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1681. Vitamin D Full Text available with Trip Pro

any effect from supplementation on the rates of disease, other than a tentative decrease in mortality in the elderly. Vitamin D supplements do not alter the outcomes for , or , cancer, or knee . Low vitamin D levels may result from disease rather than cause disease. A United States report states: "Outcomes related to , and , and and metabolic syndrome, falls and physical performance, immune functioning and , infections, neuropsychological functioning, and could not be linked reliably with calcium (...) deficient are at an increased risk of and/or major breaks, particularly those engaging in contact sports. The greatest benefit with supplementation is seen in athletes who are deficient (25(OH)D serum levels <30 ng/mL), or severely deficient (25(OH)D serum levels <25 ng/mL). Incremental decreases in risks are observed with rising serum 25(OH)D concentrations plateauing at 50 ng/mL with no additional benefits seen in levels beyond this point. ‹ The below ( ) is being considered for merging. See to help

2012 Wikipedia

1682. Vegetarianism

, the states that iron deficiency is no more common in vegetarians than non-vegetarians (adult males are rarely iron deficient); iron deficiency is rare no matter the diet. Vitamin B 12 According to the United States , is not generally present in plants and is naturally found in foods of animal origin. can obtain B 12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from (including some soy products and some breakfast cereals) and dietary supplements. Vitamin B 12 can also be obtained from fortified (...) that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels. [ ] Recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian DHA supplements containing seaweed extracts. Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain such as are good sources of (GLA), (ALA), (LA), (SDA), (EPA), (DHA), and (AA). Calcium intake in vegetarians and vegans can be similar to non-vegetarians, as long as the diet

2012 Wikipedia

1683. Veganism Full Text available with Trip Pro

or adolescents, or during pregnancy and . Vegan diets tend to be higher in , , , , , , and ; and lower in , , , , , , , and . Unbalanced vegan diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues. Some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of or the regular intake of . Vitamin B 12 supplementation is especially important because its causes blood disorders and potentially irreversible neurological damage. coined the term (...) of the population, and environmental concerns were a major factor in this development. However, doubt was cast on this inflated figure by the UK-based Vegan Society, who perform their own regular survey: the Vegan Society themselves found in 2018 that there were 600,000 vegans in Great Britain (1.16%), which is a dramatic increase on previous figures. : Estimates of vegans in the U.S. vary from 2% ( , 2012) to 0.5% (Faunalytics, 2014). According to the latter, 70% of those who adopted a vegan diet abandoned

2012 Wikipedia

1684. Treatment of ulcerative colitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

it might be well to inquire as to any family history of bipolar disorder. Corticosteroids should not be confused with , the controversial performance-building "steroids" that are banned in certain sports. The following corticosteroids are used as immune system suppressants in treatment of ulcerative colitis: , also known as Entocort, available for oral use or as an enema. Budesonide is metabolized faster than traditional steroids and appears to produce fewer systemic side effects. Immunosuppressive (...) Mesalazine or sulfasalazine along with topical Mesalazine or steroid enemas. Oral prednisone (40–60 mg/day) should be given only in severe cases or if oral Mesalazine fails. Once remission is induced, maintenance therapy is with standard oral Mesalazine doses. Supplemental iron ( or ) may be given due to chronic blood loss. may be given for symptomatic relief of chronic diarrhea, but should not be given in suspected toxic megacolon. Severe or fulminant colitis [ ] Severe or fulminant colitis . Patients

2012 Wikipedia

1685. Traumatic brain injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

be used. The most sensitive physical measure to date is the quantitative EEG, which has documented an 80% to 100% ability in discriminating between normal and traumatic brain-injured subjects. can be performed to evaluate the long-term and to aid in the planning of the . Instruments range from short measures of general mental functioning to complete batteries formed of different domain-specific . Prevention Protective sports equipment such as helmets can help to protect athletes from head injury (...) may result in further injury. These processes include alterations in and the . Some of the imaging techniques used for diagnosis include and (MRIs). Prevention measures include use of protective technology in vehicles, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of collisions, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws. Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications

