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Sports Performance Supplement

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1601. Gestational diabetes

remains untreated. Non-challenge blood glucose tests [ ] When a plasma glucose level is found to be higher than 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) after fasting, or over 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) on any occasion, and if this is confirmed on a subsequent day, the diagnosis of GDM is made, and no further testing is required. These tests are typically performed at the first antenatal visit. They are simple to administer and inexpensive, but have a lower test performance compared to the other tests, with moderate , low (...) and high rates. Screening glucose challenge test [ ] The screening glucose challenge test (sometimes called the O'Sullivan test) is performed between 24–28 weeks, and can be seen as a simplified version of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). No previous fasting is required for this screening test, in contrast to the OGTT. The O'Sullivan test involves drinking a solution containing 50 grams of glucose, and measuring blood levels 1 hour later. If the cut-off point is set at 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), 80

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1602. Glasses

for . Safety glasses provide against flying debris for construction workers or lab technicians; these glasses may have protection for the sides of the eyes as well as in the lenses. Some types of safety glasses are used to protect against visible and near-visible or . Glasses are worn for eye protection in some sports, such as . Glasses wearers may use a strap to prevent the glasses from falling off during movement or sports. Wearers of glasses that are used only part of the time may have the glasses (...) and other countries are required to wear safety glasses to protect against infection from patients' blood or other body fluids. There are also safety glasses for , which are styled like wraparound sunglasses, but with much darker lenses, for use in welding where a full-sized is inconvenient or uncomfortable. These are often called "flash goggles" because they provide protection from welding flash. frames are usually used for protective eyewear for sports because of their lightweight and flexible

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1603. Health Care in France

for the practice of a sport, death certificates, certificates for hospitalization without consent in case of mental incapacity), and a role in (they can be called by the , the ). They often go to a patient's home if the patient cannot come to the consulting room (especially in case of children or old people) and they must also perform night and week-end duty. Health insurance [ ] Because the model of finance in the French health care system is based on a model, contributions to the program are based on income (...) ). The French government generally refunds patients 70% of most , and 100% in case of costly or long-term ailments. Supplemental coverage may be bought from private insurers, most of them nonprofit, . Until 2000, coverage was restricted to those who contributed to social security (generally, workers or retirees), excluding some poor segments of the population; the government of put into place and extended the coverage to all those legally resident in France. Only about 3.7% of hospital treatment costs

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1604. Graves' disease

, usually undetectable in Graves' disease due to from the elevated T3 and T4), and protein-bound (elevated). detected thyroid-stimulating antibodies, radioactive iodine (RAI) uptake, or thyroid ultrasound with Doppler all can independently confirm a diagnosis of Grave's disease. to obtain histiological testing is not normally required, but may be obtained if thyroidectomy is performed. The goiter in Graves' disease is often not nodular, but are also common. Differentiating common forms (...) tests to ensure they are treated with thyroid hormone before they become symptomatically hypothyroid. Contraindications to RAI are (absolute), ophthalmopathy (relative; it can aggravate thyroid eye disease), or solitary . Disadvantages of this treatment are a high incidence of hypothyroidism (up to 80%) requiring eventual thyroid hormone supplementation in the form of a daily pill(s). The radioiodine treatment acts slowly (over months to years) to destroy the thyroid gland, and Graves' disease

2012 Wikipedia

1605. Human adaptation to spaceflight

[ ] See also: This painting, depicts an experiment performed by in 1660 to test the effect of a vacuum on a living system. Human physiology is adapted to living within the atmosphere of Earth, and a certain amount of oxygen is required in . If the body does not get enough oxygen, then the astronaut is at risk of becoming unconscious and dying from . In the vacuum of space, in the lungs continues as normal but results in the removal of all gases, including oxygen, from the bloodstream. After 9 to 12 (...) be exposed for much longer if breathing is not impaired. In December 1966, and test subject Jim LeBlanc of was partaking in a test to see how well a pressurized would perform in vacuum conditions. To simulate the effects of space, NASA constructed a massive from which all air could be pumped. At some point during the test, LeBlanc's pressurization hose became detached from the space suit. Even though this caused his suit pressure to drop from 3.8 psi (26.2 kPa) to 0.1 psi (0.7 kPa) in less than 10

