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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

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121. Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds induce apoptotic and autophagic cell death via generation of reactive oxygen species in squamous cell carcinoma cells (PubMed)

Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds induce apoptotic and autophagic cell death via generation of reactive oxygen species in squamous cell carcinoma cells Procyanidins can inhibit cell proliferation and tumorigenesis and induce apoptosis in human skin, breast and prostate carcinoma cell lines. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is a common form of keratinocytic or non-melanoma skin cancer and is a deadly disease with a poor prognosis due to the ineffectiveness of therapy. The present (...) study aimed to determine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) may regulate different modes of cell death in the human SCC12 cell line. The present study found that the treatment of SCC12 cells with GSP inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the motility and invasiveness of SCC12 cells through suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 expression. GSP treatment also resulted in induction of apoptosis and autophagy via generation of reactive oxygen species. The inhibition

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2017 Oncology letters

122. Upregulated Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Receptors in Mucosae of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Patients with a History of Alcohol Consumption or Smoking. (PubMed)

Upregulated Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Receptors in Mucosae of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Patients with a History of Alcohol Consumption or Smoking. Transient receptor potential cation channel (subfamily V, members 1-4) (TRPV1-4) are expressed in skin and neurons and activated by external stimuli in normal mucosae of all oral cavity sites. The oral cavity is exposed to various stimuli, including temperature, mechanical stimuli (...) , chemical substances, and changes in pH, and, notably, the risk factors for oncogenic transformation in oral squamous epithelium are the same as the external stimuli received by TRPV1-4 receptors. Hence, we examined the relationship between oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and TRPV1-4 expression.Oral SCC patients (n = 37) who underwent surgical resection were included in this study. We investigated the expression of TRPV1-4 by immunohistochemical staining and quantification of TRPV1-4 mRNA in human

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2017 PLoS ONE

123. Lung squamous cell carcinoma with brachial soft tissue metastasis responsive to gefitinib: Report of a rare case (PubMed)

Lung squamous cell carcinoma with brachial soft tissue metastasis responsive to gefitinib: Report of a rare case Metastasis of lung cancer to soft tissue is rare and patient outcomes are generally poor. There are no reports describing soft tissue metastasis in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), in which gefitinib treatment was effective not only for the primary tumor but also the metastatic lesion. A 61-year-old Asian woman presented to our facility with pain and a mass in the brachium (...) and the primary tumor, followed by healing of the wound. Therefore, tyrosine kinase inhibitors should be used for cases that present EGFR activating mutations independently from the presence of skin and soft tissue metastases.© 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

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2016 Thoracic cancer

124. Presence of the Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma combined with squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with chronic arsenism. (PubMed)

Presence of the Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma combined with squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with chronic arsenism. We present a case of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) coincident with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on the breast of a woman with chronic arsenism. This case demonstrates the distinct association of chronic arsenism with two different primary cutaneous carcinomas. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) was identified in the lesional skin of the MCC

2016 Clinical & Experimental Dermatology

125. British Association of Dermatologists' guidelines for the management of squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen's disease)

The treatment ?eld included about 1 cm of normal skin, and the treatment required local anaes- thesia. Hyperthermic treatment was performed using dispos- able chemical pocket warmers applied under pressure during waking hours for 4–5 months. 114 There was initial clinical clearance in 75% of patients (six of eight), but histological clearance was con?rmed in only three patients. 12.0 Specialized or dif?cult areas 12.1 Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the nail unit Squamous cell carcinoma in situ can (...) HW. Bowen’s disease: a four-year retrospective review of epidemiology and treatment at a univer- sity center. Dermatol Surg 2008; 34:878–83. 12 Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Selva D et al. Cutaneous squamous carci- noma in situ (Bowen’s disease): treatment with Mohs micro- graphic surgery. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52:997–1002. 13 Foo CC, Lee JS, Guilanno V et al. Squamous cell carcinoma and Bowen’s disease of the skin in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2007; 36:189–93. 14 Kossard S, Rosen R

2014 British Association of Dermatologists

126. Drp1 regulates mitochondrial morphology and cell proliferation in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. (PubMed)

