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1621. Testosterone

relationship between spatial performance and circulating testosterone, where both hypo- and hypersecretion (deficient- and excessive-secretion) of circulating androgens have negative effects on cognition. Medical use [ ] Main article: Testosterone is used as a medication for the treatment of , certain forms of , and gender dysphoria in transgender men. This is known as (HRT) or testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), which maintains serum testosterone levels in the normal range. has led to interest (...) , that increase can be avoided by protein ingestion. Endurance training in men may lead to lower testosterone levels. Nutrients: may lead to sub-optimal plasma testosterone levels. The secosteroid in levels of 400–1000 /d (10–25 µg/d) raises testosterone levels. lowers testosterone levels but over-supplementation has no effect on serum testosterone. Weight loss: Reduction in weight may result in an increase in testosterone levels. Fat cells synthesize the enzyme aromatase, which converts testosterone

2012 Wikipedia

1622. Vegetarianism

, the states that iron deficiency is no more common in vegetarians than non-vegetarians (adult males are rarely iron deficient); iron deficiency is rare no matter the diet. Vitamin B 12 According to the United States , is not generally present in plants and is naturally found in foods of animal origin. can obtain B 12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from (including some soy products and some breakfast cereals) and dietary supplements. Vitamin B 12 can also be obtained from fortified (...) that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels. [ ] Recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian DHA supplements containing seaweed extracts. Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain such as are good sources of (GLA), (ALA), (LA), (SDA), (EPA), (DHA), and (AA). Calcium intake in vegetarians and vegans can be similar to non-vegetarians, as long as the diet

2012 Wikipedia

1623. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

or the same diagnostic criteria for ALS. Sports [ ] Both soccer and American football have been identified as risk factors for ALS in several studies, although this association is based on small numbers of ALS cases. A 2012 retrospective cohort study of 3,439 former players found that their risk of dying from neurodegenerative causes was three times higher than the general US population, and their risk of dying from ALS or Alzheimer's disease was four times higher. However, this increased risk (...) suspects the person may have a myopathy rather than ALS, a muscle biopsy may be performed. A number of infectious diseases can sometimes cause ALS-like symptoms, including human immunodeficiency virus ( ), (HTLV), , and . Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, , , , , and can also mimic certain aspects of the disease and should be considered. ALS must be differentiated from the "ALS mimic syndromes", which are unrelated disorders that may have a similar presentation and clinical features

2012 Wikipedia

1624. Amphetamine

and , such as increased endurance and alertness; however, non-medical amphetamine use is prohibited at sporting events that are regulated by collegiate, national, and international anti-doping agencies. In healthy people at oral therapeutic doses, amphetamine has been shown to increase , acceleration, athletic performance in , and (i.e., it delays the onset of ), while improving . Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through and of dopamine in the central nervous system. Amphetamine and other (...) and family members, perform better in school, are less distractible and impulsive, and have longer attention spans. The 's reviews on the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults with pharmaceutical amphetamines stated that short-term studies have demonstrated that these drugs decrease the severity of symptoms, but they have higher discontinuation rates than non-stimulant medications due to their adverse . A Cochrane Collaboration review on the treatment of ADHD in children

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2012 Wikipedia

1625. Altitude sickness

are possible and supplemental oxygen is needed to avert sickness. As altitude increases, the available amount of oxygen to sustain mental and physical alertness decreases with the overall air pressure, though the relative percentage of oxygen in air, at about 21%, remains practically unchanged up to 21,000 metres (70,000 ft). The of diatomic nitrogen and oxygen are very similar and thus no change occurs in the ratio of oxygen to nitrogen until stratospheric heights. due to the higher rate of water vapor (...) occurs. However, in extreme cases, altitude sickness can be fatal. High altitude [ ] At high altitude, 1,500 to 3,500 metres (4,900 to 11,500 ft), the onset of physiological effects of diminished inspiratory oxygen pressure (PiO 2 ) includes decreased exercise performance and increased ventilation (lower arterial : PCO 2 ). While arterial oxygen transport may be only slightly impaired the (SaO 2 ) generally stays above 90%. Altitude sickness is common between 2,400 and 4,000 m because of the large