2012 Wikipedia

1606. Infectious mononucleosis

, and tests should be performed for pregnant women for the same reason as toxoplasmosis. People with infectious mononucleosis are sometimes misdiagnosed with a streptococcal pharyngitis (because of the symptoms of fever, and ) and are given antibiotics such as or as treatment. [ ] Other conditions from which to distinguish infectious mononucleosis include , , , and (flu). Treatment [ ] Infectious mononucleosis is generally , so only symptomatic or supportive treatments are used. The need for rest (...) and health care providers may consider using to get insight into the enlargement of a person's spleen. However, because spleen size varies greatly, ultrasonography is not a valid technique for assessing spleen enlargement and should not be used in typical circumstances or to make routine decisions about fitness for playing sports. Prognosis [ ] Serious are uncommon, occurring in less than 5% of cases: complications include , , , , and . Prior infectious mononucleosis has been linked to the development

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1607. Hyperbaric medicine

is performed to a predetermined schedule by trained personnel who monitor the patient and may adjust the schedule as required. HBOT found early use in the treatment of , and has also shown great effectiveness in treating conditions such as and . More recent research has examined the possibility that it may also have value for other conditions such as cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis, but no significant evidence has been found. Therapeutic recompression is usually also provided (...) in , , , , , , , , depression, heart disease, migraines, , , spinal cord injury, sports injuries, or stroke. A published in 2016 has raised questions about the ethical basis for future of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, in view of the increased risk of damage to the in children with . Despite the lack of evidence, in 2015, the number of people utilizing this therapy has continued to rise. Hearing issues [ ] There is limited evidence that hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves hearing in patients with who present within two weeks

2012 Wikipedia

1608. Functional magnetic resonance imaging

the 'human circulation balance', which could non-invasively measure the redistribution of during emotional and intellectual activity. However, although briefly mentioned by in 1890, the details and precise workings of this balance and the Mosso performed with it remained largely unknown until the recent discovery of the original instrument as well as Mosso’s reports by and colleagues. investigated several critical that are still relevant in modern neuroimaging such as the ‘ ', the appropriate choice (...) of the experimental and the need for the simultaneous recording of differing physiological . Mosso's manuscripts do not provide direct evidence that the balance was really able to measure changes in cerebral blood flow due to cognition, however a modern replication performed by David T Field has now demonstrated using modern signal processing techniques unavailable to Mosso that a balance apparatus of this type is able to detect changes in cerebral blood volume related to cognition. [ ] In 1890, Charles Roy

2012 Wikipedia

1609. Frank Macfarlane Burnet

free time fishing and playing golf—from a young age. He preferred bookish pursuits from a young age and was not enamoured of sport, and by the age of eight was old enough to analyse his father's character; Mac disapproved of Frank and saw him as a hypocrite who espoused moral principles and put on a facade of uprightedness, while associating with businessmen of dubious ethics. Hadassah was preoccupied with Doris, so Mac developed a rather solitary personality. The Burnets moved to in 1909, when (...) State School and attended Sunday school at the local church, where the priest encouraged him to pursue scholastic studies and awarded him a book on ants as a reward for his academic performance. He advised Frank to invest in Mac's education and he won a full scholarship to board and study at , one of Victoria's most exclusive private schools. Starting there in 1913, Burnet was the only boarder with a full scholarship. He did not enjoy his time there among the scions of the ruling upper class; while

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1610. Food allergy

, the use of which is not advised. test for allergens other than those caused by IgE allergens. The allergen is given to the person in the form of a pill, so the person can ingest the allergen directly. The person is watched for signs and symptoms. The problem with food challenges is that they must be performed in the hospital under careful watch, due to the possibility of . Food challenges, especially , placebo-controlled food challenges, are the gold standard for diagnosis of food allergies, including (...) with food allergy, he/she will perform allergy tests. Additional diagnostic tools for evaluation of eosinophilic or non-IgE mediated reactions include , , and . Differential diagnosis [ ] Important are: generally develops later in life, but can present in young patients in severe cases. It is due to an enzyme deficiency ( ) and not allergy, and occurs in many non-Western people. . While it is caused by a permanent intolerance to (present in , rye, barley and oats), is not an allergy nor simply

