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Steroid Hormone Pathway

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1. The Steroid Hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone Enhances Gene Transcription through the cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Signaling Pathway (PubMed)

The Steroid Hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone Enhances Gene Transcription through the cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Signaling Pathway Animal steroid hormones regulate gene transcription through genomic pathways by binding to nuclear receptors. These steroid hormones also rapidly increase intracellular calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and activate the protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) nongenomic pathways. However, the function and mechanism (...) of the nongenomic pathways of the steroid hormones are unclear, and the relationship between the PKC and PKA pathways is also unclear. We propose that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) activates the PKA pathway to enhance 20E-induced gene transcription in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera The expression of the catalytic subunit 1 of PKA (PKAC1) increased during metamorphosis, and PKAC1 knockdown blocked pupation and repressed 20E-responsive gene expression. 20E regulated PKAC1

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2016 The Journal of biological chemistry

2. Steroid Hormone Pathway

Steroid Hormone Pathway Steroid Hormone Pathway Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Steroid Hormone Pathway Steroid (...) Hormone Pathway Aka: Steroid Hormone Pathway , Sex Hormone Synthesis , Cortisol Synthesis , Aldosterone Synthesis II. Physiology is precursor for 5 steroid hormone classes Progestagens (e.g. ) Glucocorticoids (e.g. Cortisol) Mineralcorticoids (e.g. Aldosterone) Androgens (e.g. Testosterone) s Synthesis sites Adrenal cortex: Glucocorticoids, Mineralcorticoids Women Corpus luteum: Progestagens : s Men : Testosterone Conditions related to enzyme deficiencies 21-Hydroxylase deficiency is most common III

2018 FP Notebook

3. The influence of sex steroid hormones on the response to trauma and burn injury (PubMed)

The influence of sex steroid hormones on the response to trauma and burn injury Trauma and related sequelae result in disturbance of homeostatic mechanisms frequently leading to cellular dysfunction and ultimately organ and system failure. Regardless of the type and severity of injury, gender dimorphism in outcomes following trauma have been reported, with females having lower mortality than males, suggesting that sex steroid hormones (SSH) play an important role in the response of body systems (...) to trauma. In addition, several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated the effects of SSH on the clinical course and outcomes following injury. Animal studies have reported the ability of SSH to modulate immune, inflammatory, metabolic and organ responses following traumatic injury. This indicates that homeostatic mechanisms, via direct and indirect pathways, can be maintained by SSH at local and systemic levels and hence result in more favourable prognosis. Here, we discuss the role

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2017 Burns & trauma

4. Genetic Variation in Steroid and Xenobiotic Metabolizing Pathways and Enterolactone Excretion Before and After Flaxseed Intervention in African American and European American Women. (PubMed)

Genetic Variation in Steroid and Xenobiotic Metabolizing Pathways and Enterolactone Excretion Before and After Flaxseed Intervention in African American and European American Women. Metabolism and excretion of the phytoestrogen enterolactone (ENL), which has been associated with breast cancer risk, may be affected by variation in steroid hormone and xenobiotic-metabolizing genes.We conducted a randomized, crossover flaxseed intervention study in 252 healthy, postmenopausal women [137 European (...) ancestry (EA) and 115 African ancestry (AA)] from western New York. Participants were randomly assigned to maintain usual diet or consume 10 g/day ground flaxseed for 6 weeks. After a 2-month washout period, participants crossed over to the other diet condition for an additional 6 weeks. Urinary ENL excretion was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 70 polymorphisms in 29 genes related to steroid hormone and xenobiotic metabolism were genotyped. Mixed additive genetic models were

2019 Cancer Epidemiology & Biomarkers and Prevention

5. Smoking, Sex, and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Steroid Hormone Receptors in Tumor Tissue (S0424). (PubMed)

Smoking, Sex, and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Steroid Hormone Receptors in Tumor Tissue (S0424). To what extent steroid hormones contribute to lung cancer in male and female never smokers and smokers is unclear. We examined expression of hormone receptors in lung tumors by sex and smoking.Patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer were recruited into an Intergroup study in the United States and Canada, led by SWOG (S0424). Tumors from 813 cases (450 women and 363 men) were assayed using (...) ] = 1.15 to 2.58, and HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.08 to 2.33, respectively; quartiles 4 vs 1).Lower expression of nuclear ER-β in women supports the estrogen hypothesis in lung cancer etiology. Increasing cytoplasmic ER-α and ER-β and decreasing PR protein expression may be mechanisms whereby smoking disrupts hormone pathways.

