How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

1,778 results for

Sports Performance Supplement

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

1581. Pharmacologic-based strategies for smoking cessation: clinical and cost-effectiveness analyses

) Vancouver, British Columbia Jed E. Rose, PhD Professor, Duke University Medical Center Durham, North Carolina Authorship Khai Tran, research lead, coordinated the research project; selected studies; extracted, tabulated and analyzed data; and wrote the clinical sections of the report. Keiko Asakawa, lead for the economic section, selected articles; extracted data for the economic review; performed the economic modelling, and population and budget impact analyses; wrote the economic, budget impact (...) that were missed in the search, review of the first draft, and critical review of the final draft. Andrew Pipe participated in the conceptualization of clinical approaches to smoking cessation, preparation and revision of portions of the manuscript addressing clinical considerations and descriptions of smoking-related diseases, and editing and revisions of the final draft. David Kaunelis developed the literature search strategies, performed all searches and search updates, managed report referencing

2010 EvidenceUpdates

1582. Gait Disorders in the Elderly

, subcortical, or basal ganglia dysfunction. Deviations from path are strong indicators of motor control deficits. Arm swing may be reduced or absent in Parkinson disease and vascular dementias. Arm swing disorders may also be adverse effects of dopamine -blocking drugs (typical and atypical antipsychotics). Evaluation The goal is to determine as many potential contributing factors to gait disorders as possible. A performance-oriented mobility assessment tool may be helpful (see Table: ), as may other (...) clinical tests (eg, a screening cognitive examination for patients with gait problems possibly due to frontal lobe syndromes). Table Performance-Oriented Assessment of Mobility Component Findings Score* Clinical Meaning Initiation of gait (immediately after being told to go) Any hesitancy or multiple attempts to start 0 Parkinson disease Isolated gait initiation failure (stroke or dementia) Frontal gait disorder No hesitancy 1 Right step length and height (right swing foot) Does not pass left stance

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

1583. Creatine

documented. Creatine references : Creatine for treating muscle disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (6):CD004760, 2013. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004760.pub4. : Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 13(2):198-226, 2003. : Beneficial effect of creatine supplementation in knee osteoarthritis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43(8):1538-1543, 2011. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182118592. More Information NIH National Center for Complementary (...) physical and athletic performance and to reduce muscle fatigue. Evidence Some evidence suggests creatine is effective at increasing work done in a short maximal effort (eg, sprinting, weightlifting). It has proven therapeutic use in muscle phosphorylase deficiency ( type V [McArdle disease]) and gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina; early data also suggest possible effects in and . Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated that creatine supplementation is well tolerated and may increase muscle

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

1584. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

of wild yam is not recommended as a supplement as the body is unable to convert the precursors to DHEA. (See also .) Claims DHEA supplements are said to improve mood, energy, sense of well-being, and the ability to function well under stress. They are also said to improve athletic performance, stimulate the immune system, deepen nightly sleep, lower cholesterol levels, decrease body fat, build muscles, reverse aging, improve brain function in patients with Alzheimer disease, increase libido (...) , and decrease symptoms of . Evidence The medicinal claims of DHEA have not been fully supported by the evidence. In addition, DHEA is banned by numerous professional sports organizations as it is classified as a "prohormone." DHEA levels are known to naturally decrease with age and therefore people in search of the unattainable fountain of youth have turned to DHEA supplementation as a possible solution to ailments associated with age. Studies have been reported showing both positive and negative results

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

1585. The prevalence, variety and impact of wrist problems in elite professional golfers on the European Tour. (PubMed)

professional golfers.European Tour golfers eligible to compete at the 2009 BMW PGA Championship at Wentworth were studied. Study design involved the completion of a structured questionnaire supplemented by interview and examination when required, with performance statistics provided by the European Tour. The severity of injury was assessed by the number of missed tournaments and the amount of time of missed practice.128 of 153 eligible golfers, (84%) completed the study with 38 golfers (30%) reporting 43 (...) The prevalence, variety and impact of wrist problems in elite professional golfers on the European Tour. Golf is a popular sport played by an estimated 57 million people. Previous studies on wrist injuries in elite golfers have been of simple design and have demonstrated such injuries to be frequent, although no studies report the incidence, variety, severity or impact on the activity of wrist injuries in detail. This prospective cross-sectional study assesses these factors in a cohort of elite

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2013 British Journal of Sports Medicine

