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1661. Fluoride therapy

Fluoride therapy Fluoride therapy - Wikipedia Fluoride therapy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Fluoride therapy Fluoride is sold in tablets for cavity prevention. Clinical data OrthoWash, PerioMed, others / by mouth ( ) Legal status Identifiers none Fluoride therapy is the use of for medical purposes. Fluoride supplements are recommended to prevent in children older than 6 month in areas where the is low in . It is typically used as a liquid, pill, or paste by mouth. Where public water (...) to prevent tooth decay in the 1940s. Fluoride, as sodium fluoride, is on the , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a . In the United Kingdom a typical month supply costs the about GB£0.36 . It is also not very expensive in the United States. Contents Medical uses [ ] Fluoride therapy has been proven to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries. Robust evidence supports the use of fluoride toothpaste (with concentrations of 1000 ppm and above) and fluoride supplements

2012 Wikipedia

1662. Hemorheologic-hemodynamic theory of atherosclerosis

). , traditionally the most commonly performed non-invasive testing method for blood flow limitations, in general, detects only narrowing of ≈75% or greater, although some physicians claim that nuclear stress methods can detect as little as 50%. Case studies have included autopsies of U.S. soldiers killed in and the . A much-cited report involved autopsies of 300 U.S. soldiers killed in Korea. Although the average age of the men was 22.1 years, 77.3 percent had "gross evidence of coronary arteriosclerosis (...) oils such as fish oil are being sold in pill form so that the taste of oxidized or rancid fat is not apparent. The health food industry's dietary supplements are self-regulated and outside of FDA regulations. To properly protect unsaturated fats from oxidation, it is best to keep them cool and in oxygen-free environments. Mechanism [ ] Atherogenesis is the developmental process of atheromatous plaques. It is characterized by a remodeling of arteries leading to subendothelial accumulation of fatty

2012 Wikipedia

1663. Health effects of caffeine

, East Asia and South America, and helps to protect them against predator insects and to prevent germination of nearby seeds. The most well-known source of caffeine is the , a for the seed of plants. containing caffeine are ingested to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to improve performance. To make these drinks, caffeine is extracted by the plant product in water, a process called . Caffeine-containing drinks, such as , , and , are very popular; as of 2014, 85% of American adults consumed some form (...) % to 18%, with this effect lasting for up to four hours. Enhancing performance Cognitive Caffeine is a stimulant that reduces and . At normal doses, caffeine has variable effects on learning and memory, but it generally improves , , concentration, and . The amount of caffeine needed to produce these effects varies from person to person, depending on body size and degree of tolerance. The desired effects arise approximately one hour after consumption, and the desired effects of a moderate dose usually

2012 Wikipedia

1664. Health Care in France Full Text available with Trip Pro

for the practice of a sport, death certificates, certificates for hospitalization without consent in case of mental incapacity), and a role in (they can be called by the , the ). They often go to a patient's home if the patient cannot come to the consulting room (especially in case of children or old people) and they must also perform night and week-end duty. Health insurance [ ] Because the model of finance in the French health care system is based on a model, contributions to the program are based on income (...) ). The French government generally refunds patients 70% of most , and 100% in case of costly or long-term ailments. Supplemental coverage may be bought from private insurers, most of them nonprofit, . Until 2000, coverage was restricted to those who contributed to social security (generally, workers or retirees), excluding some poor segments of the population; the government of put into place and extended the coverage to all those legally resident in France. Only about 3.7% of hospital treatment costs

2012 Wikipedia

1665. Eating disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

there has been considerable controversy over the diagnostic criteria used for various diagnoses, including eating disorders. There has been controversy over various editions of the DSM including the latest edition, DSM-V, due in May 2013. Cognitive attentional bias issues [ ] may have an effect on eating disorders. Many studies have been performed to test this theory. Comorbid Disorders , alcoholism Personality traits [ ] There are various childhood associated with the development of eating disorders (...) to be influenced by peer behavior, with many of those individuals on a diet reporting that their friends also were dieting. The number of friends dieting and the number of friends who pressured them to diet also played a significant role in their own choices. Elite athletes have a significantly higher rate in eating disorders. Female athletes in sports such as gymnastics, ballet, diving, etc. are found to be at the highest risk among all athletes. Women are more likely than men to acquire an eating disorder

