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Splenic Injury

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141. The diffuse reduction in spleen density: an indicator of severe acute pancreatitis? Full Text available with Trip Pro

The diffuse reduction in spleen density: an indicator of severe acute pancreatitis? We observed that acute pancreatitis (AP) was associated with diffuse reduction in spleen density (DROSD) in some patients. Furthermore, the condition of these patients was more serious, and the potential relationship between DROSD and structural and functional injury of the spleen remained unclear. Therefore, we performed a preliminary exploration of these factors. We analysed pertinent clinical data for AP (...) patients with normal spleen density (control group) and for those with DROSD (reduction group) at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University (June 2013-June 2015). We measured the immunoglobulin M (IgM) B-cells of the AP patients and examined pancreatic and splenic tissues from AP rats with optical microscopy and TEM. The reduction group had a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, a longer length of stay (LOS) and lower serum calcium than

2017 Bioscience reports

142. Podophyllotoxin and Rutin Modulates Ionizing Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death in Mice Bone Marrow and Spleen Full Text available with Trip Pro

Podophyllotoxin and Rutin Modulates Ionizing Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death in Mice Bone Marrow and Spleen The present study is aimed to investigate the radioprotective efficacy of G-003M (combination of podophyllotoxin and rutin) against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress and subsequent cell death in mice bone marrow and spleen. Prophylactic administration of G-003M (-1 h) rendered more than 85% survival in mice exposed to 9 Gy (lethal dose) with dose (...) restoration of CD3 and CD19 receptor, which was found decreased to significant level following irradiation. Similarly, Gr-1, a marker of granulocytes, was also retained by G-003M administration prior to radiation. Modulatory potential of this formulation (G-003M) can be exploited as a safe and effective countermeasure against radiation-induced lymphohemopoietic injury.

2017 Frontiers in immunology

143. Antagonistic effects of selenium on lead-induced autophagy by influencing mitochondrial dynamics in the spleen of chickens Full Text available with Trip Pro

of mitochondrial fusion-related genes (Opa1, Mfn1 and Mfn2) significantly decreased; expression of autophagy-related genes (Beclin 1, Dynein, Atg 5, LC3-I and LC-II) was upregulated, while expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was downregulated. The results of transmission electron microscopy indicated that Pb induced mitochondrial fragmentation, and triggered autophagy in the spleen of chickens. The Se and Pb co-treatment remarkably alleviated these injuries induced by Pb in the spleen (...) Antagonistic effects of selenium on lead-induced autophagy by influencing mitochondrial dynamics in the spleen of chickens Lead (Pb) may damage the immune function in human and animal. Selenium (Se) has antagonistic effects on Pb. In our study, brown layer chickens were randomly allocated to control group, Se group (1 mg/kg Se), Se+Pb group (1 mg/kg Se and 350 mg/kg Pb), and Pb group (350 mg/kg Pb). The chickens were sacrificed on the 90th day; spleen tissues were subjected to observation

2017 Oncotarget

144. Splenic hematoma as a consequence of pneumoperitoneum Full Text available with Trip Pro

Splenic hematoma as a consequence of pneumoperitoneum Splenic injury is a rare but serious complication of bariatric surgical procedures. Given that the need for dissection of the gastrosplenic ligament during bariatric surgical procedures, splenic injury is not unfathomable. While most subcapsular splenic hematomas may be self-limiting, continued expansion may result in splenic rupture and should, therefore, be handled with great care. With the growing rate of bariatric surgical procedures (...) worldwide, inadvertent intra-operative splenic injury may become a more prevalent surgical complication. We report that the first documented case of subcapsular hematoma and associated gas collection following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, as well as, a proposed mechanism for the radiographic findings and potential complications.

2017 Journal of surgical case reports

145. Splenic trauma: WSES classification and guidelines for adult and pediatric patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Splenic trauma: WSES classification and guidelines for adult and pediatric patients Spleen injuries are among the most frequent trauma-related injuries. At present, they are classified according to the anatomy of the injury. The optimal treatment strategy, however, should keep into consideration the hemodynamic status, the anatomic derangement, and the associated injuries. The management of splenic trauma patients aims to restore the homeostasis and the normal physiopathology especially (...) considering the modern tools for bleeding management. Thus, the management of splenic trauma should be ultimately multidisciplinary and based on the physiology of the patient, the anatomy of the injury, and the associated lesions. Lastly, as the management of adults and children must be different, children should always be treated in dedicated pediatric trauma centers. In fact, the vast majority of pediatric patients with blunt splenic trauma can be managed non-operatively. This paper presents the World