1586. Oxygen toxicity

the harmful effects of breathing molecular ( O 2 ) at increased . Severe cases can result in damage and death, with effects most often seen in the central nervous system, , and eyes. Historically, the condition was called the effect , and the condition the effect , after the researchers who pioneered the discoveries and descriptions in the late 19th century. Oxygen toxicity is a concern for , those on high of supplemental oxygen (particularly babies), and those undergoing . The result of breathing (...) . Central nervous system oxygen toxicity can cause seizures, brief periods of rigidity followed by convulsions and unconsciousness, and is of concern to divers who encounter greater than atmospheric pressures. Pulmonary oxygen toxicity results in damage to the lungs, causing pain and difficulty in breathing. Oxidative damage to the eye may lead to myopia or partial detachment of the . Pulmonary and ocular damage are most likely to occur when supplemental oxygen is administered as part of a treatment

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2012 Wikipedia

1587. Adverse effect

Reactions Bulletin every two months.The Government's program is tasked with acting on this reporting to reduce and minimize the number of preventable adverse effects each year. New Zealand [ ] Adverse reaction reporting is an important component of New Zealand's activities. The in Dunedin is New Zealand's national monitoring centre for adverse reactions. It collects and evaluates spontaneous reports of adverse reactions to medicines, vaccines, herbal products and dietary supplements from health (...) administration. Adverse effects may also be caused by . This often occurs when patients fail to inform their physician and pharmacist of all the medications they are taking, including herbal and dietary supplements. The new medication may interact agonistically or antagonistically (potentiate or decrease the intended therapeutic effect), causing significant and mortality around the world. Drug-drug and food-drug interactions may occur, and so-called "natural drugs" used in can have dangerous adverse effects

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2012 Wikipedia

1588. Adderall

psychological and , such as increased endurance and alertness; however, non-medical amphetamine use is prohibited at sporting events that are regulated by collegiate, national, and international anti-doping agencies. In healthy people at oral therapeutic doses, amphetamine has been shown to increase , acceleration, athletic performance in , and (i.e., it delays the onset of ), while improving . Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through and of dopamine in the central nervous system (...) , stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks ... through indirect stimulation of dopamine and norepinephrine receptors. ... Beyond these general permissive effects, dopamine (acting via D1 receptors) and norepinephrine (acting at several receptors) can, at optimal levels, enhance working memory and aspects of attention. ^ Liddle DG, Connor DJ (June 2013). "Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS". Prim. Care . 40 (2): 487–505. : . . Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2012 Wikipedia

1589. Malignant hyperthermia

larger studies to assess the test's suitability for determining MH risk. Genetic testing [ ] is being performed in a limited fashion to determine susceptibility to MH. In people with a family history of MH, analysis for RYR1 mutations may be useful. Criteria [ ] A 1994 consensus conference led to the formulation of a set of diagnostic criteria. The higher the score (above 6), the more likely a reaction constituted MH: Respiratory acidosis (end-tidal CO 2 above 55 mmHg/7.32 kPa or arterial pCO 2 above (...) . CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( ) [ ] Valberg SJ, Mickelson JR, Gallant EM, MacLeay JM, Lentz L, de la Corte F (July 1999). "Exertional rhabdomyolysis in quarter horses and thoroughbreds: one syndrome, multiple aetiologies". Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (30): 533–8. . Yang T, Riehl J, Esteve E, Matthaei KI, Goth S, Allen PD, Pessah IN, Lopez JR (December 2006). "Pharmacologic and functional characterization of malignant hyperthermia in the R163C RyR1 knock-in mouse". Anesthesiology

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2012 Wikipedia

1590. Major depressive disorder

symptoms depending on age and situation. Most lose interest in school and show a decline in academic performance. They may be described as clingy, demanding, dependent, or insecure. Diagnosis may be delayed or missed when symptoms are interpreted as "normal moodiness." Associated conditions Major depression frequently with other psychiatric problems. The 1990–92 (US) reports that half of those with major depression also have lifetime and its associated disorders such as . Anxiety symptoms can have (...) more difficulty with underrecognition and undertreatment of depression compared to , in part because of the that often accompany depression, in addition to many potential patient, provider, and system barriers. A review found that non-psychiatrist physicians miss about two-thirds of cases, though this has improved somewhat in more recent studies. Before diagnosing a major depressive disorder, in general a doctor performs a medical examination and selected investigations to rule out other causes