2012 Wikipedia

1611. Fluoride therapy

Fluoride therapy Fluoride therapy - Wikipedia Fluoride therapy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Fluoride therapy Fluoride is sold in tablets for cavity prevention. Clinical data OrthoWash, PerioMed, others / by mouth ( ) Legal status Identifiers none Fluoride therapy is the use of for medical purposes. Fluoride supplements are recommended to prevent in children older than 6 month in areas where the is low in . It is typically used as a liquid, pill, or paste by mouth. Where public water (...) to prevent tooth decay in the 1940s. Fluoride, as sodium fluoride, is on the , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a . In the United Kingdom a typical month supply costs the about GB£0.36 . It is also not very expensive in the United States. Contents Medical uses [ ] Fluoride therapy has been proven to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries. Robust evidence supports the use of fluoride toothpaste (with concentrations of 1000 ppm and above) and fluoride supplements

2012 Wikipedia

1612. Spanish National Health System

, especially of food centers, hairdressers, saunas and centers of personal hygiene, hotels and residential centers, schools, tourist campsites and areas of physical activity for sports and recreation. d) Health control of distribution and supply, beverages and other products directly or indirectly related to human use or consumption, such as means of transport. e) Health control of cemeteries and mortuary health policy. Territorial organization [ ] As a consequence of the decentralization contemplated (...) , physical education and sports. Article 49. The public powers will bring into existence a policy of prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and integration of those with physical, sensory or psychological disabilities. Further, the Organic Law 4/2000 ( Ley Orgánica 4/2000 ) establishes the rights and liberties of foreigners resident in Spain. Its effect on the healthcare provision can be seen in the following articles: Article 3. Foreigners will enjoy in Spain, in equal conditions with the Spanish

2012 Wikipedia

1613. Shoulder problem

spine disorders, heart attacks, peptic ulcer disease, and pneumonia. Standardized questionnaires like the Penn Shoulder Score that assess shoulder pain and function can aid in eliciting the required history to make a diagnosis and monitor condition progression. to feel for injury and discover the limits of movement, location of pain, and extent of joint instability. The steps to elicit this information are inspection (looking), palpation (feeling), testing range of motion, and performing special (...) are stretched and may tear due to dislocation. Torn ligaments and other problems resulting from dislocation can increase the chance of repeated dislocation. A shoulder that dislocates severely or often, injuring surrounding tissues or nerves, usually requires surgery to repair the damaged parts of the shoulder. Sometimes the doctor performs surgery through a tiny incision into which a small scope (arthroscope) is inserted to observe the inside of the joint. After this procedure, called arthroscopic surgery

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1614. Strength training

or orthopaedic surgery, strength training for weak muscles is a key factor to optimise recovery. For people with such a health condition, their strength training is likely to need to be designed by an appropriate health professional, such as a or an . Increased sports performance [ ] Stronger muscles improve performance in a variety of sports. Sport-specific training routines are used by many competitors. These often specify that the speed of during weight training should be the same (...) performing the exercise: to gain size and strength multiple (4+) sets with fewer reps must be performed using more force. A wide spectrum of regimens can be adopted to achieve different results, but the classic formula recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine reads as follows: 8 to 12 repetitions of a resistance training exercise for each major muscle group at an intensity of 40% to 80% of a one-repetition max (RM) depending on the training level of the participant. Two to three minutes

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1615. Knee replacement

mechanical axis and the center of the . It is normally between 1.0° and 1.5° of varus in adults. The patient is to perform range of motion exercises and hip, knee and ankle strengthening as directed daily. Before the surgery is performed, pre-operative tests are done: usually a , , and to measure , , , and blood for possible . About a month before the surgery, the patient may be prescribed supplemental iron to boost the hemoglobin in their blood system. Accurate X-rays of the affected knee are needed (...) Knee replacement Knee replacement - Wikipedia Knee replacement From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Knee replacement Knee replacement Other names Knee arthroplasty 0SRD0JZ [ ] Knee replacement , also known as knee , is a surgical procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve pain and disability. It is most commonly performed for , and also for other knee diseases such as and . In patients with severe deformity from advanced rheumatoid , trauma, or long-standing