2017 World journal of emergency surgery : WJES

146. Natural IgM and TLR Agonists Switch Murine Splenic Pan-B to “Regulatory” Cells That Suppress Ischemia-Induced Innate Inflammation via Regulating NKT-1 Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Natural IgM and TLR Agonists Switch Murine Splenic Pan-B to “Regulatory” Cells That Suppress Ischemia-Induced Innate Inflammation via Regulating NKT-1 Cells Natural IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies (IgM-ALAs) inhibit inflammation by several mechanisms. Here, we show that pan-B cells and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) are switched to regulatory cells when pretreated ex vivo with IgM. B cells are also switched to regulatory cells when pretreated ex vivo with CpG but not with LPS (...) . Pre-emptive infusion of such ex vivo induced regulatory cells protects C57BL/6 mice from ischemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) via regulation of in vivo NKT-1 cells, which normally amplify the innate inflammatory response to DAMPS released after reperfusion of the ischemic kidney. Such ex vivo induced regulatory pan-B cells and BMDC express low CD1d and inhibit inflammation by regulating in vivo NKT-1 in the context of low-lipid antigen presentation and by a mechanism that requires

2017 Frontiers in immunology

147. Endothelium-derived extracellular vesicles promote splenic monocyte mobilization in myocardial infarction Full Text available with Trip Pro

Endothelium-derived extracellular vesicles promote splenic monocyte mobilization in myocardial infarction Transcriptionally activated monocytes are recruited to the heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After AMI in mice and humans, the number of extracellular vesicles (EVs) increased acutely. In humans, EV number correlated closely with the extent of myocardial injury. We hypothesized that EVs mediate splenic monocyte mobilization and program transcription following AMI. Some plasma (...) EVs bear endothelial cell (EC) integrins, and both proinflammatory stimulation of ECs and AMI significantly increased VCAM-1-positive EV release. Injected EC-EVs localized to the spleen and interacted with, and mobilized, splenic monocytes in otherwise naive, healthy animals. Analysis of human plasma EV-associated miRNA showed 12 markedly enriched miRNAs after AMI; functional enrichment analyses identified 1,869 putative mRNA targets, which regulate relevant cellular functions (e.g., proliferation

2017 JCI insight

148. Adoptive transfer of autoimmune splenic dendritic cells to lupus-prone mice triggers a B lymphocyte humoral response Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adoptive transfer of autoimmune splenic dendritic cells to lupus-prone mice triggers a B lymphocyte humoral response Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by increased autoantibody production that leads to multiple tissue injuries. Dendritic cells (DCs) are important orchestrators of immune responses and key components in fine-tuning the balance between tolerance and immunity. However, their role in autoimmune disorders such as SLE remains uncertain. We (...) analyzed the contribution of DCs in triggering SLE by adoptively transferring splenic DCs from aged autoimmune [NZB×NZW]F1 (BWF1) mice to young healthy BWF1 mice. We observed that the transfer of DCs from autoimmune mice to pre-autoimmune mice induced high autoantibody titers in the serum of recipient mice. Moreover, autoimmune DCs from aged BWF1 mice were crucial for the expansion and differentiation of plasmablasts and CD5+ B cells or B1-like cells in the peripheral blood, and spleen of recipient

2017 Immunologic research

149. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9

2017 The Journal of international medical research

150. An update on nonoperative management of the spleen in adults Full Text available with Trip Pro

An update on nonoperative management of the spleen in adults Many patients with blunt splenic injury are considered for nonoperative management and, with proper selection, the success rate is high. This paper aims to provide an update on the treatments and dilemmas of nonoperative management of splenic injuries in adults and to offer suggestions that may improve both consensus and patient outcomes.

