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1641. Lead

is given to only one decimal place. As time passes, the ratio of lead-206 and lead-207 to lead-204 increases, since the former two are supplemented by radioactive decay of heavier elements while the latter is not; this allows for . As uranium decays into lead, their relative amounts change; this is the basis for . Lead-207 exhibits , a property that has been used to study its compounds in solution and solid state, including in human body. The Holsinger meteorite, the largest piece of the meteorite (...) States. The top three producers of refined lead were China, the United States, and India. According to the 's of 2010, the total amount of lead in use, stockpiled, discarded, or dissipated into the environment, on a global basis, is 8 kg per capita. Much of this is in more developed countries (20–150 kg per capita) rather than less developed ones (1–4 kg per capita). The primary and secondary lead production processes are similar. Some primary production plants now supplement their operations

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2012 Wikipedia

1642. Cellular respiration

into the mitochondrion, but remains in the cytoplasm, where it is converted to that may be removed from the cell. This serves the purpose of oxidizing the electron carriers so that they can perform glycolysis again and removing the excess pyruvate. Fermentation oxidizes NADH to NAD+ so it can be re-used in glycolysis. In the absence of oxygen, fermentation prevents the buildup of NADH in the cytoplasm and provides NAD+ for glycolysis. This waste product varies depending on the organism. In skeletal muscles (...) be released by oxidation. , for example, can be burned in an internal combustion engine like gasoline. Glycolytic ATP, however, is created more quickly. For prokaryotes to continue a rapid growth rate when they are shifted from an aerobic environment to an anaerobic environment, they must increase the rate of the glycolytic reactions. For multicellular organisms, during short bursts of strenuous activity, muscle cells use fermentation to supplement the ATP production from the slower aerobic respiration

2012 Wikipedia

1643. Childhood obesity

to supplement the reliability of a BMI diagnosis with additional screening tools such as adipose tissue or skin fold measurements. Effects on health Psychological The first problems to occur in obese children are usually or . Obese children often experience by their peers. Some are harassed or against by their own family. abound and may lead to low self-esteem and depression. Physical Childhood obesity however can also lead to life-threatening conditions including , , , , , and other disorders. Some (...) sports sponsorship by manufacturers of unhealthy foods. The failure of the present UK government to cut sugar, fat and salt content in foods has been criticised. Health experts, the health select committee and campaigners described Conservative plans over childhood obesity as, "weak" and "watered down". Physical activity Physical inactivity of children has also shown to be a serious cause, and children who fail to engage in regular physical activity are at greater risk of obesity. Researchers studied

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2012 Wikipedia

1644. Cerebral palsy

children with higher levels who cannot walk. This further affects a child's mobility, strength, experience of pain, and can lead to missed schooling or child abuse suspicions. These children generally have fractures in the legs, whereas non-affected children mostly fracture their arms in the context of sporting activities. Hip dislocation and ankle equinus or planter flexion deformity are the two most common deformities among children with cerebral palsy. Additionally, flexion deformity of the hip (...) person may perform. The -Expanded and Revised and the are used to describe mobility and manual dexterity in people with cerebral palsy, and recently the , and the have been proposed to describe those functions. There are three main CP classifications by motor impairment: spastic, ataxic, and athetoid/dyskinetic. Additionally, there is a mixed type that shows a combination of features of the other types. These classifications reflect the areas of the brain that are damaged. Cerebral palsy is also

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2012 Wikipedia

1645. Anabolic steroid

effects, makes this a secondary treatment. Stimulation of and preservation and increase of mass: AAS have been given to people with such as and . Stimulation of lean body mass and prevention of in elderly men, as some studies indicate. However, a 2006 placebo-controlled trial of low-dose testosterone supplementation in elderly men with low levels of testosterone found no benefit on body composition, physical performance, , or . Prevention or treatment of in women. is approved for this use. Although (...) because of their adverse effects and the potential to gain unfair advantage in physical competitions. Their use is referred to as and banned by most major sporting bodies. Athletes have been looking for drugs to enhance their athletic abilities since the Olympics started in Ancient Greece. For many years, AAS have been by far the most detected doping substances in -accredited laboratories. In countries where AAS are , there is often a in which smuggled, clandestinely manufactured or even are sold