2012 Wikipedia

1686. Knee replacement

mechanical axis and the center of the . It is normally between 1.0° and 1.5° of varus in adults. The patient is to perform range of motion exercises and hip, knee and ankle strengthening as directed daily. Before the surgery is performed, pre-operative tests are done: usually a , , and to measure , , , and blood for possible . About a month before the surgery, the patient may be prescribed supplemental iron to boost the hemoglobin in their blood system. Accurate X-rays of the affected knee are needed (...) Knee replacement Knee replacement - Wikipedia Knee replacement From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Knee replacement Knee replacement Other names Knee arthroplasty 0SRD0JZ [ ] Knee replacement , also known as knee , is a surgical procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve pain and disability. It is most commonly performed for , and also for other knee diseases such as and . In patients with severe deformity from advanced rheumatoid , trauma, or long-standing

2012 Wikipedia

1687. Myocardial infarction Full Text available with Trip Pro

high-risk scenarios, such as or may be used. There is varying evidence on the mortality benefits in NSTEMI. A 2014 review of P2Y12 inhibitors such as found they do not change the risk of death when given to people with a suspected NSTEMI prior to PCI, nor do heparins change the risk of death. They do decrease the risk of having a further myocardial infarction. Angiogram [ ] Primary (PCI) is the treatment of choice for STEMI if it can be performed in a timely manner, ideally within 90–120 minutes (...) of heart muscle large, and PCI is unsuitable, for example with difficult cardiac anatomy. After PCI, people are generally placed on indefinitely and on dual antiplatelet therapy (generally aspirin and ) for at least a year. Fibrinolysis [ ] If PCI cannot be performed within 90 to 120 minutes in STEMI then fibrinolysis, preferably within 30 minutes of arrival to hospital, is recommended. If a person has had symptoms for 12 to 24 hours evidence for effectiveness of thrombolysis is less and if they have

2012 Wikipedia

1688. Decompression sickness Full Text available with Trip Pro

a pressurized or a that has been pressurized to keep water out, they will experience a significant reduction in . A similar pressure reduction occurs when exit a space vehicle to perform a space-walk or , where the pressure in their is lower than the pressure in the vehicle. The original name for DCS was "caisson disease". This term was introduced in the 19th century, when caissons under pressure were used to keep water from flooding large engineering excavations below the , such as bridge supports (...) if a multiplace chamber is not available or transportation would cause significant delay in treatment, as the interval between onset of symptoms and recompression is important to the quality of recovery. It may be necessary to modify the optimum treatment schedule to allow use of a monoplace chamber, but this is usually better than delaying treatment. A US Navy treatment table 5 can be safely performed without air breaks if a built-in breathing system is not available. In most cases the patient can

2012 Wikipedia

1689. Concussion

injury: Results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury". Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine . 36 (Supplement 43): 28–60. : . . ^ Ropper AH, Gorson KC (2007). . New England Journal of Medicine . 356 (2): 166–72. : . . . ^ . www.nichd.nih.gov . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . ^ . www.nichd.nih.gov . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . ^ . www.nichd.nih.gov . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . . NICHD . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . ^ Halstead, ME; Walter, KD; Council on Sports (...) ): 1210–20. : . . ^ . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006 . Retrieved 2008-01-13 . (24 April 2014), , : an initiative of the , American Medical Society for Sports Medicine , retrieved 29 July 2014 ^ Borg J, Holm L, Cassidy JD, et al. (2004). "Diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury: Results of the WHO collaborating centre task force on mild traumatic brain injury". Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine . 36 (Supplement 43): 61–75. : . . ^ McCrory, P; Meeuwisse, W; Johnston, K

2012 Wikipedia

1690. Combined oral contraceptive pill Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Since it is not uncommon for menstruating women to become anemic, some placebo pills may contain an supplement. This replenishes iron stores that may become depleted during menstruation. No or less frequent placebos [ ] Main article: If the pill formulation is monophasic, meaning each hormonal pill contains a fixed dose of hormones, it is possible to skip withdrawal bleeding and still remain protected against conception by skipping the placebo pills altogether and starting directly with the next (...) bleeding. Public availability [ ] United States [ ] oral contraceptives, 1970s On June 10, 1957, the (FDA) approved Enovid 10 mg (9.85 mg noretynodrel and 150 µg mestranol) for menstrual disorders, based on data from its use by more than 600 women. Numerous additional contraceptive trials showed Enovid at 10, 5, and 2.5 mg doses to be highly effective. On July 23, 1959, filed a supplemental application to add contraception as an approved indication for 10, 5, and 2.5 mg doses of Enovid. The FDA refused