Drp1 regulates mitochondrial morphology and cell proliferation in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) mediates mitochondrial fission. Recently, several studies have shown that Drp1 plays an important role in some cancers. However, little is known about Drp1 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).To investigate the role of Drp1 in the tumorigenesis of cutaneous SCCs.We investigated cell proliferation, cell cycle, mitochondrial morphology, and MAPK signaling (...) pathway using cutaneous SCC A431 and DJM1 cells that were transfected with shRNA vectors targeting Drp1. The Drp1 gene-knockdown SCC cells showed lower cell proliferation than scramble-control cells, as assessed by direct cell counting and clonogenic assays. DNA content analysis showed Drp1 knockdown to cause G2/M arrest. Morphologically, the depletion of Drp1 resulted in an elongated, hyper-fused mitochondrial network. The MEK inhibitor PD325901 suppressed cell proliferation, as well as inhibiting

2017 Journal of dermatological science

127. PCTAIRE1/CDK16/PCTK1 is overexpressed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and regulates p27 stability and cell cycle. (PubMed)

PCTAIRE1/CDK16/PCTK1 is overexpressed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and regulates p27 stability and cell cycle. PCTAIRE1 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase 16 (Cdk16) and PCTK1) is a Cdk family protein that has been implicated in spermatogenesis. We recently revealed the function of PCTAIRE1 in the tumorigenesis of malignancies, including breast and prostate cancers; however, the tumorigenic function of PCTAIRE1 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains unclear.In this study (...) , we investigated the role of PCTAIRE1 in the tumorigenesis of cutaneous SCCs.In cutaneous/oral SCC A431, DJM-1, HSC-3 cells, PCTAIRE1 gene-knockdown was found to diminish cell proliferation as assessed by cell counting and clonogenic assays. FACS analyses of annexin V-PI staining and DNA content showed PCTAIRE1 knockdown to cause G2/M arrest followed by apoptosis. The depletion of PCTAIRE1 was found to lead to the accumulation of tumor suppressor p27 and down-regulation of c-Myc. In tumor

2017 Journal of dermatological science

128. Arenobufagin activates p53 to trigger esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo (PubMed)

Arenobufagin activates p53 to trigger esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is often diagnosed at late incurable stage and lacks effective treatment strategy. Bufadienolides are cardiotonic steroids isolated from the skin and parotid venom glands of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor with novel anticancer activity. However, there is little information about the effects and action mechanisms of bufadienolides on ESCC (...) cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-ESCC activities of bufadienolides, including bufalin (Bu) and arenobufagin (ArBu), were examined and the underlying molecular mechanisms were elucidated. The results showed that ArBu exhibited higher anticancer efficacy than Bu against a panel of five ESCC cells, with IC50 values ranging from 0.8 μM to 3.6 μM. However, ArBu showed lower toxicity toward Het-1A human normal esophageal squamous cells, indicating its great selectivity between cancer

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2017 OncoTargets and therapy

129. Fluorouracil enhances photodynamic therapy of squamous cell carcinoma via a p53 -independent mechanism that increases protoporphyrin IX levels and tumor cell death (PubMed)

Fluorouracil enhances photodynamic therapy of squamous cell carcinoma via a p53 -independent mechanism that increases protoporphyrin IX levels and tumor cell death Photodynamic therapy (PDT), using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to drive synthesis of protoporphryin IX (PpIX) is a promising, scar-free alternative to surgery for skin cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and SCC precursors called actinic keratoses. In the United States, PDT is only FDA approved for treatment of actinic (...) keratoses; this narrow range of indications could be broadened if PDT efficacy were improved. Toward that goal, we developed a mechanism-based combination approach using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as a neoadjuvant for ALA-based PDT. In mouse models of SCC (orthotopic UV-induced lesions, and subcutaneous A431 and 4T1 tumors), pretreatment with 5-FU for 3 days followed by ALA for 4 hours led to large, tumor-selective increases in PpIX levels, and enhanced cell death upon illumination. Several mechanisms were

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2017 Molecular cancer therapeutics

130. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma (PubMed)

The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive (...) and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also

