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Splenic Injury

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161. Excessive Selenium Supplementation Induced Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chicken Spleen. (Abstract)

Excessive Selenium Supplementation Induced Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chicken Spleen. Excessive selenium (Se) intake is harmful for animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of long-term excessive Se supplementation on oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related injuries in chicken spleen. A total of 180 1-day-old chickens were randomly divided into four groups with different Se dietary contents (0.2 mg/kg Se, 5 mg/kg (...) Se, 10 mg/kg Se, or 15 mg/kg Se) for 45 days. Then, the levels of antioxidative enzymes, GPx, SOD, and MDA as well as the expression levels of GRP78, ARF6, caspase 3, caspase 12, and Bcl 2 in the spleen were determined at days 15, 30, and 45, respectively. The results showed that excessive Se treatment decreased the activities of GPx and SOD (P < 0.05) but increased the levels of MDA (P < 0.05) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the ER stress genes GRP78 and ATF6 were highly

2017 Biological trace element research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

162. The spleen contributes importantly to myocardial infarct exacerbation during post-ischemic reperfusion in mice via signaling between cardiac HMGB1 and splenic RAGE Full Text available with Trip Pro

The spleen contributes importantly to myocardial infarct exacerbation during post-ischemic reperfusion in mice via signaling between cardiac HMGB1 and splenic RAGE The spleen plays a critical role in post-infarct myocardial remodeling. However, the role of the spleen in exacerbating myocardial infarction (MI) during acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is unknown. The present study tests the hypothesis that splenic leukocytes are activated by substances released from ischemic myocardium (...) formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) expression in sham spleens when compared to 10-IHH-treated sham and control mice. cFLFLF, a specific FPR1 antagonist, reduced myocardial neutrophil infiltration and abrogated the infarct-exacerbating effect of 40-IHH during reperfusion. A cardio (HMGB1)-splenic (RAGE receptor) signaling axis exists and contributes to myocardial infarct exacerbation during reperfusion after prolonged ischemic insults by activating splenic leukocytes. The FPR1 is a potential therapeutic

2016 Basic research in cardiology

163. Accessory Spleen in the Splenic Hilum: a Cadaveric Study with Clinical Significance Full Text available with Trip Pro

Accessory Spleen in the Splenic Hilum: a Cadaveric Study with Clinical Significance An accessory spleen is an additional tissue of the spleen that may be found near the spleen. It is a congenital anomaly of the spleen that its incidence has been reported 10-30% of the population. Hence, the objective of this study was evaluation the incidence of accessory spleen in Iranian cadavers.Sixty hundred and ninety three spleens (541 males, 152 females) were excised from cadavers in the dissection hall (...) of Mashhad Forensic Medicine Organization cadavers. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Fresh Iranian cadavers with no history of alcohol, poisoning or drug abuse, and no evidence of pathologic abnormality or injury to the spleen. The presence of accessory spleens, its dimension and weight investigated in cadavers.During routine postmortem examination, five cases with an accessory spleen were found in the autopsy laboratory of Mashhad legal Medicine Organization between June 2014 and July 2015

2016 Medical Archives

164. Delayed Splenic Rupture; Normal Appearing Spleen on the Initial Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) Can Sometimes Be Misleading Full Text available with Trip Pro

we describe an extremely rare condition in a case that presented with a DSR following blunt trauma and had a normal appearing spleen in the initial post trauma MDCT scan.DSR is a serious consequence of trauma and is associated with a significantly higher mortality rate compared with the overall mortality for acute splenic injuries. A High index of suspicion along with the liberal serial utilization of the imaging studies are the essential elements for early detection of DSR. We propose that DSR (...) be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with hemodynamic instability late post trauma, even when the immediate post trauma MDCT scan has shown a normal appearing spleen. We suggest that every patient with a high impact injury or injuries to peri-splenic organs should have a repeat MDCT scan 2 - 3 days post trauma or before the patients is discharged from hospital.