2017 Trauma Surgery & Acute Care Open

151. Clinical and Radiological Presentations and Management of Blunt Splenic Trauma: A Single Tertiary Hospital Experience Full Text available with Trip Pro

of different splenic injury grades in trauma patients. RESULTS A total of 191 BSI patients were identified with a mean (SD) age of 26.9 years (13.1); 164 (85.9%) were males. Traffic-related accident was the main mechanism of injury. Splenic contusion and hematoma (77.2%) was the most frequent finding on initial computerized tomography (CT) scans, followed by shattered spleen (11.1%), blush (11.1%), and devascularization (0.6%). Repeated CT scan revealed 3 patients with pseudoaneurysm who underwent (...) Clinical and Radiological Presentations and Management of Blunt Splenic Trauma: A Single Tertiary Hospital Experience BACKGROUND Splenic injury is the leading cause of major bleeding after blunt abdominal trauma. We examined the clinical and radiological presentations, management, and outcome of blunt splenic injuries (BSI) in our institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study of BSI patients between 2011 and 2014 was conducted. We analyzed and compared management and outcome

2017 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

152. Splenic Rupture as a Complication of Colonoscopy Full Text available with Trip Pro

presented abdominal pain and syncope. The diagnosis of splenic rupture was made and a splenectomy was urgently performed. The patient's postoperative recovery was uneventful. Splenic rupture is a rare complication of colonoscopy which cannot be underestimated in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain after this procedure. Splenic injuries may occur in apparently uncomplicated, easy colonoscopies performed by experienced endoscopists, with no risk factors identified, as in this case. (...) Splenic Rupture as a Complication of Colonoscopy Splenic rupture is a rare but serious complication after colonoscopy, with high global mortality (5%). Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion because presentation can be subtle, nonspecific, and delayed from hours to days and then not easily attributed to a recent endoscopy. Urgent splenectomy is the most common treatment option. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department 8 h following a diagnostic colonoscopy. She

2016 GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology

153. A review of the management of blunt splenic trauma in England and Wales: have regional trauma networks influenced management strategies and outcomes? Full Text available with Trip Pro

A review of the management of blunt splenic trauma in England and Wales: have regional trauma networks influenced management strategies and outcomes? INTRODUCTION The spleen remains one of the most frequently injured organs following blunt abdominal trauma. In 2012, regional trauma networks were launched across England and Wales with the aim of improving outcomes following trauma. This retrospective cohort study investigated the management and outcomes of blunt splenic injuries before and after (...) the establishment of regional trauma networks. METHODS A dataset was drawn from the Trauma Audit Research Network database of all splenic injuries admitted to English and Welsh hospitals from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2014. Demographic data, injury severity, treatment modalities and outcomes were collected. Management and outcomes were compared before and after the launch of regional trauma networks. RESULTS There were 1457 blunt splenic injuries: 575 between 2010 and 2012 and 882 in 2012-14. Following

2017 Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England

154. A spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor attenuates the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

A spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor attenuates the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells Pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration after vascular injury promotes the development of occlusive vascular disease. Therefore, an effective chemical agent to suppress aberrant proliferation and migration of VSMCs can be a potential therapeutic modality for occlusive vascular disease such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. To find an anti-proliferative (...) chemical agent for VSMCs, we screened an in-house small molecule library, and the selected small molecule was further validated for its anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs using multiple approaches, such as cell proliferation assays, wound healing assays, transwell migration assays, and ex vivo aortic ring assay.Among 43 initially screened small molecule inhibitors of kinases that have no known anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs, a spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor (BAY61-3606) showed significant

2017 Biological research

155. Excessive Selenium Supplementation Induced Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chicken Spleen. (Abstract)

Excessive Selenium Supplementation Induced Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chicken Spleen. Excessive selenium (Se) intake is harmful for animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of long-term excessive Se supplementation on oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related injuries in chicken spleen. A total of 180 1-day-old chickens were randomly divided into four groups with different Se dietary contents (0.2 mg/kg Se, 5 mg/kg (...) Se, 10 mg/kg Se, or 15 mg/kg Se) for 45 days. Then, the levels of antioxidative enzymes, GPx, SOD, and MDA as well as the expression levels of GRP78, ARF6, caspase 3, caspase 12, and Bcl 2 in the spleen were determined at days 15, 30, and 45, respectively. The results showed that excessive Se treatment decreased the activities of GPx and SOD (P < 0.05) but increased the levels of MDA (P < 0.05) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the ER stress genes GRP78 and ATF6 were highly

2017 Biological trace element research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

156. The spleen contributes importantly to myocardial infarct exacerbation during post-ischemic reperfusion in mice via signaling between cardiac HMGB1 and splenic RAGE Full Text available with Trip Pro