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2017 Contemporary Oncology

131. Glycogen-Rich Clear Cell Squamous Cell Carcinoma Originating in the Oral Cavity (PubMed)

Glycogen-Rich Clear Cell Squamous Cell Carcinoma Originating in the Oral Cavity Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (CCSCC) is a rare histological subtype of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that was originally described in the skin. Here, we report a case of a 66-year-old female patient who presented with a fungating ulcerative mass of the left lateral tongue extending anteriorly to the floor of the mouth, and posteriorly to the left retromolar fossa and the oropharynx. The patient had a history (...) ) were negative. PAS stain was diffusely positive and diastase labile in the tumor clear cells. Sparse areas of mucicarmine positivity were noted. Based on these findings a final diagnosis of a glycogen-rich CCSCC was given. This case represents a very rare histological variant of oral SCC, which is significant for the histological differential diagnosis of clear cell tumors of the oral cavity.

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2017 Head and neck pathology

132. Tumor cell-specific AIM2 regulates growth and invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (PubMed)

Tumor cell-specific AIM2 regulates growth and invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common metastatic skin cancer. Inflammation is a typical feature in cSCC progression. Analysis of the expression of inflammasome components in cSCC cell lines and normal human epidermal keratinocytes revealed upregulation of the expression of AIM2 mRNA and protein in cSCC cells. Elevated levels of AIM2 mRNA were noted in cSCCs in vivo compared (...) with normal skin. Strong and moderate tumor cell specific expression of AIM2 was detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC) in sporadic human cSCCs in vivo, whereas expression of AIM2 was moderate in cSCC in situ (cSCCIS) and low or absent in actinic keratosis (AK) and normal skin. IHC of cSCCs, cSCCIS and AKs from organ transplant recipients also revealed strong and moderate tumor cell specific expression of AIM2 in cSCCs. Knockdown of AIM2 resulted in reduction in viability of cSCC cells and onset

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2017 Oncotarget

133. Naproxen Inhibits UVB-induced Basal Cell and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development in Ptch1+/−/SKH-1 hairless mice (PubMed)

Naproxen Inhibits UVB-induced Basal Cell and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development in Ptch1+/−/SKH-1 hairless mice Naproxen possesses anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects besides its known anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer effects of naproxen against UVB-induced basal cell carcinoma (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCCs) in a highly susceptible murine model of UVB carcinogenesis. Naproxen significantly inhibited UVB-induced BCCs and SCCs in this model (...) inhibitor of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. ER stress pathway protein CHOP may play an important role in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.© 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

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2017 Photochemistry and photobiology

134. A new long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is induced in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and down-regulates several anticancer and cell differentiation genes in mouse (PubMed)

A new long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is induced in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and down-regulates several anticancer and cell differentiation genes in mouse Keratinocyte-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common metastatic skin cancer. Although some of the early events involved in this pathology have been identified, the subsequent steps leading to tumor development are poorly defined. We demonstrate here that the development of mouse tumors induced (...) by the concomitant application of a carcinogen and a tumor promoter (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), respectively) is associated with the up-regulation of a previously uncharacterized long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), termed AK144841. We found that AK144841 expression was absent from normal skin and was specifically stimulated in tumors and highly tumorigenic cells. We also found that AK144841 exists in two variants, one consisting of a large 2-kb transcript

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2017 The Journal of biological chemistry

135. The research on lapatinib in autophagy, cell cycle arrest and epithelial to mesenchymal transition via Wnt/ErK/PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (PubMed)

The research on lapatinib in autophagy, cell cycle arrest and epithelial to mesenchymal transition via Wnt/ErK/PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) contributes to one of most common types of skin cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has been investigated to be associated with the development of cSCC. Lapatinib is an inhibitor targeting HER2/neu and EGFR pathway. We found that lapatinib can inhibit (...) proliferation by enhancing apoptosis of human cSCC cell lines. The cSCC cell cycle distribution could be arrested in G2/M phase after lapatinib treatment. In the in vitro experiment, we found that lapatinib interrupted PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in human cSCC cells. Furthermore, lapatinib could suppress epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) via Wnt/ErK/PI3K-AKT signaling pathway to represent a promising anticancer drug for cSCC treatment.

