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Spirochete

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1. Interaction of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete, with human platelets. (PubMed)

Interaction of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete, with human platelets. Extracellular bacteria that spread via the vasculature employ invasive mechanisms that mirror those of metastatic tumor cells, including intravasation into the bloodstream and survival during hematogenous dissemination, arrestation despite blood flow, and extravasation into distant tissue sites. Several invasive bacteria have been shown to exploit normal platelet function during infection. Due to their inherent

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2019 PLoS ONE

2. Phylogeography of Borrelia spirochetes in Ixodes pacificus and Ixodes spinipalpis ticks highlights differential acarological risk of tick-borne disease transmission in northern versus southern California. (PubMed)

Phylogeography of Borrelia spirochetes in Ixodes pacificus and Ixodes spinipalpis ticks highlights differential acarological risk of tick-borne disease transmission in northern versus southern California. The common human-biting tick, Ixodes pacificus, is the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) in western North America and has been found to harbor other closely-related spirochetes in the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) complex. Between

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2019 PLoS ONE

3. Colonic spirochete infection and irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review

Colonic spirochete infection and irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email

2019 PROSPERO

4. As a spirochete. (PubMed)

As a spirochete. 30763618 2019 03 13 1469-0691 2019 Feb 12 Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Clin. Microbiol. Infect. An atypical morphology of Campylobacter: like a spirochete. S1198-743X(19)30040-0 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.01.018 Thomas B B Laboratoire de Biologie Médicale, Hopitaux Prives de Metz, Metz, France. Electronic address: benoit.thomas@hp-metz.fr. Poussing S S Laboratoire de Biologie (...) Médicale, Hopitaux Prives de Metz, Metz, France. eng Journal Article 2019 02 12 England Clin Microbiol Infect 9516420 1198-743X Bacteraemia Blood culture Borrelia Campylobacter Spirochete 2018 12 18 2019 01 21 2019 01 26 2019 2 15 6 0 2019 2 15 6 0 2019 2 15 6 0 aheadofprint 30763618 S1198-743X(19)30040-0 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.01.018

2019 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

5. Microbiological features distinguishing Lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes (PubMed)

Microbiological features distinguishing Lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes The recent proposal of splitting the genus Borrelia into two genera in the newly formed family of Borreliaceae, i. e. Borrelia and Borreliella has motivated us to reflect upon how these organisms has been characterized and differentiated. This article therefore aims to take a closer look on the biology and virulence attributes of the two suggested genera, i. e. those causing Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever

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2018 Wiener klinische Wochenschrift

6. Infection history of the blood-meal host dictates pathogenic potential of the Lyme disease spirochete within the feeding tick vector (PubMed)

Infection history of the blood-meal host dictates pathogenic potential of the Lyme disease spirochete within the feeding tick vector Lyme disease in humans is caused by several genospecies of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex of spirochetal bacteria, including B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii and B. garinii. These bacteria exist in nature as obligate parasites in an enzootic cycle between small vertebrate hosts and Ixodid tick vectors, with humans representing incidental hosts (...) . During the natural enzootic cycle, infected ticks in endemic areas feed not only upon naïve hosts, but also upon seropositive infected hosts. In the current study, we considered this environmental parameter and assessed the impact of the immune status of the blood-meal host on the phenotype of the Lyme disease spirochete within the tick vector. We found that blood from a seropositive host profoundly attenuates the infectivity (>104 fold) of homologous spirochetes within the tick vector without

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2018 PLoS pathogens

7. Detecting the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi, in Ticks Using Nested PCR (PubMed)

Detecting the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi, in Ticks Using Nested PCR Lyme disease is a serious vector-borne infection that is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato family of spirochetes, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks. The primary etiological agent in North America is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. As geographic risk regions expand, it is prudent to support robust surveillance programs that can measure tick infection

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2018 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

8. The mechanism of two-phase motility in the spirochete Leptospira: Swimming and crawling (PubMed)

The mechanism of two-phase motility in the spirochete Leptospira: Swimming and crawling Many species of bacteria are motile, but their migration mechanisms are considerably diverse. Whatever mechanism is used, being motile allows bacteria to search for more optimal environments for growth, and motility is a crucial virulence factor for pathogenic species. The spirochete Leptospira, having two flagella in the periplasmic space, swims in liquid but has also been previously shown to crawl over (...) solid surfaces. The present motility assays show that the spirochete movements both in liquid and on surfaces involve a rotation of the helical cell body. Direct observations of cell-surface movement with amino-specific fluorescent dye and antibody-coated microbeads suggest that the spirochete attaches to the surface via mobile, adhesive outer membrane components, and the cell body rotation propels the cell relative to the anchoring points. Our results provide models of how the spirochete switches