2012 Wikipedia

1666. Dry drowning

in this article. Several terms related to drowning which have been used in the past are also no longer recommended. These include: Active drowning: People, such as non-swimmers and the exhausted or at the surface, who are unable to hold their above water and are suffocating due to lack of . Instinctively, people in such cases perform well-known behaviors in the last 20–60 seconds before being submerged, representing the body's last efforts to obtain air. Notably, such people are unable to call for help, talk (...) the original on 15 February 2017 . Retrieved 4 February 2017 . ^ Szpilman, David; Bierens, Joost J.L.M.; Handley, Anthony J.; Orlowski, James P. (4 October 2012). "Drowning". The New England Journal of Medicine . 366 (22): 2102–2110. : . . (June 1984). . Parks & Recreation . Archived from on 5 March 2016 . Retrieved 1 October 2012 – via (PDF) . Circulation . 112 (22 supplement). 29 November 2005. : (inactive 14 March 2019). (PDF) from the original on 27 February 2008 . Retrieved 17

2012 Wikipedia

1667. Human adaptation to spaceflight

[ ] See also: This painting, depicts an experiment performed by in 1660 to test the effect of a vacuum on a living system. Human physiology is adapted to living within the atmosphere of Earth, and a certain amount of oxygen is required in . If the body does not get enough oxygen, then the astronaut is at risk of becoming unconscious and dying from . In the vacuum of space, in the lungs continues as normal but results in the removal of all gases, including oxygen, from the bloodstream. After 9 to 12 (...) be exposed for much longer if breathing is not impaired. In December 1966, and test subject Jim LeBlanc of was partaking in a test to see how well a pressurized would perform in vacuum conditions. To simulate the effects of space, NASA constructed a massive from which all air could be pumped. At some point during the test, LeBlanc's pressurization hose became detached from the space suit. Even though this caused his suit pressure to drop from 3.8 psi (26.2 kPa) to 0.1 psi (0.7 kPa) in less than 10

2012 Wikipedia

1668. Infectious mononucleosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and tests should be performed for pregnant women for the same reason as toxoplasmosis. People with infectious mononucleosis are sometimes misdiagnosed with a streptococcal pharyngitis (because of the symptoms of fever, and ) and are given antibiotics such as or as treatment. [ ] Other conditions from which to distinguish infectious mononucleosis include , , , and (flu). Treatment [ ] Infectious mononucleosis is generally , so only symptomatic or supportive treatments are used. The need for rest (...) and health care providers may consider using to get insight into the enlargement of a person's spleen. However, because spleen size varies greatly, ultrasonography is not a valid technique for assessing spleen enlargement and should not be used in typical circumstances or to make routine decisions about fitness for playing sports. Prognosis [ ] Serious are uncommon, occurring in less than 5% of cases: complications include , , , , and . Prior infectious mononucleosis has been linked to the development

2012 Wikipedia

1669. Hyperbaric medicine

is performed to a predetermined schedule by trained personnel who monitor the patient and may adjust the schedule as required. HBOT found early use in the treatment of , and has also shown great effectiveness in treating conditions such as and . More recent research has examined the possibility that it may also have value for other conditions such as cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis, but no significant evidence has been found. Therapeutic recompression is usually also provided (...) in , , , , , , , , depression, heart disease, migraines, , , spinal cord injury, sports injuries, or stroke. A published in 2016 has raised questions about the ethical basis for future of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, in view of the increased risk of damage to the in children with . Despite the lack of evidence, in 2015, the number of people utilizing this therapy has continued to rise. Hearing issues [ ] There is limited evidence that hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves hearing in patients with who present within two weeks

2012 Wikipedia

1670. Weakness

human muscular fatigue". Muscle Nerve . 7 (9): 691–9. : . . Noakes TD (2000). "Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance". Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports . 10 (3): 123–45. : . . Davis JM (1995). "Carbohydrates, branched-chain amino acids, and endurance: the central fatigue hypothesis". Int J Sport Nutr . 5 (Suppl): S29–38. : . . Newsholme, E. A., Acworth, I. N., & Blomstrand, E. 1987, 'Amino acids, brain (...) the periphery, before cellular or organ failure occurs. Therefore, the feedback that is read by this central regulator could include chemical and mechanical as well as cognitive cues. The significance of each of these factors will depend on the nature of the fatigue-inducing work that is being performed. Though not universally used, "metabolic fatigue" is a common alternative term for peripheral muscle weakness, because of the reduction in contractile force due to the direct or indirect effects