2018 Journal of the National Cancer Institute

6. An intrinsic tumour eviction mechanism in Drosophila mediated by steroid hormone signalling (PubMed)

An intrinsic tumour eviction mechanism in Drosophila mediated by steroid hormone signalling Polycomb group proteins are epigenetic regulators maintaining transcriptional memory during cellular proliferation. In Drosophila larvae, malfunction of Polyhomeotic (Ph), a member of the PRC1 silencing complex, results in neoplastic growth. Here, we report an intrinsic tumour suppression mechanism mediated by the steroid hormone ecdysone during metamorphosis. Ecdysone alters neoplastic growth (...) into a nontumorigenic state of the mutant ph cells which then become eliminated during adult stage. We demonstrate that ecdysone exerts this function by inducing a heterochronic network encompassing the activation of the microRNA lethal-7, which suppresses its target gene chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis. This pathway can also promote remission of brain tumours formed in brain tumour mutants, revealing a restraining of neoplastic growth in different tumour types. Given the conserved role of let-7

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2018 Nature communications

7. MicroRNA Dysregulation and Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression in Uterine Tissues of Rats with Endometriosis during the Implantation Window (PubMed)

MicroRNA Dysregulation and Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression in Uterine Tissues of Rats with Endometriosis during the Implantation Window Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are involved in endometriosis, but the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) is unknown. The aim of the study was to explore the correlation between miRNA and ER/PR in uterine tissues of rats with endometriosis during the implantation window.Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized in three groups (...) and normal control groups, with 127 being upregulated and 348 being downregulated. Expression of five miRNAs (rno-miR-29c-3p, rno-miR-34c-5p, rno-miR-141-5p, rno-miR-24-1-5p, and rno-miR-490-5p) were validated by RT-PCR and found to be differentially expressed among the three groups. Expression of ER and PR proteins (immunohistochemistry) in the glandular epithelium and endometrial stroma was significantly different among the three groups (all P < 0.05). Five miRNAs were involved in pathways probably

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2018 Chinese medical journal

8. Neurosteroid Metabolites of Gonadal Steroid Hormones in Neuroprotection: Implications for Sex Differences in Neurodegenerative Disease (PubMed)

Neurosteroid Metabolites of Gonadal Steroid Hormones in Neuroprotection: Implications for Sex Differences in Neurodegenerative Disease Gonadal steroid hormones are neurotrophic and neuroprotective. These effects are modulated by local metabolism of the hormones within the brain. Such control is necessary to maintain normal function, as several signaling pathways that are activated by gonadal steroid hormones in the brain can also become dysregulated in disease. Metabolites of the gonadal (...) steroid hormones-particularly 3α-hydroxy, 5α-reduced neurosteroids-are synthesized in the brain and can act through different mechanisms from their parent steroids. These metabolites may provide a mechanism for modulating the responses to their precursor hormones, thereby providing a regulatory influence on cellular responses. In addition, there is evidence that the 3α-hydroxy, 5α-reduced neurosteroids are neuroprotective in their own right, and therefore may contribute to the overall protection

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

9. Sex steroid hormones and brain function: PET imaging as a tool for research (PubMed)

in the brain, to measure a key enzyme in the steroid synthesis pathway (aromatase) and to evaluate the effects of hormonal treatment by imaging specific downstream processes in the brain. Although validated radiotracers for a number of targets are still warranted, PET can already be a useful technique for steroid hormone research and facilitate the translation of interesting findings in animal studies to clinical trials in patients.© 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley (...) Sex steroid hormones and brain function: PET imaging as a tool for research Sex steroid hormones are major regulators of sexual characteristic among species. These hormones, however, are also produced in the brain. Steroidal hormone-mediated signalling via the corresponding hormone receptors can influence brain function at the cellular level and thus affect behaviour and higher brain functions. Altered steroid hormone signalling has been associated with psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety

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2018 Journal of neuroendocrinology

10. Coping with the New Era: Noise and Light Pollution, Hperactivity and Steroid Hormones. Towards an Evolutionary View of Bipolar Disorders (PubMed)

