopelvic dissociation. The Morel-Lavallée lesion occurs from a compression and shear force that usually separates the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the underlying muscular fascia. A dead space is created that becomes filled with blood, liquefied fat, and lymphatic fluid from the shearing of vasculature and lymphatics. If not treated appropriately, these lesions can become infected, cause tissue necrosis, or form chronic seromas.To review

2013 The Spine Journal

833. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells exert antiinflammatory effects on chondrocytes and synoviocytes from osteoarthritis patients through prostaglandin e2. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells exert antiinflammatory effects on chondrocytes and synoviocytes from osteoarthritis patients through prostaglandin e2. To examine the effect of different sources of good manufacturing practice clinical grade adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on inflammatory factors in osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes and synoviocytes.AD-MSCs from infrapatellar Hoffa fat, subcutaneous (SC) hip fat, and SC abdominal fat were cocultured in Transwells (...) with chondrocytes or synoviocytes. Inflammatory factors (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6, CXCL1/growth-related oncogene α, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein 1, CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and CCL5/RANTES) were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or multiplex bead-based immunoassay. The role of different immunomodulators was analyzed.All the inflammatory factors analyzed were down-modulated at the messenger RNA or protein level

2013 Arthritis and Rheumatism

834. The adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in end-stage renal disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

renal disease and 23 kidney donors. Blood and tissue samples were obtained at kidney transplantation and donation. The mean plasma adiponectin level was significantly increased to 15.6 mg/ml in cases compared with 8.4 mg/ml in controls. Plasma levels of the inflammatory adipokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly higher in cases compared with controls. Adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat were

2013 Kidney International

835. Differential dose effect of fish oil on inflammation and adipose tissue gene expression in chronic kidney disease patients. (Abstract)

. Serum adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α were not modified in either group. Interleukin-6 levels tended to decrease with 1.8 g of ω-3 PUFA. Additionally, a subset of inflammation-related genes (CD68 and MMP9) was reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue in this group. Adiponectin, leptin, and adipoR2 gene expression were upregulated with 3.6 g of ω-3 PUFA.A moderate dose of FO alters the gene expression profile of adipose tissue to a more antiinflammatory status (...) patients with stage IV/V CKD were randomly allocated to receive 1.8 g or 3.6 g/d of ω-3 PUFA for 10 wk. Metabolic parameters, adipose tissue function, and gene expression were evaluated at baseline and 10 wk.Body weight, fat mass, energy intake, fasting glucose, and insulin were unchanged. The daily intake of 3.6 g of ω-3 PUFA resulted in decreased serum triacylglycerol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased with 1.8 g of ω-3 PUFA

2013 Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

836. Mechanisms underlying the onset of oral lipid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance in humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-C18:2 DAG species doubled after iv fat and correlated with PKCθ activation after po fat, whereas ceramides were unchanged. Only after LPS, circulating inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist), their mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and circulating cortisol were elevated. Po fat ingestion rapidly induces insulin resistance by reducing nonoxidative glucose disposal, which associates with PKCθ activation and a rise in distinct (...) Mechanisms underlying the onset of oral lipid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance in humans. Several mechanisms, such as innate immune responses via Toll-like receptor-4, accumulation of diacylglycerols (DAG)/ceramides, and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), are considered to underlie skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In this study, we examined initial events occurring during the onset of insulin resistance upon oral high-fat loading compared with lipid and low-dose endotoxin

2013 Diabetes

837. Health Effects of Resistance Training on Postmenopausal Women

] Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the volume of total (TAT), subcutaneous (SCAT) and visceral (VAT) white adipose tissue (Dahlqvist Leinhard 2008); the concentration of lipids diffusively stored in the liver parenchyma, and the volume of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) in the quadriceps muscle will be quantified. Furthermore, the MRI images will be used to quantify the volume of and fat concentration in supraclavicular and interscapular brown adipose tissue according to our recently (...) of fat), diagnostic variables (production of myokines as irisin, immunological markers) and genetic variables (length of telomeres). The control group will be offered resistance training after the intervention period. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Hot Flashes Menopause Other: Resistance training Not Applicable Detailed Description: The first phase is planned as a pilot-study including 20 women participating for 15 weeks. Thereafter an evaluation of the sample size and the study

2013 Clinical Trials

838. Effects of Microcurrent in a Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Home-based Program

of Cardiac Rehabilitation Home-based Program ] It was measured subcutaneous, visceral and total abdominal fat. Secondary Outcome Measures : Bioimpedance values [ Time Frame: Change from Baseline in Bioimpedance values at 8 weeks of Cardiac Rehabilitation Home-Based Program and 4 Weeks After Finishing the Protocol ] I twas used a bioimpedance scale (BIO) InnerScan Tanita, TBF-300A, which uses four electrodes (two on each foot) for the passage of an electric current. People were told to undress her clothes (...) among children and adults, as well as changing the metabolic profile: when occurs an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue (mainly central distribution) there are a set of changes / adjustments to the cardiac structure and function. The electrical stimulation of abdominal subcutaneous (electrolipolysis) is a procedure often used in physical therapy clinics to reduce waist circumference. However, the effectiveness of this intervention, the selection of parameters, and the duration of its effects

2013 Clinical Trials

839. Vascular Inflammation in Psoriasis

Primary Completion Date : August 8, 2016 Actual Study Completion Date : October 27, 2016 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Single-Arm, open-label extension trial Single-arm, open label extension trial to continue treatment with Humira (Adalimumab) subcutaneous injection 80mg initial dose followed by 40mg maintenance dose every other week for up to 52 weeks. Drug: Adalimumab Study (...) or phototherapy in the VIP Trial, additional 12 weeks added to the time frame for a total of 64 weeks (crossover group). Change in Cardiometabolic Biomarker - Log Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha [ Time Frame: 52 weeks (continuation group) or 64 weeks (crossover group) ] Change in metabolic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarker levels between week 52 of the adalimumab treatment period and baseline assessments from the VIP trial - Log Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha If subjects were randomized to adalimumab in the VIP

2013 Clinical Trials

840. Hypothermia for Encephalopathy in Low Income Countries-Feasibilty

feasibility of whole body cooling within six hours of birth in infants with neonatal encephalopathy Secondary Outcome Measures : Short term morbidity [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ] Short-term neonatal morbidity - Hypotension requiring inotropes, cardiac arrhythmias (other than bradycardia), coagulopathy/thrombocytopenia requiring blood products, respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support, seizures, and subcutaneous fat necrosis. Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine

2013 Clinical Trials

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