2012 Wikipedia

1616. Weakness

human muscular fatigue". Muscle Nerve . 7 (9): 691–9. : . . Noakes TD (2000). "Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance". Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports . 10 (3): 123–45. : . . Davis JM (1995). "Carbohydrates, branched-chain amino acids, and endurance: the central fatigue hypothesis". Int J Sport Nutr . 5 (Suppl): S29–38. : . . Newsholme, E. A., Acworth, I. N., & Blomstrand, E. 1987, 'Amino acids, brain (...) the periphery, before cellular or organ failure occurs. Therefore, the feedback that is read by this central regulator could include chemical and mechanical as well as cognitive cues. The significance of each of these factors will depend on the nature of the fatigue-inducing work that is being performed. Though not universally used, "metabolic fatigue" is a common alternative term for peripheral muscle weakness, because of the reduction in contractile force due to the direct or indirect effects

2012 Wikipedia

1617. Vitamin D

any effect from supplementation on the rates of disease, other than a tentative decrease in mortality in the elderly. Vitamin D supplements do not alter the outcomes for , or , cancer, or knee . Low vitamin D levels may result from disease rather than cause disease. A United States report states: "Outcomes related to , and , and and metabolic syndrome, falls and physical performance, immune functioning and , infections, neuropsychological functioning, and could not be linked reliably with calcium (...) deficient are at an increased risk of and/or major breaks, particularly those engaging in contact sports. The greatest benefit with supplementation is seen in athletes who are deficient (25(OH)D serum levels <30 ng/mL), or severely deficient (25(OH)D serum levels <25 ng/mL). Incremental decreases in risks are observed with rising serum 25(OH)D concentrations plateauing at 50 ng/mL with no additional benefits seen in levels beyond this point. ‹ The below ( ) is being considered for merging. See to help

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1618. Veganism

or adolescents, or during pregnancy and . Vegan diets tend to be higher in , , , , , , and ; and lower in , , , , , , , and . Unbalanced vegan diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues. Some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of or the regular intake of . Vitamin B 12 supplementation is especially important because its causes blood disorders and potentially irreversible neurological damage. coined the term (...) of the population, and environmental concerns were a major factor in this development. However, doubt was cast on this inflated figure by the UK-based Vegan Society, who perform their own regular survey: the Vegan Society themselves found in 2018 that there were 600,000 vegans in Great Britain (1.16%), which is a dramatic increase on previous figures. : Estimates of vegans in the U.S. vary from 2% ( , 2012) to 0.5% (Faunalytics, 2014). According to the latter, 70% of those who adopted a vegan diet abandoned

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1619. Treatment of ulcerative colitis

it might be well to inquire as to any family history of bipolar disorder. Corticosteroids should not be confused with , the controversial performance-building "steroids" that are banned in certain sports. The following corticosteroids are used as immune system suppressants in treatment of ulcerative colitis: , also known as Entocort, available for oral use or as an enema. Budesonide is metabolized faster than traditional steroids and appears to produce fewer systemic side effects. Immunosuppressive (...) Mesalazine or sulfasalazine along with topical Mesalazine or steroid enemas. Oral prednisone (40–60 mg/day) should be given only in severe cases or if oral Mesalazine fails. Once remission is induced, maintenance therapy is with standard oral Mesalazine doses. Supplemental iron ( or ) may be given due to chronic blood loss. may be given for symptomatic relief of chronic diarrhea, but should not be given in suspected toxic megacolon. Severe or fulminant colitis [ ] Severe or fulminant colitis . Patients

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1620. Traumatic brain injury

be used. The most sensitive physical measure to date is the quantitative EEG, which has documented an 80% to 100% ability in discriminating between normal and traumatic brain-injured subjects. can be performed to evaluate the long-term and to aid in the planning of the . Instruments range from short measures of general mental functioning to complete batteries formed of different domain-specific . Prevention Protective sports equipment such as helmets can help to protect athletes from head injury (...) may result in further injury. These processes include alterations in and the . Some of the imaging techniques used for diagnosis include and (MRIs). Prevention measures include use of protective technology in vehicles, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of collisions, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws. Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications

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2012 Wikipedia

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