2012 Wikipedia

1626. Allergy

the body from attacking the parasite. This gives rise to a new slant on the hygiene hypothesis theory—that of humans and parasites has led to an immune system that functions correctly only in the presence of the parasites. Without them, the immune system becomes unbalanced and oversensitive. In particular, research suggests that allergies may coincide with the delayed establishment of in . However, the research to support this theory is conflicting, with some studies performed in China and showing (...) -trained allergists is often guided by relevant literature. Some patients may believe they have determined their own allergic sensitivity from observation, but a skin test has been shown to be much better than patient observation to detect allergy. If a serious life-threatening anaphylactic reaction has brought a patient in for evaluation, some allergists will prefer an initial blood test prior to performing the skin prick test. Skin tests may not be an option if the patient has widespread skin disease

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2012 Wikipedia

1627. Miscarriage

in sub-fertility and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Recurrent miscarriage is also related to obesity. Women with and may have a greater risk for miscarriage. Nutrient deficiencies have not been found to impact miscarriage rates but sometimes precedes a miscarriage. consumption also has been correlated to miscarriage rates, at least at higher levels of intake. However, such higher rates have been found to be statistically significant only in certain circumstances. Vitamin supplementation has (...) increases the risk of miscarriage. Progesterone has not been found to be effective in preventing miscarriage. use increases the rate of miscarriage. Some infections have been associated with miscarriage. These include , , , , and . Infections of , and have not been found to be linked to miscarriage. Diagnosis [ ] In the case of blood loss, pain, or both, is performed. If a viable intrauterine pregnancy is not found with ultrasound, blood tests (serial tests) can be performed to rule out ectopic

2012 Wikipedia

1628. Methamphetamine

metabolites of methamphetamine are amphetamine and 4-hydroxymethamphetamine. , particularly , , and species, contribute to the metabolism of methamphetamine via an enzyme which N-demethylates methamphetamine and 4-hydroxymethamphetamine into amphetamine and 4-hydroxyamphetamine respectively. Detection in biological fluids Methamphetamine and amphetamine are often measured in urine or blood as part of a for sports, employment, poisoning diagnostics, and forensics. Chiral techniques may be employed to help (...) distinguish the source the drug to determine whether it was obtained illicitly or legally via prescription or prodrug. Chiral separation is needed to assess the possible contribution of , which is an active ingredients in some OTC nasal decongestants, toward a positive test result. Dietary zinc supplements can mask the presence of methamphetamine and other drugs in urine. Chemistry Pure shards of methamphetamine hydrochloride, also known as crystal meth Methamphetamine is a compound with two enantiomers

2012 Wikipedia

1629. Mental status examination

for abstract reasoning is used to inform decisions about treatment strategy and the choice of an appropriate treatment setting. It is carried out in the manner of an informal enquiry, using a combination of open and closed questions, supplemented by structured tests to assess cognition. The MSE can also be considered part of the comprehensive performed by and nurses although it may be performed in a cursory and abbreviated way in non-mental-health settings. Information is usually recorded as free-form text (...) feature of disorders. For instance an alliance to a particular political party, or sports team would not be considered a delusion in some societies. The patient's delusions may be described within the SEGUE PM mnemonic as somatic, delusions, , unspecified delusions, envious delusions (c.f. ), persecutory or , or multifactorial delusions. There are several other forms of delusions, these include descriptions such as: , or , or delusional memories (i.e. I was a goat last year) among others. Delusions

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2012 Wikipedia

1630. Bariatric surgery

Bariatric surgery Bariatric surgery - Wikipedia Bariatric surgery From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Obesity surgery" redirects here. For the medical journal, see . Bariatric surgery [ ] Bariatric surgery (or weight loss surgery ) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have . Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the with a or through removal of a portion of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch) or by resecting and re (...) reoperations due to complications was 15.3 percent for the gastric band, 7.7 percent for gastric bypass and 1.5 percent for sleeve gastrectomy” - American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery As the rate of complications appears to be reduced when the procedure is performed by an experienced surgeon, guidelines recommend that surgery be performed in dedicated or experienced units. It has been observed that the rate of leaks was greater in low volume centres whereas high volume centres showed