2016 Trauma monthly

165. Spleen hypoplasia leads to abnormal stress hematopoiesis in mice with loss of Pbx homeoproteins in splenic mesenchyme Full Text available with Trip Pro

stresses such as myeloablation, blood loss, or pregnancy. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to their intrinsic roles in HSPCs, non-cell autonomous functions of Pbx factors within the splenic niche contribute to the regulation of hematopoiesis, at least in part via the control of KitL/SCF and Cxcl12/SDF-1. Furthermore, our study establishes that abnormal spleen development and hypoplasia have deleterious effects on the efficiency of hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury.© 2016 (...) Spleen hypoplasia leads to abnormal stress hematopoiesis in mice with loss of Pbx homeoproteins in splenic mesenchyme The spleen plays critical roles in immunity and also provides a permissive microenvironment for hematopoiesis. Previous studies have reported that the TALE-class homeodomain transcription factor Pbx1 is essential in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for stem cell maintenance and progenitor expansion. However, the role of Pbx1 in the hematopoietic niche has not been

2016 Journal of anatomy

166. Is CT thorax necessary to exclude significant injury in paediatric patients with blunt chest trauma?

pneumothorax, 1 splenic laceration and 1 liver laceration found 2 pts had change in management in that moved to ITU but no pts had surgical intervention. Small study at single centre. Comment(s) It is clear that CT scans are more sensitive than plain CXRs for the detection of thoracic injuries; a more difficult question is whether this additional information is clinically important. The risks of missing a significant injury have to be balanced against the risks of the diagnostic procedure. CT scans involve (...) Is CT thorax necessary to exclude significant injury in paediatric patients with blunt chest trauma? BestBets: Is CT thorax necessary to exclude significant injury in paediatric patients with blunt chest trauma? Is CT thorax necessary to exclude significant injury in paediatric patients with blunt chest trauma? Report By: Craig Ferguson - Consultant in Emergency Medicine Search checked by Katharine de la Morandiere - Consultant in Emergency Medicine Institution: Central Manchester Foundation

2015 BestBETS

167. Totally laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilum lymph nodes dissection in radical total gastrectomy: an omnibearing method. (Abstract)

Totally laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilum lymph nodes dissection in radical total gastrectomy: an omnibearing method. To investigate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilum lymph nodes (LNs) dissection for advanced proximal gastric cancer using an omnibearing method.Between August 2013 and December 2014, 16 patients with advanced proximal gastric cancer treated in Guangdong Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, were enrolled and subsequently (...) underwent laparoscopic radical total gastrectomy (TG) with spleen-preserving splenic hilum LNs dissection. During dissecting Nos. 10 and 11 LNs, we divided them into two parts, namely LNs anterosuperior and posterior to the splenic vessel. The clinicopathological characteristics, intraoperative outcomes and postoperative courses were retrospectively collected and analyzed in the study.Laparoscopic surgery was successfully completed in all 16 patients without conversion to open surgery

2015 Surgical endoscopy

168. The origin, fate, and contribution of macrophages to spinal cord injury pathology. (Abstract)

effects have been largely attributed to environmental cues, such as specific cytokines, that influence the macrophage polarization state. In this review, we also consider the possibility that different macrophage origins, including the spleen, bone marrow, and local self-renewal, may also affect macrophage fate, and ultimately their function that contribute to the complex pathobiology of spinal cord injury. (...) The origin, fate, and contribution of macrophages to spinal cord injury pathology. Virtually all phases of spinal cord injury pathogenesis, including inflammation, cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as tissue remodeling, are mediated in part by infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages. It is now clear that these infiltrating macrophages have distinct functions from resident microglia and are capable of mediating both harmful and beneficial effects after injury. These divergent

2019 Acta neuropathologica

169. Defining the Role of Angioembolization in Pediatric Isolated Blunt Solid Organ Injury. (Abstract)

Defining the Role of Angioembolization in Pediatric Isolated Blunt Solid Organ Injury. To determine the incidence and outcomes of angiography in pediatric patients with blunt solid organ injury (SOI).The National Trauma Data Bank (2010-2014) was queried for patients ≤19 years who experienced isolated blunt SOI. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate characteristics associated with radiological and surgical intervention.Patients with isolated blunt injuries to the spleen (n = 7542 (...) ), liver (n = 4549), and kidney (n = 2640) were identified. Use of angiography increased yearly from 1.6% to 3.1% of cases (p = 0.001) and was associated with older age (OR 2.61 [CI: 1.94-3.50], p < 0.001) and grade III or higher injury (OR 4.63 [CI: 3.11-6.90], p < 0.001). Odds of angiography were 4.9 times higher at adult trauma centers (TCs) than pediatric TCs overall, and almost 9 times higher for isolated splenic trauma (p < 0.001 for each). There was no improvement in splenic salvage after