2012 Wikipedia

1591. Nutrition

of , sometimes called the father of modern , overturned Galen's ideas. He was followed by piercing thought amalgamated with the era's mysticism and religion sometimes fueled by the of Newton and Galileo. , who discovered several such as , performed the first . advanced . measured . Physician modeled the . Physiologist worked out the difference between and . Sometimes forgotten during his life, , a physician in the British navy, performed the first nutrition experiment in 1747. Lind discovered that juice (...) , and , were thought then to be derived from ammonia. The vitamins were studied in the first half of the 20th century. In 1913, and discovered the first vitamin, fat-soluble , then water-soluble (in 1915; now known to be a complex of several water-soluble vitamins) and named as the then-unknown substance preventing scurvy. and also performed pioneering work on vitamins A and B. In 1919, Sir incorrectly identified as a vitamin A deficiency because he could cure it in dogs with cod liver oil. In 1922

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2012 Wikipedia

1592. Obesity

, such as those high in fat or sugars, and by increasing the intake of . can be used, along with a suitable diet, to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption. If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a or may be performed to reduce stomach volume or length of the intestines, leading to feeling full earlier or a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food. Obesity is a leading worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and . In 2015, 600 million adults (12%) and 100 million children were obese (...) % (depending on the type of procedure performed) at 10 years, and a 29% reduction in all cause mortality when compared to standard weight loss measures. Complications occur in about 17% of cases and reoperation is needed in 7% of cases. Due to its cost and risks, researchers are searching for other effective yet less invasive treatments including devices that occupy space in the stomach. Epidemiology Main article: World obesity prevalence among males (left) and females (right) in 2008. <5% 5–10% 10–15% 15

2012 Wikipedia

1593. Myocardial infarction

high-risk scenarios, such as or may be used. There is varying evidence on the mortality benefits in NSTEMI. A 2014 review of P2Y12 inhibitors such as found they do not change the risk of death when given to people with a suspected NSTEMI prior to PCI, nor do heparins change the risk of death. They do decrease the risk of having a further myocardial infarction. Angiogram [ ] Primary (PCI) is the treatment of choice for STEMI if it can be performed in a timely manner, ideally within 90–120 minutes (...) of heart muscle large, and PCI is unsuitable, for example with difficult cardiac anatomy. After PCI, people are generally placed on indefinitely and on dual antiplatelet therapy (generally aspirin and ) for at least a year. Fibrinolysis [ ] If PCI cannot be performed within 90 to 120 minutes in STEMI then fibrinolysis, preferably within 30 minutes of arrival to hospital, is recommended. If a person has had symptoms for 12 to 24 hours evidence for effectiveness of thrombolysis is less and if they have

2012 Wikipedia

1594. Management of obesity

-term complications of obesity. Its use is associated with high rates of gastrointestinal side effects. The most effective treatment for obesity is . Surgery for severe obesity is associated with long-term weight loss and decreased overall mortality. One study found a weight loss of between 14% and 25% (depending on the type of procedure performed) at 10 years, and a 29% reduction in all cause mortality when compared to standard weight loss measures. A 2007 review concluded that certain subgroups (...) dieting on one's own (0.2 kg; 0.44 lb) over a two-year period. Internet-based programs appear to be ineffective. The has introduced a number of "fat farms" where obese children go for reinforced exercise, and has passed a law which requires students to exercise or play sports for an hour a day at school (see ). In a structured setting, 67% of people who lost greater than 10% of their body mass maintained or continued to lose weight one year later. An average maintained weight loss of more than 3 kg

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2012 Wikipedia

1595. Pulmonary contusion

. The use of seat belts and airbags reduces the risk to vehicle occupants. Diagnosis is made by studying the cause of the injury, and . Typical signs and symptoms include direct effects of the physical trauma, such as chest pain and , as well as signs that the body is not receiving enough oxygen, such as . The contusion frequently heals on its own with supportive care. Often nothing more than supplemental oxygen and close monitoring is needed; however, may be required. For example, if breathing (...) , assaults, and sports injuries are other causes. Pulmonary contusion can also be caused by explosions; the organs most vulnerable to are those that contain gas, such as the lungs. Blast lung is severe pulmonary contusion, bleeding, or with damage to alveoli and blood vessels, or a combination of these. This is the primary cause of death among people who initially survive an explosion. Unlike other mechanisms of injury in which pulmonary contusion is often found alongside other injuries, explosions can