2012 Wikipedia

1631. Body shaping

Body shaping Bariatric surgery - Wikipedia Bariatric surgery From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from ) "Obesity surgery" redirects here. For the medical journal, see . Bariatric surgery [ ] Bariatric surgery (or weight loss surgery ) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have . Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the with a or through removal of a portion of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (...) The percentage of procedures requiring reoperations due to complications was 15.3 percent for the gastric band, 7.7 percent for gastric bypass and 1.5 percent for sleeve gastrectomy” - American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery As the rate of complications appears to be reduced when the procedure is performed by an experienced surgeon, guidelines recommend that surgery be performed in dedicated or experienced units. It has been observed that the rate of leaks was greater in low volume centres

2012 Wikipedia

1632. Blindness

, or choosing clean, unstained, co-ordinated clothing. In the , the Certificate of Vision Impairment (CVI) is used to certify patients as severely sight impaired or sight impaired. The accompanying guidance for clinical staff states: "The National Assistance Act 1948 states that a person can be certified as severely sight impaired if they are "so blind as to be unable to perform any work for which eye sight is essential". Certification is based on whether a person can do any work for which eyesight (...) in low vision care prior to other rehabilitation training to rule out potential medical or surgical correction for the problem and to establish a careful baseline refraction and prescription of both normal and low vision glasses and optical aids. Only a doctor is qualified to evaluate visual functioning of a compromised visual system effectively. The provides an approach to evaluating visual loss as it affects an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living. Screening adults who have

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2012 Wikipedia

1633. Artificial limb

. There is some research suggesting that such training in the home may be more successful if the treatment includes the use of a treadmill. Using a treadmill, along with the physical therapy treatment, helps the person to experience many of the challenges of walking with a prosthesis. In the United Kingdom, 75% of lower limb amputations are performed due to inadequate (dysvascularity). [ ] This condition is often associated with many other medical conditions ( ) including and that may make it a challenge (...) . Voluntary closing GRIPS require constant tension to grip, like a human hand, and in that property, they do come closer to matching human hand performance. Voluntary opening split hook users are limited to forces their rubber or springs can generate which usually is below 20 pounds. Feedback [ ] An additional difference exists in the biofeedback created that allows the user to "feel" what is being held. Voluntary opening systems once engaged provide the holding force so that they operate like a passive

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2012 Wikipedia

1634. Atrial fibrillation

is associated with an increased risk of AF compared to . In both men and women, the practice of moderate exercise reduces the risk of AF progressively, but intense sports may increase the risk of developing AF, as seen in . It is due to a remodelling of cardiac tissue, and an increase in vagal tone, which shortens the (ERP) favoring re-entries from the . High blood pressure [ ] According to CHARGE Consortium both systolic and diastolic pressure are predictors of the risk of AF. Systolic values close (...) examination, ECG, , , and serum level. Screening [ ] The found insufficient evidence to determine the usefulness of screening in 2018. Limited studies have suggested that screening for atrial fibrillation in those 65 years and older increases the number of cases of atrial fibrillation detected. Minimal evaluation [ ] In general, the minimal evaluation of atrial fibrillation should be performed in all individuals with AF. The goal of this evaluation is to determine the general treatment regimen

2012 Wikipedia

1635. Atherosclerosis

location for the plaque formation is the renal arteries, which supply blood to the kidneys. Plaque occurrence and accumulation leads to decreased kidney blood flow and chronic kidney disease, which, like all other areas, are typically asymptomatic until late stages. According to United States data for 2004, in about 66% of men and 47% of women, the first symptom of atherosclerotic is a or (death within one hour of onset of the symptom). , traditionally the most commonly performed non-invasive testing (...) so that the taste of oxidized or rancid fat is not apparent. The health food industry's dietary supplements are self-regulated and outside of FDA regulations. To properly protect unsaturated fats from oxidation, it is best to keep them cool and in oxygen-free environments. Mechanism [ ] Atherogenesis is the developmental process of atheromatous plaques. It is characterized by a remodeling of arteries leading to subendothelial accumulation of fatty substances called plaques. The buildup