2019 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

170. Lessons learned from isolated blunt major pancreatic injury: Surgical experience in one trauma centre. Full Text available with Trip Pro

procedures, and complications between the two groups. Eight patients with IBMPI underwent endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, and 5 patients with complete major pancreatic duct (MPD) disruption underwent pancreatectomy eventually. The remaining 3 patients had partial MPD injury and two of them received a pancreatic duct stent for the treatment of existing postoperative pancreatic fistula. Spleen-sacrificing distal pancreatectomy (SSDP) was performed in 13 patient with IBMPI, followed by spleen (...) Lessons learned from isolated blunt major pancreatic injury: Surgical experience in one trauma centre. The aim of this study was to present our surgical experience of isolated blunt major pancreatic injury (IBMPI), and to compare its characteristic outcomes with that of multi-organ injury.From 1994-2015, 31 patients with IBMPI and 54 patients with multi-organ injury, who underwent surgery, were retrospectively studied.Of the 31 patients with IBMPI, 22 were male and 9 were female. The median age

2019 Injury

171. Nanoparticle incorporating Toll-like receptor 4 inhibitor attenuates myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting monocyte-mediated inflammation in mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

into clinical practice. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether the nanoparticle-mediated administration of TAK-242, a chemical inhibitor of TLR4, attenuates myocardial IR injury in a clinically feasible protocol in a mouse model.We have prepared poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles containing TAK-242 (TAK-242-NP). TAK-242-NP significantly enhanced the drug delivery to monocytes/macrophages in the spleen, blood and the heart in mice. Intravenous administration of TAK-242-NP (containing 1.0 or 3.0 mg (...) Nanoparticle incorporating Toll-like receptor 4 inhibitor attenuates myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting monocyte-mediated inflammation in mice. Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury hampers the therapeutic effect of revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Innate immunity for damage-associated protein patterns promotes the process of IR injury; however, the blockade of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in myocardial IR injury has not been translated

2019 Cardiovascular Research

172. Sepsis: mechanisms of bacterial injury to the patient. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sepsis: mechanisms of bacterial injury to the patient. In bacteremia the majority of bacterial species are killed by oxidation on the surface of erythrocytes and digested by local phagocytes in the liver and the spleen. Sepsis-causing bacteria overcome this mechanism of human innate immunity by versatile respiration, production of antioxidant enzymes, hemolysins, exo- and endotoxins, exopolymers and other factors that suppress host defense and provide bacterial survival. Entering

2019 Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine

173. Ameliorative effect of supercritical fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén against D-galactose induced brain and liver injury in senescent mice via suppression of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. (Abstract)

Ameliorative effect of supercritical fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén against D-galactose induced brain and liver injury in senescent mice via suppression of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (C. indicum), a healthy food and folk medicine in China for thousands of years, has been reported to exert heat-clearing and detoxifying effects and extensively applied to treat various symptoms such as inflammation diseases, hepatitis and headache.The (...) , histological examination and western blot analysis. The body weight, spleen and thymus indexes, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain and liver, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected. Besides, the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 were determined by western blot assay.The results

2019 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

174. Non-canonical cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway-mediated activation of peritoneal macrophages induces Hes1 and blocks ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney. (Abstract)

injury including ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). The canonical CAP pathway involves activation of splenic alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-positive macrophages by splenic β2-adrenergic receptor-positive CD4+ T cells. Here we demonstrate that ultrasound or vagus nerve stimulation also activated α7nAChR-positive peritoneal macrophages, and that adoptive transfer of these activated peritoneal macrophages reduced IRI in recipient mice. The protective effect required α7nAChR, and did (...) Non-canonical cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway-mediated activation of peritoneal macrophages induces Hes1 and blocks ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) links the nervous and immune systems and modulates innate and adaptive immunity. Activation of the CAP by vagus nerve stimulation exerts protective effects in a wide variety of clinical disorders including rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease, and in murine models of acute kidney

2019 Kidney International

175. Old age increases microglial senescence, exacerbates secondary neuroinflammation, and worsens neurological outcomes after acute traumatic brain injury in mice. (Abstract)

-month-old) and aged (18-month-old) male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to moderate-level controlled cortical impact or sham surgery, and neurological function was evaluated. At 72 hours after injury, brain, blood, and spleen leukocyte counts were assessed ex vivo using flow cytometry. Aged mice demonstrated more severe deficits in forelimb grip strength, balance and motor coordination, spontaneous locomotor activity, and anxiety-like behavior. These animals also exhibited more robust microglial (...) Old age increases microglial senescence, exacerbates secondary neuroinflammation, and worsens neurological outcomes after acute traumatic brain injury in mice. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), individuals aged over 65 years show increased mortality and worse functional outcomes compared with younger persons. As neuroinflammation is a key pathobiological mechanism of secondary injury after TBI, we examined how aging affects post-traumatic microglial responses and functional outcomes. Young (3