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2012 Wikipedia

1646. Anorexia nervosa

. Causes [ ] Dysregulation of the pathways has been implicated in the cause and mechanism of anorexia. There is evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural risk factors, but the exact cause of eating disorders is unknown. Genetic [ ] Anorexia nervosa is highly . Twin studies have shown a heritability rate of between 28 and 58%. First degree relative of those with anorexia have roughly 12 times the risk of developing anorexia. have been performed, studying 128 different (...) , and loneliness. Sociological [ ] Anorexia nervosa has been increasingly diagnosed since 1950; the increase has been linked to vulnerability and internalization of body ideals. People in professions where there is a particular social pressure to be thin (such as and ) were more likely to develop anorexia, [ ] and those with anorexia have much higher contact with cultural sources that promote weight loss. [ ] This trend can also be observed for people who partake in certain sports, such as jockeys

2012 Wikipedia

1647. Andrew Balfour

, the field in which he would concentrate the rest of his medical career. He studied under Kanthack, performing research work on , and later spent a period of study at , before taking the at Cambridge in 1897. He completed his MD in Edinburgh in 1898; his thesis on the toxicity of dyestuffs in relation to river pollution winning him the student gold medal. He returned to the to earn a BSc in Public Health in 1900 In April 1900, Balfour travelled to South Africa to serve as a civil surgeon in the . He (...) draw away against Ireland and then an impressive win over England, which gave Scotland the for the fourth successive year. The following season (1896/97), Balfour had enrolled at Cambridge and won a place in the Cambridge University team. He played in the first of two at the end of 1896 winning his first sporting 'Blue' in a victory over Oxford University. Just a month later, the was underway, but Balfour was not selected for the national team, and would not rejoin the team until the final match

2012 Wikipedia

1648. Low-carbohydrate diet

, Gleeson M (1997). "Diet composition and the performance of high-intensity exercise". J Sports Sci (Review). 15 (3): 265–75. : . . ^ Ruscigno M (2018). "The Keto Diet: More Fad than Long Term". Environmental Nutrition (March): 3. ^ Ting R, Dugré N, Allan GM, Lindblad AJ (2018). "Ketogenic diet for weight loss". Can Fam Physician . 64 (12): 906. . Ullah W, Hamid M, Mohammad Ammar Abdullah H, Ur Rashid M, Inayat F (January 2018). . Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports . 6 (...) repeatedly found that in the long-term, all diets with the same calorific value perform the same for weight loss, except for the one differentiating factor of how well people can faithfully follow the dietary programme. A study comparing groups taking low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets found at six months the low-carbohydrate diet still had most people adhering to it, but thereafter the situation reversed: at two years the low-carbohydrate group had the highest incidence of lapses

2012 Wikipedia

1649. Dietitian

facilities or corporations, such as used in Australia, Canada and the United States. Consultant dietitians independently to provide nutrition or health related consultation and educational programs to individuals and health care facilities as well as sports teams, fitness clubs, and other health related businesses and corporations. Required qualifications and professional associations [ ] In most countries, competent performance as a dietitian requires formal training at a higher educational institution (...) , and treat nutritional problems. A registered dietitian (RD) or registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) is a dietitian who meets all of a set of special academic and professional requirements, including the completion of a bachelor's degree with an accredited nutrition curriculum, an internship at an approved health-care facility, foodservice organization, or community agency, and satisfactory performance on a registration exam. Roughly half of all RDNs hold and many have certifications in specialized

2012 Wikipedia

1650. Management of borderline personality disorder

for comorbid conditions. A from 2006 arrived at the same conclusion, but a 2010 update found that some pharmacological interventions (second generation antipsychotics, mood stabilisers and dietary supplementation with omega 3 fatty acids) might provide beneficial effects. However, the authors warned that total BPD severity is not significantly influenced by any drug and that the evidence generated by the review was based on single study effect estimates. No promising results were available for the core BPD (...) other strategies may be used, including techniques (see ); exercise and physical fitness, including team sports; occupational therapy techniques, including creative arts; having structure and routine to the days, particularly through employment - helping feelings of competence (e.g. ), having a social role and being valued by others, boosting . [ ] Group-based psychological services encourage clients to socialize and participate in both solitary and group activities. These may be in day centers