2012 Wikipedia

1671. Vitamin D Full Text available with Trip Pro

any effect from supplementation on the rates of disease, other than a tentative decrease in mortality in the elderly. Vitamin D supplements do not alter the outcomes for , or , cancer, or knee . Low vitamin D levels may result from disease rather than cause disease. A United States report states: "Outcomes related to , and , and and metabolic syndrome, falls and physical performance, immune functioning and , infections, neuropsychological functioning, and could not be linked reliably with calcium (...) deficient are at an increased risk of and/or major breaks, particularly those engaging in contact sports. The greatest benefit with supplementation is seen in athletes who are deficient (25(OH)D serum levels <30 ng/mL), or severely deficient (25(OH)D serum levels <25 ng/mL). Incremental decreases in risks are observed with rising serum 25(OH)D concentrations plateauing at 50 ng/mL with no additional benefits seen in levels beyond this point. ‹ The below ( ) is being considered for merging. See to help

2012 Wikipedia

1672. Vegetarianism

, the states that iron deficiency is no more common in vegetarians than non-vegetarians (adult males are rarely iron deficient); iron deficiency is rare no matter the diet. Vitamin B 12 According to the United States , is not generally present in plants and is naturally found in foods of animal origin. can obtain B 12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from (including some soy products and some breakfast cereals) and dietary supplements. Vitamin B 12 can also be obtained from fortified (...) that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels. [ ] Recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian DHA supplements containing seaweed extracts. Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain such as are good sources of (GLA), (ALA), (LA), (SDA), (EPA), (DHA), and (AA). Calcium intake in vegetarians and vegans can be similar to non-vegetarians, as long as the diet

2012 Wikipedia

1673. Veganism Full Text available with Trip Pro

or adolescents, or during pregnancy and . Vegan diets tend to be higher in , , , , , , and ; and lower in , , , , , , , and . Unbalanced vegan diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues. Some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of or the regular intake of . Vitamin B 12 supplementation is especially important because its causes blood disorders and potentially irreversible neurological damage. coined the term (...) of the population, and environmental concerns were a major factor in this development. However, doubt was cast on this inflated figure by the UK-based Vegan Society, who perform their own regular survey: the Vegan Society themselves found in 2018 that there were 600,000 vegans in Great Britain (1.16%), which is a dramatic increase on previous figures. : Estimates of vegans in the U.S. vary from 2% ( , 2012) to 0.5% (Faunalytics, 2014). According to the latter, 70% of those who adopted a vegan diet abandoned

2012 Wikipedia

1674. Treatment of ulcerative colitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

it might be well to inquire as to any family history of bipolar disorder. Corticosteroids should not be confused with , the controversial performance-building "steroids" that are banned in certain sports. The following corticosteroids are used as immune system suppressants in treatment of ulcerative colitis: , also known as Entocort, available for oral use or as an enema. Budesonide is metabolized faster than traditional steroids and appears to produce fewer systemic side effects. Immunosuppressive (...) Mesalazine or sulfasalazine along with topical Mesalazine or steroid enemas. Oral prednisone (40–60 mg/day) should be given only in severe cases or if oral Mesalazine fails. Once remission is induced, maintenance therapy is with standard oral Mesalazine doses. Supplemental iron ( or ) may be given due to chronic blood loss. may be given for symptomatic relief of chronic diarrhea, but should not be given in suspected toxic megacolon. Severe or fulminant colitis [ ] Severe or fulminant colitis . Patients

2012 Wikipedia

1675. Traumatic brain injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

be used. The most sensitive physical measure to date is the quantitative EEG, which has documented an 80% to 100% ability in discriminating between normal and traumatic brain-injured subjects. can be performed to evaluate the long-term and to aid in the planning of the . Instruments range from short measures of general mental functioning to complete batteries formed of different domain-specific . Prevention Protective sports equipment such as helmets can help to protect athletes from head injury (...) may result in further injury. These processes include alterations in and the . Some of the imaging techniques used for diagnosis include and (MRIs). Prevention measures include use of protective technology in vehicles, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of collisions, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws. Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications

