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Sports Performance Supplement

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1641. Quantitation of plasma 13C-galactose and 13C-glucose during exercise by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. (Abstract)

Quantitation of plasma 13C-galactose and 13C-glucose during exercise by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The utilisation of carbohydrate sources under exercise conditions is of considerable importance in performance sports. Incorporation of optimal profiles of macronutrients can improve endurance performance in athletes. However, gaining an understanding of the metabolic partitioning under sustained exercise can be problematical and isotope labelling approaches can help (...) and glucose required a correction routine to be implemented to allow the measurement, and correction, of plasma glucose δ(13)C, even in the presence of very highly enriched galactose. A Bland-Altman plot of glucose concentration measured by LC/IRMS against glucose measured by an enzymatic method showed good agreement between the methods. Data from seven trained cyclists, undergoing galactose supplementation before exercise, demonstrate that galactose is converted into glucose and is available

2011 Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1642. Characterization and Detection of Prolonged Endothelin Receptors Antagonists Administration

study ERA will be administered in newly approved doses for 8 weeks in order to assess the presumed doping potential for both male and female athletes, and to monitor serum and urinary ERA excretion dynamics after single- and multiple-dose administration. The possible effects of prolonged ERA administration in higher doses on exercise performance may be relevant, if further confirmed, in terms of their possible fraudulent utilization to influence exercise performance in sports, raising the difficult (...) for Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, Serbia Information provided by: Center for Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, Serbia Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Endothelin receptors antagonists (ERA), such as bosentan and ambrisentan, are a class of vasoactive drugs that have been developed for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. It has been anecdotally reported that ERA is frequently used among top-level athletes to counteract exercise-induced rise in pulmonary vascular

2011 Clinical Trials

1643. Carotenoid Response to the Intake of Vegetables and Fruits

and 2/day for men, use of nutritional/sports supplements (if unwilling to discontinue during the study) Pregnancy or lactating Contacts and Locations Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor. Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01403844 Locations Layout table for location information United States (...) Raman spectroscopy to assess vegetable and fruit intake by performing a controlled feeding study during which volunteers will consume a provided diet with known amounts of carotenoids in the form of fruits and vegetables. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 29 participants Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Basic Science Official Title: Skin Carotenoid Response

2011 Clinical Trials

1644. Effects of p-synephrine alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and self-reported mood changes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of p-synephrine alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and self-reported mood changes. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract is widely used in dietary supplements for weight management and sports performance. Its primary protoalkaloid is p-synephrine. Most studies involving bitter orange extract and p-synephrine have used products with multiple ingredients. The current study assessed the thermogenic effects of p

2011 International journal of medical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1645. Oxygen toxicity Full Text available with Trip Pro

the harmful effects of breathing molecular ( O 2 ) at increased . Severe cases can result in damage and death, with effects most often seen in the central nervous system, , and eyes. Historically, the condition was called the effect , and the condition the effect , after the researchers who pioneered the discoveries and descriptions in the late 19th century. Oxygen toxicity is a concern for , those on high of supplemental oxygen (particularly babies), and those undergoing . The result of breathing (...) . Central nervous system oxygen toxicity can cause seizures, brief periods of rigidity followed by convulsions and unconsciousness, and is of concern to divers who encounter greater than atmospheric pressures. Pulmonary oxygen toxicity results in damage to the lungs, causing pain and difficulty in breathing. Oxidative damage to the eye may lead to myopia or partial detachment of the . Pulmonary and ocular damage are most likely to occur when supplemental oxygen is administered as part of a treatment

2012 Wikipedia

1646. Osteoporosis

and are associated with higher bone density. Indeed, it has recently been argued that low protein diets cause poor bone health. No interventional trials have been performed on dietary protein in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. / : occurs in response to physical stress, so physical inactivity can lead to significant bone loss. exercise can increase peak bone mass achieved in adolescence, and a highly significant correlation between bone strength and muscle strength has been determined. The incidence (...) modifiable underlying causes; this may be done with . Depending on the likelihood of an underlying problem, investigations for with to the bone, multiple myeloma, and other above-mentioned causes may be performed. Conventional radiography [ ] Conventional radiography is useful, both by itself and in conjunction with CT or MRI, for detecting complications of (reduced bone mass; pre-osteoporosis), such as fractures; for differential diagnosis of osteopenia; or for follow-up examinations in specific