2012 Wikipedia

1651. Lung

. This is not very efficient, but amphibians have low metabolic demands and can also quickly dispose of carbon dioxide by diffusion across their skin in water, and supplement their oxygen supply by the same method. Amphibians employ a system to get air to their lungs, forcing air down into the lungs by . This is distinct from most higher vertebrates, who use a breathing system driven by where the lungs are inflated by expanding the rib cage. In buccal pumping, the floor of the mouth is lowered, filling the mouth (...) , C.P.; Sorichter, S.; Smith, H.J.; Kardos, P.; Merget, R.; Heise, D.; Berdel, D.; Köhler, D.; Magnussen, H.; Marek, W.; Mitfessel, H.; Rasche, K.; Rolke, M.; Worth, H.; Jörres, R.A. (July 2011). "Body plethysmography – Its principles and clinical use". Respiratory Medicine . 105 (7): 959–971. : . . ^ Applegate, Edith (2014). . Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 335. . Laeremans, M (2018). . Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise . 50 (9): 1875–1881. : . . ^ Ritchson, G. . Department of Biological

2012 Wikipedia

1652. Low vision

, or choosing clean, unstained, co-ordinated clothing. In the , the Certificate of Vision Impairment (CVI) is used to certify patients as severely sight impaired or sight impaired. The accompanying guidance for clinical staff states: "The National Assistance Act 1948 states that a person can be certified as severely sight impaired if they are "so blind as to be unable to perform any work for which eye sight is essential". Certification is based on whether a person can do any work for which eyesight (...) in low vision care prior to other rehabilitation training to rule out potential medical or surgical correction for the problem and to establish a careful baseline refraction and prescription of both normal and low vision glasses and optical aids. Only a doctor is qualified to evaluate visual functioning of a compromised visual system effectively. The provides an approach to evaluating visual loss as it affects an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living. Screening adults who have

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2012 Wikipedia

1653. Decompression sickness

a pressurized or a that has been pressurized to keep water out, they will experience a significant reduction in . A similar pressure reduction occurs when exit a space vehicle to perform a space-walk or , where the pressure in their is lower than the pressure in the vehicle. The original name for DCS was "caisson disease". This term was introduced in the 19th century, when caissons under pressure were used to keep water from flooding large engineering excavations below the , such as bridge supports (...) if a multiplace chamber is not available or transportation would cause significant delay in treatment, as the interval between onset of symptoms and recompression is important to the quality of recovery. It may be necessary to modify the optimum treatment schedule to allow use of a monoplace chamber, but this is usually better than delaying treatment. A US Navy treatment table 5 can be safely performed without air breaks if a built-in breathing system is not available. In most cases the patient can

2012 Wikipedia

1654. Concussion

injury: Results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury". Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine . 36 (Supplement 43): 28–60. : . . ^ Ropper AH, Gorson KC (2007). . New England Journal of Medicine . 356 (2): 166–72. : . . . ^ . www.nichd.nih.gov . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . ^ . www.nichd.nih.gov . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . ^ . www.nichd.nih.gov . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . . NICHD . Retrieved 18 December 2017 . ^ Halstead, ME; Walter, KD; Council on Sports (...) ): 1210–20. : . . ^ . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006 . Retrieved 2008-01-13 . (24 April 2014), , : an initiative of the , American Medical Society for Sports Medicine , retrieved 29 July 2014 ^ Borg J, Holm L, Cassidy JD, et al. (2004). "Diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury: Results of the WHO collaborating centre task force on mild traumatic brain injury". Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine . 36 (Supplement 43): 61–75. : . . ^ McCrory, P; Meeuwisse, W; Johnston, K

2012 Wikipedia

1655. Combined oral contraceptive pill

. Since it is not uncommon for menstruating women to become anemic, some placebo pills may contain an supplement. This replenishes iron stores that may become depleted during menstruation. No or less frequent placebos [ ] Main article: If the pill formulation is monophasic, meaning each hormonal pill contains a fixed dose of hormones, it is possible to skip withdrawal bleeding and still remain protected against conception by skipping the placebo pills altogether and starting directly with the next (...) bleeding. Public availability [ ] United States [ ] oral contraceptives, 1970s On June 10, 1957, the (FDA) approved Enovid 10 mg (9.85 mg noretynodrel and 150 µg mestranol) for menstrual disorders, based on data from its use by more than 600 women. Numerous additional contraceptive trials showed Enovid at 10, 5, and 2.5 mg doses to be highly effective. On July 23, 1959, filed a supplemental application to add contraception as an approved indication for 10, 5, and 2.5 mg doses of Enovid. The FDA refused