2012 Wikipedia

1676. Knee replacement

mechanical axis and the center of the . It is normally between 1.0° and 1.5° of varus in adults. The patient is to perform range of motion exercises and hip, knee and ankle strengthening as directed daily. Before the surgery is performed, pre-operative tests are done: usually a , , and to measure , , , and blood for possible . About a month before the surgery, the patient may be prescribed supplemental iron to boost the hemoglobin in their blood system. Accurate X-rays of the affected knee are needed (...) Knee replacement Knee replacement - Wikipedia Knee replacement From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Knee replacement Knee replacement Other names Knee arthroplasty 0SRD0JZ [ ] Knee replacement , also known as knee , is a surgical procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve pain and disability. It is most commonly performed for , and also for other knee diseases such as and . In patients with severe deformity from advanced rheumatoid , trauma, or long-standing

2012 Wikipedia

1677. Myocardial infarction Full Text available with Trip Pro

high-risk scenarios, such as or may be used. There is varying evidence on the mortality benefits in NSTEMI. A 2014 review of P2Y12 inhibitors such as found they do not change the risk of death when given to people with a suspected NSTEMI prior to PCI, nor do heparins change the risk of death. They do decrease the risk of having a further myocardial infarction. Angiogram [ ] Primary (PCI) is the treatment of choice for STEMI if it can be performed in a timely manner, ideally within 90–120 minutes (...) of heart muscle large, and PCI is unsuitable, for example with difficult cardiac anatomy. After PCI, people are generally placed on indefinitely and on dual antiplatelet therapy (generally aspirin and ) for at least a year. Fibrinolysis [ ] If PCI cannot be performed within 90 to 120 minutes in STEMI then fibrinolysis, preferably within 30 minutes of arrival to hospital, is recommended. If a person has had symptoms for 12 to 24 hours evidence for effectiveness of thrombolysis is less and if they have

2012 Wikipedia

1678. Decompression sickness Full Text available with Trip Pro

a pressurized or a that has been pressurized to keep water out, they will experience a significant reduction in . A similar pressure reduction occurs when exit a space vehicle to perform a space-walk or , where the pressure in their is lower than the pressure in the vehicle. The original name for DCS was "caisson disease". This term was introduced in the 19th century, when caissons under pressure were used to keep water from flooding large engineering excavations below the , such as bridge supports (...) if a multiplace chamber is not available or transportation would cause significant delay in treatment, as the interval between onset of symptoms and recompression is important to the quality of recovery. It may be necessary to modify the optimum treatment schedule to allow use of a monoplace chamber, but this is usually better than delaying treatment. A US Navy treatment table 5 can be safely performed without air breaks if a built-in breathing system is not available. In most cases the patient can

2012 Wikipedia

1679. Concussion

injury: Results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury". Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine . 36 (Supplement 43): 28–60. : . . ^ Ropper AH, Gorson KC (2007). . New England Journal of Medicine . 356 (2): 166–72. : . . . ^ . . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . ^ . . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . ^ . . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . . NICHD . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . ^ Halstead, ME; Walter, KD; Council on Sports (...) ): 1210–20. : . . ^ . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006 . Retrieved 2008-01-13 . (24 April 2014), , : an initiative of the , American Medical Society for Sports Medicine , retrieved 29 July 2014 ^ Borg J, Holm L, Cassidy JD, et al. (2004). "Diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury: Results of the WHO collaborating centre task force on mild traumatic brain injury". Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine . 36 (Supplement 43): 61–75. : . . ^ McCrory, P; Meeuwisse, W; Johnston, K

2012 Wikipedia

1680. Combined oral contraceptive pill Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Since it is not uncommon for menstruating women to become anemic, some placebo pills may contain an supplement. This replenishes iron stores that may become depleted during menstruation. No or less frequent placebos [ ] Main article: If the pill formulation is monophasic, meaning each hormonal pill contains a fixed dose of hormones, it is possible to skip withdrawal bleeding and still remain protected against conception by skipping the placebo pills altogether and starting directly with the next (...) bleeding. Public availability [ ] United States [ ] oral contraceptives, 1970s On June 10, 1957, the (FDA) approved Enovid 10 mg (9.85 mg noretynodrel and 150 µg mestranol) for menstrual disorders, based on data from its use by more than 600 women. Numerous additional contraceptive trials showed Enovid at 10, 5, and 2.5 mg doses to be highly effective. On July 23, 1959, filed a supplemental application to add contraception as an approved indication for 10, 5, and 2.5 mg doses of Enovid. The FDA refused

2012 Wikipedia

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