2012 Wikipedia

1636. Asthma

beta(2)-agonists have an ergogenic potential in non-asthmatic competitive athletes?". Sports Medicine . 37 (2): 95–102. : . . Pluim, B. M.; de Hon, O.; Staal, J. B.; Limpens, J.; Kuipers, H.; Overbeek, S. E.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Scholten, R. J. (Jan 1, 2011). "β₂-Agonists and physical performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Sports Medicine . 41 (1): 39–57. : . . ^ Baur, X.; Aasen, T. B.; Burge, P. S.; Heederik, D.; Henneberger, P. K.; Maestrelli, P (...) with the results. can help differentiate asthma from . It is reasonable to perform spirometry every one or two years to follow how well a person's asthma is controlled. Others The involves the inhalation of increasing concentrations of a substance that causes airway narrowing in those predisposed. If negative it means that a person does not have asthma; if positive, however, it is not specific for the disease. Other supportive evidence includes: a ≥20% difference in on at least three days in a week

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2012 Wikipedia

1637. Assistive technology

Assistive technology Assistive technology - Wikipedia Assistive technology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Hearing aid Assistive technology is an that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for or elderly population while also including the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. People who have disabilities often have difficulty performing (ADLs) independently, or even with assistance. ADLs are self-care activities that include toileting, mobility (...) (ambulation), eating, bathing, dressing and grooming. Assistive technology can ameliorate the effects of disabilities that limit the ability to perform ADLs. Assistive technology promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the needed to accomplish such tasks. For example, wheelchairs provide independent mobility for those who cannot

2012 Wikipedia

1638. Osteoporosis

and are associated with higher bone density. Indeed, it has recently been argued that low protein diets cause poor bone health. No interventional trials have been performed on dietary protein in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. / : occurs in response to physical stress, so physical inactivity can lead to significant bone loss. exercise can increase peak bone mass achieved in adolescence, and a highly significant correlation between bone strength and muscle strength has been determined. The incidence (...) modifiable underlying causes; this may be done with . Depending on the likelihood of an underlying problem, investigations for with to the bone, multiple myeloma, and other above-mentioned causes may be performed. Conventional radiography [ ] Conventional radiography is useful, both by itself and in conjunction with CT or MRI, for detecting complications of (reduced bone mass; pre-osteoporosis), such as fractures; for differential diagnosis of osteopenia; or for follow-up examinations in specific

2012 Wikipedia

1639. Osteoarthritis

) is an extract made from and that is sold under many brand names worldwide as a dietary supplement and as a drug in France. A 2014 review found that while ASU might help relieve pain in the short term for some people with osteoarthritis, it does not appear to improve or maintain the health of affected joints. The review noted a high-quality two-year clinical trial comparing ASU to , which has uncertain efficacy in osteoarthritis; the study found no difference between the two. The review also found (...) that although ASU appears to be safe, it has not been adequately studied for its safety to be determined. A few high-quality studies of show consistent, but small, improvements in pain and function. , phytodolor, and (SAMe) may be effective in improving pain. A 2009 Cochrane review recommended against the routine use of SAMe as there have not been sufficient high-quality trials performed to evaluate its effect. There is tentative evidence to support , (MSM), and . There is little evidence supporting

2012 Wikipedia

1640. Leptin

with anorexia, depression, and Alzheimer’s Disease . Studies in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease have shown that chronic administration of leptin can ameliorate brain pathology and improve cognitive performance, by reducing b-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated Tau, two hallmarks of Alzheimer's pathology. Generally, leptin is thought to enter the brain at the , where the intense expression of a form of leptin receptor molecule could act as a transport mechanism. Increased levels of causes (...) specific nutritional treatment capable of normalising the leptin production and reducing the systematic low-level inflammation, in order to reduce the harmful impact of these systematic mediators on the joint health. There are nutritional supplements and pharmacological agents capable of directing these factors and improving both conditions. Therapeutic use [ ] Leptin [ ] Leptin was approved in the United States in 2014 for use in congenital leptin deficiency and generalized . Analog metreleptin

2012 Wikipedia

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