2012 Wikipedia

1596. Eating disorder

there has been considerable controversy over the diagnostic criteria used for various diagnoses, including eating disorders. There has been controversy over various editions of the DSM including the latest edition, DSM-V, due in May 2013. Cognitive attentional bias issues [ ] may have an effect on eating disorders. Many studies have been performed to test this theory. Comorbid Disorders , alcoholism Personality traits [ ] There are various childhood associated with the development of eating disorders (...) to be influenced by peer behavior, with many of those individuals on a diet reporting that their friends also were dieting. The number of friends dieting and the number of friends who pressured them to diet also played a significant role in their own choices. Elite athletes have a significantly higher rate in eating disorders. Female athletes in sports such as gymnastics, ballet, diving, etc. are found to be at the highest risk among all athletes. Women are more likely than men to acquire an eating disorder

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2012 Wikipedia

1597. Drowning

no longer recommended. These include: Active drowning: People, such as non-swimmers and the exhausted or at the surface, who are unable to hold their above water and are suffocating due to lack of . Instinctively, people in such cases perform well-known behaviors in the last 20–60 seconds before being submerged, representing the body's last efforts to obtain air. Notably, such people are unable to call for help, talk, reach for rescue equipment, or alert swimmers even feet away, and they may drown (...) , Anthony J.; Orlowski, James P. (4 October 2012). "Drowning". The New England Journal of Medicine . 366 (22): 2102–2110. : . . (June 1984). . Parks & Recreation . Archived from on 5 March 2016 . Retrieved 1 October 2012 – via pia-enterprises.com. (PDF) . Circulation . 112 (22 supplement). 29 November 2005. : (inactive 14 March 2019). (PDF) from the original on 27 February 2008 . Retrieved 17 February 2008 . There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of oxygen by the first aid

2012 Wikipedia

1598. Dry drowning

in this article. Several terms related to drowning which have been used in the past are also no longer recommended. These include: Active drowning: People, such as non-swimmers and the exhausted or at the surface, who are unable to hold their above water and are suffocating due to lack of . Instinctively, people in such cases perform well-known behaviors in the last 20–60 seconds before being submerged, representing the body's last efforts to obtain air. Notably, such people are unable to call for help, talk (...) the original on 15 February 2017 . Retrieved 4 February 2017 . ^ Szpilman, David; Bierens, Joost J.L.M.; Handley, Anthony J.; Orlowski, James P. (4 October 2012). "Drowning". The New England Journal of Medicine . 366 (22): 2102–2110. : . . (June 1984). . Parks & Recreation . Archived from on 5 March 2016 . Retrieved 1 October 2012 – via pia-enterprises.com. (PDF) . Circulation . 112 (22 supplement). 29 November 2005. : (inactive 14 March 2019). (PDF) from the original on 27 February 2008 . Retrieved 17

2012 Wikipedia

1599. Hemorheologic-hemodynamic theory of atherosclerosis

). , traditionally the most commonly performed non-invasive testing method for blood flow limitations, in general, detects only narrowing of ≈75% or greater, although some physicians claim that nuclear stress methods can detect as little as 50%. Case studies have included autopsies of U.S. soldiers killed in and the . A much-cited report involved autopsies of 300 U.S. soldiers killed in Korea. Although the average age of the men was 22.1 years, 77.3 percent had "gross evidence of coronary arteriosclerosis (...) oils such as fish oil are being sold in pill form so that the taste of oxidized or rancid fat is not apparent. The health food industry's dietary supplements are self-regulated and outside of FDA regulations. To properly protect unsaturated fats from oxidation, it is best to keep them cool and in oxygen-free environments. Mechanism [ ] Atherogenesis is the developmental process of atheromatous plaques. It is characterized by a remodeling of arteries leading to subendothelial accumulation of fatty

2012 Wikipedia

1600. Health effects of caffeine

, East Asia and South America, and helps to protect them against predator insects and to prevent germination of nearby seeds. The most well-known source of caffeine is the , a for the seed of plants. containing caffeine are ingested to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to improve performance. To make these drinks, caffeine is extracted by the plant product in water, a process called . Caffeine-containing drinks, such as , , and , are very popular; as of 2014, 85% of American adults consumed some form (...) % to 18%, with this effect lasting for up to four hours. Enhancing performance Cognitive Caffeine is a stimulant that reduces and . At normal doses, caffeine has variable effects on learning and memory, but it generally improves , , concentration, and . The amount of caffeine needed to produce these effects varies from person to person, depending on body size and degree of tolerance. The desired effects arise approximately one hour after consumption, and the desired effects of a moderate dose usually

2012 Wikipedia

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>