2012 Wikipedia

1647. Osteoarthritis

) is an extract made from and that is sold under many brand names worldwide as a dietary supplement and as a drug in France. A 2014 review found that while ASU might help relieve pain in the short term for some people with osteoarthritis, it does not appear to improve or maintain the health of affected joints. The review noted a high-quality two-year clinical trial comparing ASU to , which has uncertain efficacy in osteoarthritis; the study found no difference between the two. The review also found (...) that although ASU appears to be safe, it has not been adequately studied for its safety to be determined. A few high-quality studies of show consistent, but small, improvements in pain and function. , phytodolor, and (SAMe) may be effective in improving pain. A 2009 Cochrane review recommended against the routine use of SAMe as there have not been sufficient high-quality trials performed to evaluate its effect. There is tentative evidence to support , (MSM), and . There is little evidence supporting

2012 Wikipedia

1648. Anorexia nervosa

. Causes [ ] Dysregulation of the pathways has been implicated in the cause and mechanism of anorexia. There is evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural risk factors, but the exact cause of eating disorders is unknown. Genetic [ ] Anorexia nervosa is highly . Twin studies have shown a heritability rate of between 28 and 58%. First degree relative of those with anorexia have roughly 12 times the risk of developing anorexia. have been performed, studying 128 different (...) , and loneliness. Sociological [ ] Anorexia nervosa has been increasingly diagnosed since 1950; the increase has been linked to vulnerability and internalization of body ideals. People in professions where there is a particular social pressure to be thin (such as and ) were more likely to develop anorexia, [ ] and those with anorexia have much higher contact with cultural sources that promote weight loss. [ ] This trend can also be observed for people who partake in certain sports, such as jockeys

2012 Wikipedia

1649. Andrew Balfour

, the field in which he would concentrate the rest of his medical career. He studied under Kanthack, performing research work on , and later spent a period of study at , before taking the at Cambridge in 1897. He completed his MD in Edinburgh in 1898; his thesis on the toxicity of dyestuffs in relation to river pollution winning him the student gold medal. He returned to the to earn a BSc in Public Health in 1900 In April 1900, Balfour travelled to South Africa to serve as a civil surgeon in the . He (...) draw away against Ireland and then an impressive win over England, which gave Scotland the for the fourth successive year. The following season (1896/97), Balfour had enrolled at Cambridge and won a place in the Cambridge University team. He played in the first of two at the end of 1896 winning his first sporting 'Blue' in a victory over Oxford University. Just a month later, the was underway, but Balfour was not selected for the national team, and would not rejoin the team until the final match

2012 Wikipedia

1650. Altitude sickness Full Text available with Trip Pro

are possible and supplemental oxygen is needed to avert sickness. As altitude increases, the available amount of oxygen to sustain mental and physical alertness decreases with the overall air pressure, though the relative percentage of oxygen in air, at about 21%, remains practically unchanged up to 21,000 metres (70,000 ft). The of diatomic nitrogen and oxygen are very similar and thus no change occurs in the ratio of oxygen to nitrogen until stratospheric heights. due to the higher rate of water vapor (...) occurs. However, in extreme cases, altitude sickness can be fatal. High altitude [ ] At high altitude, 1,500 to 3,500 metres (4,900 to 11,500 ft), the onset of physiological effects of diminished inspiratory oxygen pressure (PiO 2 ) includes decreased exercise performance and increased ventilation (lower arterial : PCO 2 ). While arterial oxygen transport may be only slightly impaired the (SaO 2 ) generally stays above 90%. Altitude sickness is common between 2,400 and 4,000 m because of the large