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2018 Science advances

9. Borrelia burgdorferi SpoVG DNA- and RNA-Binding Protein Modulates the Physiology of the Lyme Disease Spirochete (PubMed)

Borrelia burgdorferi SpoVG DNA- and RNA-Binding Protein Modulates the Physiology of the Lyme Disease Spirochete The SpoVG protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds to specific sites of DNA and RNA. The bacterium regulates transcription of spoVG during the natural tick-mammal infectious cycle and in response to some changes in culture conditions. Bacterial levels of spoVG mRNA and SpoVG protein did not necessarily correlate, suggesting that posttranscriptional (...) mechanisms also control protein levels. Consistent with this, SpoVG binds to its own mRNA, adjacent to the ribosome-binding site. SpoVG also binds to two DNA sites in the glpFKD operon and to two RNA sites in glpFKD mRNA; that operon encodes genes necessary for glycerol catabolism and is important for colonization in ticks. In addition, spirochetes engineered to dysregulate spoVG exhibited physiological alterations.IMPORTANCEB. burgdorferi persists in nature by cycling between ticks and vertebrates

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2018 Journal of bacteriology

10. Sequence Variation of Rare Outer Membrane Protein β-Barrel Domains in Clinical Strains Provides Insights into the Evolution of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the Syphilis Spirochete (PubMed)

Sequence Variation of Rare Outer Membrane Protein β-Barrel Domains in Clinical Strains Provides Insights into the Evolution of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the Syphilis Spirochete In recent years, considerable progress has been made in topologically and functionally characterizing integral outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the syphilis spirochete, and identifying its surface-exposed β-barrel domains. Extracellular loops in OMPs of Gram-negative (...) to the evolutionary biology of syphilis spirochetes. These results also set the stage for topology-based analysis of antibody responses that promote clearance of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum and frame strategies for vaccine development based upon conserved OMP extracellular loops.Copyright © 2018 Kumar et al.

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2018 mBio

11. FcpB Is a Surface Filament Protein of the Endoflagellum Required for the Motility of the Spirochete Leptospira (PubMed)

FcpB Is a Surface Filament Protein of the Endoflagellum Required for the Motility of the Spirochete Leptospira The spirochete endoflagellum is a unique motility apparatus among bacteria. Despite its critical importance for pathogenesis, the full composition of the flagellum remains to be determined. We have recently reported that FcpA is a novel flagellar protein and a major component of the sheath of the filament of the spirochete Leptospira. By screening a library of random transposon mutants (...) in the spirochete Leptospira biflexa, we found a motility-deficient mutant harboring a disruption in a hypothetical gene of unknown function. Here, we show that this gene encodes a surface component of the endoflagellar filament and is required for typical hook- and spiral-shaped ends of the cell body, coiled structure of the endoflagella, and high velocity phenotype. We therefore named the gene fcpB for flagellar-coiling protein B. fcpB is conserved in all members of the Leptospira genus, but not present

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2018 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

12. Long-Term In Vitro Culture of the Syphilis Spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (PubMed)

Long-Term In Vitro Culture of the Syphilis Spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Investigation of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the spirochete that causes syphilis, has been hindered by an inability to culture the organism continuously in vitro despite more than a century of effort. In this study, long-term logarithmic multiplication of T. pallidum was attained through subculture every 6 to 7 days and periodic feeding using a modified medium (T. pallidum culture medium 2 [TpCM-2

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2018 mBio

13. Characterization of LE3 and LE4, the only lytic phages known to infect the spirochete Leptospira (PubMed)

Characterization of LE3 and LE4, the only lytic phages known to infect the spirochete Leptospira Leptospira is a phylogenetically unique group of bacteria, and includes the causative agents of leptospirosis, the most globally prevalent zoonosis. Bacteriophages in Leptospira are largely unexplored. To date, a genomic sequence is available for only one temperate leptophage called LE1. Here, we sequenced and analysed the first genomes of the lytic phages LE3 and LE4 that can infect the saprophyte

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2018 Scientific reports

14. Transmission of the relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi, by single transovarially-infected larval Ixodes scapularis ticks (PubMed)