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2012 Wikipedia

1656. Colonoscopy

important that the patient remain hydrated. Sports drinks contain which are depleted during the purging of the bowel. Drinks containing fiber such as and should not be consumed, nor should liquids red, purple, orange, or sometimes brown; however, cola is allowed. In most cases, or taken without milk are allowed. The day before the colonoscopy, the patient is either given a preparation (such as , , , or and/or ) and large quantities of fluid, or is performed using a solution of and . The procedure may (...) Colonoscopy Colonoscopy - Wikipedia Colonoscopy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Not to be confused with . Colonoscopy Colonoscopy being performed [ ] Colonoscopy ( ) or coloscopy ( ) is the examination of the and the part of the with a or a camera on a flexible tube passed through the . It can provide a visual diagnosis (e.g., , ) and grants the opportunity for or removal of suspected lesions. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimeter or less. Once polyps are removed

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2012 Wikipedia

1657. Oxidation of solid versus liquid CHO sources during exercise. (PubMed)

Oxidation of solid versus liquid CHO sources during exercise. The ingestion of CHO solutions has been shown to increase CHO oxidation and improve endurance performance. However, most studies have investigated CHO in solution, and sporting practice includes ingestion of CHO in solid (e.g., energy bars) as well as in liquid form. It remains unknown whether CHO in solid form is as effectively oxidized as CHO in solution.To investigate exogenous CHO oxidation from CHO provided in either solid (BAR (...) g·min−¹).The present study demonstrates that a GLU + FRC mix administered as a solid BAR during cycling can lead to high mean and peak exogenous CHO oxidation rates (91 g·min−¹). The GLU + FRC mix ingested in the form of a solid BAR resulted in similar mean and peak exogenous CHO oxidation rates and showed similar oxidation efficiencies as a DRINK. These findings suggest that CHO from a solid BAR is effectively oxidized during exercise and can be a practical form of supplementation alongside other

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2010 Medicine and science in sports and exercise

1658. Energy beverages: content and safety. (PubMed)

Energy beverages: content and safety. Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly

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2010 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

1659. Arthroscopic Posterior Stabilization and Anterior Capsular Plication for Recurrent Posterior Glenohumeral Instability. (PubMed)

, unidirectional posterior shoulder instability who underwent arthroscopic repair with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were identified and evaluated retrospectively with outcome measures in the form of objective and subjective scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify predictors of success with significance set at .05.Twenty-nine consecutive patients with a mean age of 26.3 years underwent posterior reconstruction and anterior balancing capsulolabral plication as needed with a mean follow-up (...) of 5.5 years. Outcome scores averaged as follows: American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, 90.7; University of California, Los Angeles, 32.6; Simple Shoulder Test, 11.7; and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability, 82.9% of normal. Recurrent instability occurred in 3.4% of patients, 84.6% returned to sports, and 96.6% of patients believed surgery was successful and worthwhile. Patients who were younger (<30 years) or patients with more extensive pathology who required additional surgical procedures

2010 Arthroscopy

1660. Protein Need and Interest of " Quick Proteins " to the Obese Subject Operated by Bariatric Surgery (BIBOP)

Posted : November 12, 2018 Sponsor: University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand Collaborators: Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d'Auvergne Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Rhone-Alpe Hospices Civils de Lyon Service de médecine du Sport et des Explorations Fonctionnelles – CHRU de Clermont-Ferrand Information provided by (Responsible Party): University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The main objective of the study is to evaluate the protein (...) bariatric surgery. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Obesity Bariatric Surgery Other: bariatric surgery Not Applicable Detailed Description: This is a prospective longitudinal study of the effect of bariatric surgery on protein requirements and protein metabolism, and protein supplementation interest, appropriate to the digestive tract changes, for the mass and muscle function. Three groups of patients will be studied: One group undergoing sleeve gastrectomy in Clermont-Ferrand (group 1

2010 Clinical Trials

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