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2017 Journal of Cancer

136. MicroRNA-31 functions as an oncogenic microRNA in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting RhoTBT1 (PubMed)

MicroRNA-31 functions as an oncogenic microRNA in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting RhoTBT1 Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a malignancy of epidermal keratinocytes that is responsible for ~20% of annual skin cancer-associated mortalities. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the dysregulation of micro (mi)RNAs serves a significant role in the tumorigenesis and progression of human cSCC. MicroRNA-31 (miR-31) is upregulated in cSCC and is involved in cSCC (...) development. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that miR-31 is upregulated in the cSCC cell line, A-431, and that miR-31 expression contributes to the cell proliferation and invasion of cSCC. In addition, bioinformatics combined with dual luciferase reporter analysis was applied to determine that the tumor suppressor RhoTBT1 was a direct target of miR-31. In addition, miR-31 mimics reduced RhoBTB1 expression in A-431 cells. The results of MTT and Transwell

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2017 Oncology letters

137. Herbacetin suppresses cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma cell growth by targeting AKT and ODC (PubMed)

Herbacetin suppresses cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma cell growth by targeting AKT and ODC Herbacetin is a flavonol compound that is found in plants such as flaxseed and ramose scouring rush herb, it possesses a strong antioxidant capacity, and exerts anticancer effects on colon and breast cancer. However, the effect of herbacetin on skin cancer has not been investigated. Herein, we identified herbacetin as a dual V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) and ornithine (...) decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor, and illustrated its anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo against cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma cell growth. To identify the direct target(s) of herbacetin, we screened several skin cancer-related protein kinases, and results indicated that herbacetin strongly suppresses both AKT and ODC activity. Results of cell-based assays showed that herbacetin binds to both AKT and ODC, inhibits TPA-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 mouse epidermal cells

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2017 Carcinogenesis

138. MicroRNA-34a directly targets high-mobility group box 1 and inhibits the cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (PubMed)

MicroRNA-34a directly targets high-mobility group box 1 and inhibits the cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is the second most common type of skin cancer with increasing incidence. In recent years, several microRNAs (miRs) have been demonstrated to serve an oncogenic or tumor suppressive role in CSCC. However, the exact role of miR-34a in CSCC and the underlying regulatory mechanism remain unclear (...) . The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory mechanism of miR-34a in the malignant phenotypes of CSCC cells using MTT assay, wound healing assay and transwell assay. It was observed that miR-34a was significantly downregulated in CSCC tissues and cell lines, and low miR-34a expression was associated with the aggressive progression of CSCC. Restoration of miR-34a significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of CSCC SCL-1 cells. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1

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2017 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

139. Spontaneous Development of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Mice with Cell-specific Deletion of Inhibitor of κB Kinase 2 (PubMed)

Spontaneous Development of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Mice with Cell-specific Deletion of Inhibitor of κB Kinase 2 The deletion of NFκB in epithelial tissues by using skin-specific promoters can cause both tumor formation and severe inflammatory dermatitis, indicating that this signaling pathway is important for the maintenance of immune homeostasis in epithelial tissues. In the present study, we crossed mice transgenic for loxP-Ikbk2 and human Gfap-cre to selectively delete IKK2 (...) in CNS astrocytes. Unexpectedly, a subset of mice developed severe and progressive skin lesions marked by hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, inflammation, and neoplasia with a subset of lesions diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The development of lesions was monitored over a 3.5-y period and over 4 filial generations. Average age of onset of was 4 mo of age with 19.5% of mice affected with frequency increasing in progressive generations. Lesion development appeared to correlate

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2017 Comparative medicine

140. Bufadienolides induce p53-mediated apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo (PubMed)

Bufadienolides induce p53-mediated apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo Bufadienolides are a type of cardiotonic steroids isolated from the skin and parotid venom glands of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, and exhibit wide-spectrum anticancer activities. However, the effects and mechanisms of bufadienolides on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells remain unknown. In the present study, the anticancer activities of two bufadienolides (...) , bufotalin and bufalin, were examined in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that bufotalin and bufalin effectively inhibited the viability of ESCC cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.8-3.6 µM. However, bufotalin and bufalin exhibited lower toxicity towards Het-1A human esophageal squamous cells, indicating their high selectivity towards cancer cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that bufotalin effectively induced ESCC cell apoptosis, as characterized by DNA

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2017 Oncology letters

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