The spleen contributes importantly to myocardial infarct exacerbation during post-ischemic reperfusion in mice via signaling between cardiac HMGB1 and splenic RAGE The spleen plays a critical role in post-infarct myocardial remodeling. However, the role of the spleen in exacerbating myocardial infarction (MI) during acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is unknown. The present study tests the hypothesis that splenic leukocytes are activated by substances released from ischemic myocardium (...) formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) expression in sham spleens when compared to 10-IHH-treated sham and control mice. cFLFLF, a specific FPR1 antagonist, reduced myocardial neutrophil infiltration and abrogated the infarct-exacerbating effect of 40-IHH during reperfusion. A cardio (HMGB1)-splenic (RAGE receptor) signaling axis exists and contributes to myocardial infarct exacerbation during reperfusion after prolonged ischemic insults by activating splenic leukocytes. The FPR1 is a potential therapeutic

2016 Basic research in cardiology

157. Accessory Spleen in the Splenic Hilum: a Cadaveric Study with Clinical Significance Full Text available with Trip Pro

Accessory Spleen in the Splenic Hilum: a Cadaveric Study with Clinical Significance An accessory spleen is an additional tissue of the spleen that may be found near the spleen. It is a congenital anomaly of the spleen that its incidence has been reported 10-30% of the population. Hence, the objective of this study was evaluation the incidence of accessory spleen in Iranian cadavers.Sixty hundred and ninety three spleens (541 males, 152 females) were excised from cadavers in the dissection hall (...) of Mashhad Forensic Medicine Organization cadavers. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Fresh Iranian cadavers with no history of alcohol, poisoning or drug abuse, and no evidence of pathologic abnormality or injury to the spleen. The presence of accessory spleens, its dimension and weight investigated in cadavers.During routine postmortem examination, five cases with an accessory spleen were found in the autopsy laboratory of Mashhad legal Medicine Organization between June 2014 and July 2015

2016 Medical Archives

158. Delayed Splenic Rupture; Normal Appearing Spleen on the Initial Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) Can Sometimes Be Misleading Full Text available with Trip Pro

we describe an extremely rare condition in a case that presented with a DSR following blunt trauma and had a normal appearing spleen in the initial post trauma MDCT scan.DSR is a serious consequence of trauma and is associated with a significantly higher mortality rate compared with the overall mortality for acute splenic injuries. A High index of suspicion along with the liberal serial utilization of the imaging studies are the essential elements for early detection of DSR. We propose that DSR (...) be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with hemodynamic instability late post trauma, even when the immediate post trauma MDCT scan has shown a normal appearing spleen. We suggest that every patient with a high impact injury or injuries to peri-splenic organs should have a repeat MDCT scan 2 - 3 days post trauma or before the patients is discharged from hospital.

2016 Trauma monthly

159. Spleen hypoplasia leads to abnormal stress hematopoiesis in mice with loss of Pbx homeoproteins in splenic mesenchyme Full Text available with Trip Pro

stresses such as myeloablation, blood loss, or pregnancy. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to their intrinsic roles in HSPCs, non-cell autonomous functions of Pbx factors within the splenic niche contribute to the regulation of hematopoiesis, at least in part via the control of KitL/SCF and Cxcl12/SDF-1. Furthermore, our study establishes that abnormal spleen development and hypoplasia have deleterious effects on the efficiency of hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury.© 2016 (...) Spleen hypoplasia leads to abnormal stress hematopoiesis in mice with loss of Pbx homeoproteins in splenic mesenchyme The spleen plays critical roles in immunity and also provides a permissive microenvironment for hematopoiesis. Previous studies have reported that the TALE-class homeodomain transcription factor Pbx1 is essential in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for stem cell maintenance and progenitor expansion. However, the role of Pbx1 in the hematopoietic niche has not been

2016 Journal of anatomy

160. Is CT thorax necessary to exclude significant injury in paediatric patients with blunt chest trauma?

pneumothorax, 1 splenic laceration and 1 liver laceration found 2 pts had change in management in that moved to ITU but no pts had surgical intervention. Small study at single centre. Comment(s) It is clear that CT scans are more sensitive than plain CXRs for the detection of thoracic injuries; a more difficult question is whether this additional information is clinically important. The risks of missing a significant injury have to be balanced against the risks of the diagnostic procedure. CT scans involve (...) Is CT thorax necessary to exclude significant injury in paediatric patients with blunt chest trauma? BestBets: Is CT thorax necessary to exclude significant injury in paediatric patients with blunt chest trauma? Is CT thorax necessary to exclude significant injury in paediatric patients with blunt chest trauma? Report By: Craig Ferguson - Consultant in Emergency Medicine Search checked by Katharine de la Morandiere - Consultant in Emergency Medicine Institution: Central Manchester Foundation

2015 BestBETS

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