2012 Wikipedia

1651. Allergy Full Text available with Trip Pro

the body from attacking the parasite. This gives rise to a new slant on the hygiene hypothesis theory—that of humans and parasites has led to an immune system that functions correctly only in the presence of the parasites. Without them, the immune system becomes unbalanced and oversensitive. In particular, research suggests that allergies may coincide with the delayed establishment of in . However, the research to support this theory is conflicting, with some studies performed in China and showing (...) -trained allergists is often guided by relevant literature. Some patients may believe they have determined their own allergic sensitivity from observation, but a skin test has been shown to be much better than patient observation to detect allergy. If a serious life-threatening anaphylactic reaction has brought a patient in for evaluation, some allergists will prefer an initial blood test prior to performing the skin prick test. Skin tests may not be an option if the patient has widespread skin disease

2012 Wikipedia

1652. Anabolic steroid Full Text available with Trip Pro

effects, makes this a secondary treatment. Stimulation of and preservation and increase of mass: AAS have been given to people with such as and . Stimulation of lean body mass and prevention of in elderly men, as some studies indicate. However, a 2006 placebo-controlled trial of low-dose testosterone supplementation in elderly men with low levels of testosterone found no benefit on body composition, physical performance, , or . Prevention or treatment of in women. is approved for this use. Although (...) because of their adverse effects and the potential to gain unfair advantage in physical competitions. Their use is referred to as and banned by most major sporting bodies. Athletes have been looking for drugs to enhance their athletic abilities since the Olympics started in Ancient Greece. For many years, AAS have been by far the most detected doping substances in -accredited laboratories. In countries where AAS are , there is often a in which smuggled, clandestinely manufactured or even are sold

2012 Wikipedia

1653. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

or the same diagnostic criteria for ALS. Sports [ ] Both soccer and American football have been identified as risk factors for ALS in several studies, although this association is based on small numbers of ALS cases. A 2012 retrospective cohort study of 3,439 former players found that their risk of dying from neurodegenerative causes was three times higher than the general US population, and their risk of dying from ALS or Alzheimer's disease was four times higher. However, this increased risk (...) suspects the person may have a myopathy rather than ALS, a muscle biopsy may be performed. A number of infectious diseases can sometimes cause ALS-like symptoms, including human immunodeficiency virus ( ), (HTLV), , and . Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, , , , , and can also mimic certain aspects of the disease and should be considered. ALS must be differentiated from the "ALS mimic syndromes", which are unrelated disorders that may have a similar presentation and clinical features

2012 Wikipedia

1654. Amphetamine Full Text available with Trip Pro

and , such as increased endurance and alertness; however, non-medical amphetamine use is prohibited at sporting events that are regulated by collegiate, national, and international anti-doping agencies. In healthy people at oral therapeutic doses, amphetamine has been shown to increase , acceleration, athletic performance in , and (i.e., it delays the onset of ), while improving . Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through and of dopamine in the central nervous system. Amphetamine and other (...) and family members, perform better in school, are less distractible and impulsive, and have longer attention spans. The 's reviews on the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults with pharmaceutical amphetamines stated that short-term studies have demonstrated that these drugs decrease the severity of symptoms, but they have higher discontinuation rates than non-stimulant medications due to their adverse . A Cochrane Collaboration review on the treatment of ADHD in children

2012 Wikipedia

1655. Graves' disease

, usually undetectable in Graves' disease due to from the elevated T3 and T4), and protein-bound (elevated). detected thyroid-stimulating antibodies, radioactive iodine (RAI) uptake, or thyroid ultrasound with Doppler all can independently confirm a diagnosis of Grave's disease. to obtain histiological testing is not normally required, but may be obtained if thyroidectomy is performed. The goiter in Graves' disease is often not nodular, but are also common. Differentiating common forms (...) tests to ensure they are treated with thyroid hormone before they become symptomatically hypothyroid. Contraindications to RAI are (absolute), ophthalmopathy (relative; it can aggravate thyroid eye disease), or solitary . Disadvantages of this treatment are a high incidence of hypothyroidism (up to 80%) requiring eventual thyroid hormone supplementation in the form of a daily pill(s). The radioiodine treatment acts slowly (over months to years) to destroy the thyroid gland, and Graves' disease