2012 Wikipedia

1691. Miscarriage

in sub-fertility and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Recurrent miscarriage is also related to obesity. Women with and may have a greater risk for miscarriage. Nutrient deficiencies have not been found to impact miscarriage rates but sometimes precedes a miscarriage. consumption also has been correlated to miscarriage rates, at least at higher levels of intake. However, such higher rates have been found to be statistically significant only in certain circumstances. Vitamin supplementation has (...) increases the risk of miscarriage. Progesterone has not been found to be effective in preventing miscarriage. use increases the rate of miscarriage. Some infections have been associated with miscarriage. These include , , , , and . Infections of , and have not been found to be linked to miscarriage. Diagnosis [ ] In the case of blood loss, pain, or both, is performed. If a viable intrauterine pregnancy is not found with ultrasound, blood tests (serial tests) can be performed to rule out ectopic

2012 Wikipedia

1692. Shoulder problem Full Text available with Trip Pro

spine disorders, heart attacks, peptic ulcer disease, and pneumonia. Standardized questionnaires like the Penn Shoulder Score that assess shoulder pain and function can aid in eliciting the required history to make a diagnosis and monitor condition progression. to feel for injury and discover the limits of movement, location of pain, and extent of joint instability. The steps to elicit this information are inspection (looking), palpation (feeling), testing range of motion, and performing special (...) are stretched and may tear due to dislocation. Torn ligaments and other problems resulting from dislocation can increase the chance of repeated dislocation. A shoulder that dislocates severely or often, injuring surrounding tissues or nerves, usually requires surgery to repair the damaged parts of the shoulder. Sometimes the doctor performs surgery through a tiny incision into which a small scope (arthroscope) is inserted to observe the inside of the joint. After this procedure, called arthroscopic surgery

2012 Wikipedia

1693. Methamphetamine

metabolites of methamphetamine are amphetamine and 4-hydroxymethamphetamine. , particularly , , and species, contribute to the metabolism of methamphetamine via an enzyme which N-demethylates methamphetamine and 4-hydroxymethamphetamine into amphetamine and 4-hydroxyamphetamine respectively. Detection in biological fluids Methamphetamine and amphetamine are often measured in urine or blood as part of a for sports, employment, poisoning diagnostics, and forensics. Chiral techniques may be employed to help (...) distinguish the source the drug to determine whether it was obtained illicitly or legally via prescription or prodrug. Chiral separation is needed to assess the possible contribution of , which is an active ingredients in some OTC nasal decongestants, toward a positive test result. Dietary zinc supplements can mask the presence of methamphetamine and other drugs in urine. Chemistry Pure shards of methamphetamine hydrochloride, also known as crystal meth Methamphetamine is a compound with two enantiomers

2012 Wikipedia

1694. Atrial fibrillation Full Text available with Trip Pro

is associated with an increased risk of AF compared to . In both men and women, the practice of moderate exercise reduces the risk of AF progressively, but intense sports may increase the risk of developing AF, as seen in . It is due to a remodelling of cardiac tissue, and an increase in vagal tone, which shortens the (ERP) favoring re-entries from the . High blood pressure [ ] According to CHARGE Consortium both systolic and diastolic pressure are predictors of the risk of AF. Systolic values close (...) examination, ECG, , , and serum level. Screening [ ] The found insufficient evidence to determine the usefulness of screening in 2018. Limited studies have suggested that screening for atrial fibrillation in those 65 years and older increases the number of cases of atrial fibrillation detected. Minimal evaluation [ ] In general, the minimal evaluation of atrial fibrillation should be performed in all individuals with AF. The goal of this evaluation is to determine the general treatment regimen

2012 Wikipedia

1695. Asthma Full Text available with Trip Pro

beta(2)-agonists have an ergogenic potential in non-asthmatic competitive athletes?". Sports Medicine . 37 (2): 95–102. : . . Pluim, B. M.; de Hon, O.; Staal, J. B.; Limpens, J.; Kuipers, H.; Overbeek, S. E.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Scholten, R. J. (Jan 1, 2011). "β₂-Agonists and physical performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Sports Medicine . 41 (1): 39–57. : . . ^ Baur, X.; Aasen, T. B.; Burge, P. S.; Heederik, D.; Henneberger, P. K.; Maestrelli, P (...) with the results. can help differentiate asthma from . It is reasonable to perform spirometry every one or two years to follow how well a person's asthma is controlled. Others The involves the inhalation of increasing concentrations of a substance that causes airway narrowing in those predisposed. If negative it means that a person does not have asthma; if positive, however, it is not specific for the disease. Other supportive evidence includes: a ≥20% difference in on at least three days in a week