Coping with the New Era: Noise and Light Pollution, Hperactivity and Steroid Hormones. Towards an Evolutionary View of Bipolar Disorders Human population is increasing in immense cities with millions of inhabitants, in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on many metabolic (...) pathways. Suppression of melatonin incretion at night and the subsequent effect on DNA methylation may increase the risk of prostate and breast cancer. A negative impact of light pollution on neurosteroids may also affect mood. People who carry the genetic risk of bipolar disorder may be at greater risk of full-blown bipolar disorder because of the impact of noise and light pollution on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. However, living in cities may also offers opportunities and might

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2018 Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health : CP & EMH

11. Body size regulation by maturation steroid hormones: a Drosophila perspective (PubMed)

Body size regulation by maturation steroid hormones: a Drosophila perspective The mechanism that determines the specific body size of an animal is a fundamental biological question that remains largely unanswered. This aspect is now beginning to be understood in insect models, particularly in Drosophila melanogaster, with studies highlighting the importance of nutrient-responsive growth signaling pathways involving insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR (...) ) (IIS/TOR). These pathways operate in animals, from insects to mammals, adjusting the growth rate in response to the nutritional condition of the organism. Organismal growth is closely coupled with the process of developmental maturation mediated by maturation steroid hormones, which is influenced greatly by environmental and nutritional conditions. Recent Drosophila studies have been revealing the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon. In this review, I summarize some important findings about

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2018 Frontiers in zoology

12. "Deciphering Steroid Receptor Crosstalk in Hormone-Driven Cancers". (PubMed)

"Deciphering Steroid Receptor Crosstalk in Hormone-Driven Cancers". Steroid hormone receptors (SRs) have a multitude of functions in human biology and disease progression. The SR family of related ligand-activated transcription factors includes androgen, estrogen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and progesterone receptors. Antiestrogen or estrogen receptor (ER)-targeted therapies to block ER action remain the primary treatment of luminal breast cancers. Although this strategy is successful (...) , ∼40% of patients eventually relapse due to endocrine resistance. The majority of hormone-independent tumors retain some level of SR expression, but sidestep hormone ablation treatments. SRs are known to crosstalk extensively with kinase signaling pathways, and this interplay has been shown to bypass ER-targeted therapies in part by providing alternative proliferation and survival signals that enable hormone independence. Modified receptors adopt alternate conformations that resist antagonism

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2018 Endocrinology

13. Circulating and intraprostatic sex steroid hormonal profiles in relation to male pattern baldness and chest hair density among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancers. (PubMed)

that balding status assessed at a mean age of 60 years may serve as a clinical marker for circulating sex hormone concentrations. The weak-to-null associations between balding status and intraprostatic sex hormones reaffirm differences in organ-specific sex hormone metabolism, implying that other sex steroid hormone-related factors (eg, androgen receptor) play important roles in organ-specific androgenic actions, and that other overlapping pathways may be involved in associations between the two complex (...) Circulating and intraprostatic sex steroid hormonal profiles in relation to male pattern baldness and chest hair density among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancers. Prospective cohort studies of circulating sex steroid hormones and prostate cancer risk have not provided a consistent association, despite evidence from animal and clinical studies. However, studies using male pattern baldness as a proxy of early-life or cumulative androgen exposure have reported significant associations

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2017 Prostate

14. Circulating steroid hormone variations throughout different stages of prostate cancer. (PubMed)

Circulating steroid hormone variations throughout different stages of prostate cancer. Steroid hormones play a central role in the maintenance and progression of prostate cancer. The androgen receptor is the primary driver of tumor cell proliferation and is activated by the androgens testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Inhibition of this pathway through medical or surgical castration improves survival in the majority of advanced prostate cancer patients. However, conversion of adrenal (...) androgen precursors and alternative steroidogenic pathways have been found to contribute to tumor progression and resistance to treatment. The emergence of highly accurate detection methods allows us to study steroidogenic mechanisms in more detail, even after treatment with potent steroidogenic inhibitors such as the CYP17A1 inhibitor abiraterone. A clear overview of steroid hormone levels in patients throughout the local, metastatic and castration-resistant stages of prostate cancer and treatment

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2017 Endocrine-Related Cancer