2019 Neurobiology of Aging

176. Pulsed ultrasound attenuates the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. (Abstract)

, the cardioprotective effect disappeared in mice that underwent vagotomy. Plasma acetylcholine, β2 adrenergic receptor, and phosphorylated Akt levels were increased after splenic pulsed ultrasound treatment.Pulsed ultrasound treatment of the spleen or neck attenuated the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury leading to a 3-fold decrease in infarct size. Pulsed ultrasound may provide cardioprotection via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and could be a promising new (...) size in explanted hearts.Splenic pulsed ultrasound significantly decreased infarct size in wild-type C57BL6 mice exposed to acute hyperglycemia and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (5.2% ± 4.4% vs 16.9% ± 12.5% of risk region, P = .013). Knockout of α7nAChR abrogated the beneficial effect of splenic pulsed ultrasound (22.2% ± 12.1%, P = .79 vs control). Neck pulsed ultrasound attenuated the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial infarct size (3.5% ± 4.8%, P = .004 vs control); however

2019 Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

177. When is It Safe to Start VTE Prophylaxis After Blunt Solid Organ Injury? A Prospective Study from a Level I Trauma Center. (Abstract)

prospectively screened. Patients were included if solid organ injury (liver, spleen, kidney) was diagnosed on admission CT scan and nonoperative management was planned. ED deaths, transfers, patients with pre-existing bleeding disorders or home antiplatelet/anticoagulant medications, and those who did not receive VTE prophylaxis were excluded. Demographics, injury/clinical data, type/timing of VTE prophylaxis initiation, and outcomes were collected. Patients were dichotomized into study groups based on VTE (...) compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression determined independent predictors of late VTE prophylaxis initiation.After exclusions, 118 patients were identified. Median ISS was 22 [IQR 14-26]. Median AAST grade of injury was 2 [IQR 2-3] for liver, 2 [IQR 1-3] for spleen, and 3 [IQR 2-3] for kidney. Compared to late prophylaxis patients (n = 57, 48%), early prophylaxis patients (n = 61, 52%) had significantly fewer DVTs (n = 0, 0% vs n = 5, 9%, p = 0.024) but similar

2019 World Journal of Surgery

178. Surgical versus non-surgical management of abdominal injury. (Abstract)

Surgical versus non-surgical management of abdominal injury. Injury to the abdomen can be blunt or penetrating. Abdominal injury can damage internal organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine. There are controversies about the best approach to manage abdominal injuries.To assess the effects of surgical and non-surgical interventions in the management of abdominal trauma.We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, issue 1 (...) ), MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), and ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) all until January 2012; CINAHL until January 2009. We also searched the reference lists of all eligible studies and the trial registers www.controlled-trials.com and www.clinicaltrials.gov in January 2012.Randomised controlled trials of surgical and non surgical interventions among patients with abdominal injury who

2012 Cochrane

179. Grade IV blunt splenic injury – the role of proximal angioembolization. A case report and review of literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Grade IV blunt splenic injury – the role of proximal angioembolization. A case report and review of literature The authors present a case of grade IV traumatic spleen rupture (AAST-OIS) and an Injury Severity Score of 21 and a Revised Trauma Score RTS=7.841, which was managed without surgery, but with proximal splenic angioembolization (SAE), with a positive outcome. Indications, types and side-effects of SAE are also discussed with regard to blunt spleen trauma and the benefits of SAE as non (...) -operative treatment approach. It is the first case of a grade IV splenic laceration non-operatively managed to be published in Romania.

2013 Journal of medicine and life

180. Active Hemorrhage and Vascular Injuries in Splenic Trauma: Utility of the Arterial Phase in Multidetector CT. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Active Hemorrhage and Vascular Injuries in Splenic Trauma: Utility of the Arterial Phase in Multidetector CT. To determine whether the addition of arterial phase computed tomography (CT) to the standard combination of portal venous and delayed phase imaging increases sensitivity in the diagnosis of active hemorrhage and/or contained vascular injuries in patients with splenic trauma.The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study; the requirement to obtain (...) informed consent was waived. The study included all patients aged 15 years and older who sustained a splenic injury from blunt or penetrating trauma and who underwent CT in the arterial and portal venous phases of image acquisition during a 74-month period (September 2005 to November 2011). CT scans were reviewed by three radiologists, and a consensus interpretation was made to classify the splenic injuries according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma splenic injury scale. One

2013 Radiology

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