Transmission of the relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi, by single transovarially-infected larval Ixodes scapularis ticks The relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi, is increasingly recognized as a cause of human illness (hard tick-borne relapsing fever) in the United States. We previously demonstrated that single nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, can transmit B. miyamotoi to experimental hosts. However, two recent epidemiological studies from (...) larva and in 5 (83%) of 6 mice exposed to two infected larvae feeding simultaneously. All 18 positive mice also demonstrated seroreactivity to B. miyamotoi. Of the 11 remaining mice without detectable B. miyamotoi DNA in their blood 10 d after infected larvae attached, 7 (64%) had evidence of spirochete exposure by serology 8 wk later. Because public health messaging for risk of exposure to Lyme disease spirochetes focuses on nymphal and female I. scapularis ticks, our finding that transovarially

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2018 Ticks and tick-borne diseases

15. Anti-OspA DNA-Encoded Monoclonal Antibody Prevents Transmission of Spirochetes in Tick Challenge Providing Sterilizing Immunity in Mice. (PubMed)

Anti-OspA DNA-Encoded Monoclonal Antibody Prevents Transmission of Spirochetes in Tick Challenge Providing Sterilizing Immunity in Mice. We recently developed anti-OspA human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) that are effective in preventing Borrelia transmission from ticks in a murine model. Here, we investigated a novel approach of DNA-mediated gene transfer of HuMAbs that provide protection against Lyme disease. Plasmid DNA-encoded anti-OspA HuMAbs inoculated in mice achieved

2018 Journal of Infectious Diseases

16. Seroprevalence for the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae among small and medium sized mammals of Texas (PubMed)

Seroprevalence for the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae among small and medium sized mammals of Texas In low elevation arid regions throughout the southern United States, Borrelia turicatae is the principal agent of tick-borne relapsing fever. However, endemic foci and the vertebrate hosts involved in the ecology of B. turicatae remain undefined. Experimental infection studies suggest that small and medium sized mammals likely maintain B. turicatae in nature, while (...) the tick vector is a long-lived reservoir.Serum samples from wild caught rodents, raccoons, and wild and domestic canids from 23 counties in Texas were screened for prior exposure to B. turicatae. Serological assays were performed using B. turicatae protein lysates and recombinant Borrelia immunogenic protein A (rBipA), a diagnostic protein that is unique to RF spirochetes and may be a species-specific antigen.Serological responses to B. turicatae were detected from 24 coyotes, one gray fox, two

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

17. Better drugs for Lyme disease: focus on the spirochete (PubMed)

Better drugs for Lyme disease: focus on the spirochete Twenty-five years ago, the AIDS epidemic was wreaking havoc around the world. Although "HIV denialists" threatened to undermine research efforts to combat the epidemic, development of targeted antiviral therapy eventually provided effective treatment for the disease. Now the Lyme disease epidemic is wreaking havoc around the world, and "Lyme denialists" are undermining efforts to combat the epidemic. Drawing on our experience with the AIDS

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2018 Infection and drug resistance

18. Detection of Tickborne Relapsing Fever Spirochete, Austin, Texas, USA. (PubMed)

Detection of Tickborne Relapsing Fever Spirochete, Austin, Texas, USA. In March 2017, a patient became febrile within 4 days after visiting a rustic conference center in Austin, Texas, USA, where Austin Public Health suspected an outbreak of tickborne relapsing fever a month earlier. Evaluation of a patient blood smear and molecular diagnostic assays identified Borrelia turicatae as the causative agent. We could not gain access to the property to collect ticks. Thus, we focused efforts

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2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

19. The Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction After Antibiotic Treatment of Spirochetal Infections: A Review of Recent Cases and Our Understanding of Pathogenesis. (PubMed)

The Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction After Antibiotic Treatment of Spirochetal Infections: A Review of Recent Cases and Our Understanding of Pathogenesis. Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate (...) that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes. Experimental evidence indicates it is caused by nonendotoxin pyrogen and spirochetal lipoproteins. Mediation of the JHR in RF by the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 has been proposed, consistent with measurements

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2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

20. <i>In vitro</i> susceptibility of the relapsing fever spirochete <i>Borrelia miyamotoi</i> to antimicrobial agents. (PubMed)

In vitro susceptibility of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi to antimicrobial agents. Hard-tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF) is an emerging infectious disease throughout the temperate zone caused by the relapsing-fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi Antibiotic treatment of HTBRF is empirically based on the treatment of Lyme borreliosis; however, the antibiotic susceptibility of B. miyamotoi has not been studied to date. Thus, we set out to determine the in vitro

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2017 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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