2012 Wikipedia

1696. Assistive technology Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assistive technology Assistive technology - Wikipedia Assistive technology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Hearing aid Assistive technology is an that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for or elderly population while also including the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. People who have disabilities often have difficulty performing (ADLs) independently, or even with assistance. ADLs are self-care activities that include toileting, mobility (...) (ambulation), eating, bathing, dressing and grooming. Assistive technology can ameliorate the effects of disabilities that limit the ability to perform ADLs. Assistive technology promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the needed to accomplish such tasks. For example, wheelchairs provide independent mobility for those who cannot

2012 Wikipedia

1697. Artificial limb Full Text available with Trip Pro

. There is some research suggesting that such training in the home may be more successful if the treatment includes the use of a treadmill. Using a treadmill, along with the physical therapy treatment, helps the person to experience many of the challenges of walking with a prosthesis. In the United Kingdom, 75% of lower limb amputations are performed due to inadequate (dysvascularity). [ ] This condition is often associated with many other medical conditions ( ) including and that may make it a challenge (...) . Voluntary closing GRIPS require constant tension to grip, like a human hand, and in that property, they do come closer to matching human hand performance. Voluntary opening split hook users are limited to forces their rubber or springs can generate which usually is below 20 pounds. Feedback [ ] An additional difference exists in the biofeedback created that allows the user to "feel" what is being held. Voluntary opening systems once engaged provide the holding force so that they operate like a passive

2012 Wikipedia

1698. Body shaping

Body shaping Bariatric surgery - Wikipedia Bariatric surgery From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from ) "Obesity surgery" redirects here. For the medical journal, see . Bariatric surgery [ ] Bariatric surgery (or weight loss surgery ) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have . Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the with a or through removal of a portion of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (...) The percentage of procedures requiring reoperations due to complications was 15.3 percent for the gastric band, 7.7 percent for gastric bypass and 1.5 percent for sleeve gastrectomy” - American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery As the rate of complications appears to be reduced when the procedure is performed by an experienced surgeon, guidelines recommend that surgery be performed in dedicated or experienced units. It has been observed that the rate of leaks was greater in low volume centres

2012 Wikipedia

1699. Cerebral palsy

children with higher levels who cannot walk. This further affects a child's mobility, strength, experience of pain, and can lead to missed schooling or child abuse suspicions. These children generally have fractures in the legs, whereas non-affected children mostly fracture their arms in the context of sporting activities. Hip dislocation and ankle equinus or planter flexion deformity are the two most common deformities among children with cerebral palsy. Additionally, flexion deformity of the hip (...) person may perform. The -Expanded and Revised and the are used to describe mobility and manual dexterity in people with cerebral palsy, and recently the , and the have been proposed to describe those functions. There are three main CP classifications by motor impairment: spastic, ataxic, and athetoid/dyskinetic. Additionally, there is a mixed type that shows a combination of features of the other types. These classifications reflect the areas of the brain that are damaged. Cerebral palsy is also

2012 Wikipedia

1700. Cellular respiration Full Text available with Trip Pro

into the mitochondrion, but remains in the cytoplasm, where it is converted to that may be removed from the cell. This serves the purpose of oxidizing the electron carriers so that they can perform glycolysis again and removing the excess pyruvate. Fermentation oxidizes NADH to NAD+ so it can be re-used in glycolysis. In the absence of oxygen, fermentation prevents the buildup of NADH in the cytoplasm and provides NAD+ for glycolysis. This waste product varies depending on the organism. In skeletal muscles (...) be released by oxidation. , for example, can be burned in an internal combustion engine like gasoline. Glycolytic ATP, however, is created more quickly. For prokaryotes to continue a rapid growth rate when they are shifted from an aerobic environment to an anaerobic environment, they must increase the rate of the glycolytic reactions. For multicellular organisms, during short bursts of strenuous activity, muscle cells use fermentation to supplement the ATP production from the slower aerobic respiration

2012 Wikipedia

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