15. Rapid and reliable steroid hormone profiling in Tursiops truncatus blubber using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (PubMed)

using immunoassay methods (< 15%). The method was successfully applied to remote biopsied blubber samples to measure baseline hormone concentrations. Through this method, increased coverage of steroid hormone pathways from a single remotely collected sample potentially enhances the ability to interpret biological phenomena such as reproduction and stress in wild dolphin populations. Graphical abstract The steroid hormone profile is quantifiable from a single sample of bottlenose dolphin blubber (...) Rapid and reliable steroid hormone profiling in Tursiops truncatus blubber using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) Monitoring of marine mammal steroid hormone status using matrices alternative to blood is desirable due to the ability to remotely collect samples, which minimizes stress to the animal. However, measurement techniques in alternative matrices such as blubber described to date are limited in the number and types of hormones measured. Therefore, a new method

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2017 Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

16. Sex Steroid Hormones Regulate Leptin Transcript Accumulation and Protein Secretion in 3T3-L1 Cells (PubMed)

encoding leptin and increased secreted leptin to 230% of the control. Treatment with estrogen and androgen receptor antagonists had opposite effects on Lep transcript abundance to steroid treatments, indicating that these transcriptional effects are mediated through the canonical steroid hormone signaling pathways. These results indicate that short-term treatments with steroid hormones are sufficient to alter both Lep transcript accumulation and leptin protein secretion, and may play a role (...) Sex Steroid Hormones Regulate Leptin Transcript Accumulation and Protein Secretion in 3T3-L1 Cells Leptin is an adipokine produced by fat cells that regulates food consumption and metabolic activity. Sexual dimorphism in leptin and fat stores have been observed in humans and rodents with females having more leptin and greater levels of subcutaneous fat than males. One potential mechanism leading to this dimorphism is steroid hormone regulated synthesis of transcripts encoding leptin

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2017 Scientific reports

17. Steroid hormone profiling in obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PubMed)

Steroid hormone profiling in obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome The study explored differences in the steroidogenic pathway between obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 1044 women with PCOS (including 350 lean, 312 overweight and 382 obese) and 366 control women without PCOS (including 203 lean, 32 overweight and 131 obese) were enrolled. The differences in steroid hormones were (...) may play different roles in lean and obese PCOS patients, which represents as different enzyme activity in the steroidogenic pathway.

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2017 Scientific reports

18. Phospholipase Cγ1 Connects the Cell Membrane Pathway to the Nuclear Receptor Pathway in Insect Steroid Hormone Signaling (PubMed)

Phospholipase Cγ1 Connects the Cell Membrane Pathway to the Nuclear Receptor Pathway in Insect Steroid Hormone Signaling In addition to the classical nuclear receptor pathway, there is a nongenomic pathway in the cell membrane that regulates gene expression in animal steroid hormone signaling; however, this mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates calcium influx via phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCG1) to modulate the protein kinase C

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2014 The Journal of biological chemistry

19. The Steroid Hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone Promotes the Cytoplasmic Localization of Yorkie to Suppress Cell Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis (PubMed)

The Steroid Hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone Promotes the Cytoplasmic Localization of Yorkie to Suppress Cell Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis The transcriptional co-activator Yki (Yorkie), a member of the Hippo pathway, regulates cell proliferation or apoptosis, depending on its nuclear or cytoplasmic location. However, the upstream factors regulating the subcellular localization of Yki are unclear. We found that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induces phosphorylation of Yki, causing

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2016 The Journal of biological chemistry

20. Effects of sex steroid hormones on neuromedin S and neuromedin U2 receptor expression following experimental traumatic brain injury (PubMed)

Effects of sex steroid hormones on neuromedin S and neuromedin U2 receptor expression following experimental traumatic brain injury Neuroprotective effects of female gonadal steroids are mediated through several pathways involving multiple peptides and receptors after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Two of these peptides are including the regulatory peptides neuromedin U (NMU) and neuromedin S (NMS), and their common receptor neuromedin U2 receptor (NMUR2). This study investigates the effects (...) of physiological doses of estradiol and progesterone on brain edema, NMS and NMU as well as NMUR2 expression following TBI.Ovariectomized female rats were given high-and low-dose of female sex steroid hormones through implantation of capsules for a week before trauma. The brain NMUR2 expression, prepro-NMS expression, NMU content, and water content (brain edema) were evaluated 24 hr after TBI induced by Marmarou's method.Percentage of brain water content in high- and low-dose estradiol, and in high- and low

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2016 Iranian journal of basic medical sciences

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