2012 Wikipedia

1656. Glasses Full Text available with Trip Pro

for . Safety glasses provide against flying debris for construction workers or lab technicians; these glasses may have protection for the sides of the eyes as well as in the lenses. Some types of safety glasses are used to protect against visible and near-visible or . Glasses are worn for eye protection in some sports, such as . Glasses wearers may use a strap to prevent the glasses from falling off during movement or sports. Wearers of glasses that are used only part of the time may have the glasses (...) and other countries are required to wear safety glasses to protect against infection from patients' blood or other body fluids. There are also safety glasses for , which are styled like wraparound sunglasses, but with much darker lenses, for use in welding where a full-sized is inconvenient or uncomfortable. These are often called "flash goggles" because they provide protection from welding flash. frames are usually used for protective eyewear for sports because of their lightweight and flexible

2012 Wikipedia

1657. Gestational diabetes Full Text available with Trip Pro

remains untreated. Non-challenge blood glucose tests [ ] When a plasma glucose level is found to be higher than 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) after fasting, or over 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) on any occasion, and if this is confirmed on a subsequent day, the diagnosis of GDM is made, and no further testing is required. These tests are typically performed at the first antenatal visit. They are simple to administer and inexpensive, but have a lower test performance compared to the other tests, with moderate , low (...) and high rates. Screening glucose challenge test [ ] The screening glucose challenge test (sometimes called the O'Sullivan test) is performed between 24–28 weeks, and can be seen as a simplified version of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). No previous fasting is required for this screening test, in contrast to the OGTT. The O'Sullivan test involves drinking a solution containing 50 grams of glucose, and measuring blood levels 1 hour later. If the cut-off point is set at 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), 80

2012 Wikipedia

1658. Functional magnetic resonance imaging

the 'human circulation balance', which could non-invasively measure the redistribution of during emotional and intellectual activity. However, although briefly mentioned by in 1890, the details and precise workings of this balance and the Mosso performed with it remained largely unknown until the recent discovery of the original instrument as well as Mosso’s reports by and colleagues. investigated several critical that are still relevant in modern neuroimaging such as the ‘ ', the appropriate choice (...) of the experimental and the need for the simultaneous recording of differing physiological . Mosso's manuscripts do not provide direct evidence that the balance was really able to measure changes in cerebral blood flow due to cognition, however a modern replication performed by David T Field has now demonstrated using modern signal processing techniques unavailable to Mosso that a balance apparatus of this type is able to detect changes in cerebral blood volume related to cognition. [ ] In 1890, Charles Roy

2012 Wikipedia

1659. Frank Macfarlane Burnet Full Text available with Trip Pro

free time fishing and playing golf—from a young age. He preferred bookish pursuits from a young age and was not enamoured of sport, and by the age of eight was old enough to analyse his father's character; Mac disapproved of Frank and saw him as a hypocrite who espoused moral principles and put on a facade of uprightedness, while associating with businessmen of dubious ethics. Hadassah was preoccupied with Doris, so Mac developed a rather solitary personality. The Burnets moved to in 1909, when (...) State School and attended Sunday school at the local church, where the priest encouraged him to pursue scholastic studies and awarded him a book on ants as a reward for his academic performance. He advised Frank to invest in Mac's education and he won a full scholarship to board and study at , one of Victoria's most exclusive private schools. Starting there in 1913, Burnet was the only boarder with a full scholarship. He did not enjoy his time there among the scions of the ruling upper class; while

2012 Wikipedia

1660. Food allergy

, the use of which is not advised. test for allergens other than those caused by IgE allergens. The allergen is given to the person in the form of a pill, so the person can ingest the allergen directly. The person is watched for signs and symptoms. The problem with food challenges is that they must be performed in the hospital under careful watch, due to the possibility of . Food challenges, especially , placebo-controlled food challenges, are the gold standard for diagnosis of food allergies, including (...) with food allergy, he/she will perform allergy tests. Additional diagnostic tools for evaluation of eosinophilic or non-IgE mediated reactions include , , and . Differential diagnosis [ ] Important are: generally develops later in life, but can present in young patients in severe cases. It is due to an enzyme deficiency ( ) and not allergy, and occurs in many non-Western people. . While it is caused by a permanent intolerance to (present in , rye, barley and oats), is not an allergy nor simply

2012 Wikipedia

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