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Speech Delay

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161. Everyday Listening Performance of Children Before and After Receiving a Second Cochlear Implant: Results Using the Parent Version of the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale. (PubMed)

or listening effort.Children receiving sequential bilateral implants at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital and fulfilling selection criteria (primarily no significant cognitive or developmental delays, and oral English language skills of child and parent sufficient for completing assessments) were invited to participate in a wider project evaluating outcomes. The assessment protocol for older children included the speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing scale for parents. All children (n = 20; ages (...) Everyday Listening Performance of Children Before and After Receiving a Second Cochlear Implant: Results Using the Parent Version of the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale. To evaluate change in individual children's performance in general areas of everyday listening following sequential bilateral implantation, and to identify the specific types of listening scenarios in which performance change occurred. The first hypothesis was that parent performance ratings for their child

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2015 Ear and hearing

162. Parent Telegraphic Speech Use and Spoken Language in Preschoolers With ASD (PubMed)

Parent Telegraphic Speech Use and Spoken Language in Preschoolers With ASD There is considerable controversy regarding whether to use telegraphic or grammatical input when speaking to young children with language delays, including children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined telegraphic speech use in parents of preschoolers with ASD and associations with children's spoken language 1 year later.Parent-child dyads (n = 55) participated when children were, on average, 3 (Time (...) 1) and 4 years old (Time 2). The rate at which parents omitted obligatory determiners was derived from transcripts of parent-child play sessions; measures of children's spoken language were obtained from these same transcripts.Telegraphic speech use varied substantially across parents. Higher rates of parent determiner omissions at Time 1 were significantly associated with lower lexical diversity in children's spoken language at Time 2, even when controlling for children's baseline lexical

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2015 Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR

163. Sex differences in multisensory speech processing in both typically developing children and those on the autism spectrum (PubMed)

Sex differences in multisensory speech processing in both typically developing children and those on the autism spectrum Previous work has revealed sizeable deficits in the abilities of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to integrate auditory and visual speech signals, with clear implications for social communication in this population. There is a strong male preponderance in ASD, with approximately four affected males for every female. The presence of sex differences in ASD (...) symptoms suggests a sexual dimorphism in the ASD phenotype, and raises the question of whether this dimorphism extends to ASD traits in the neurotypical population. Here, we investigated possible sexual dimorphism in multisensory speech integration in both ASD and neurotypical individuals.We assessed whether males and females differed in their ability to benefit from visual speech when target words were presented under varying levels of signal-to-noise, in samples of neurotypical children and adults

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2015 Frontiers in neuroscience

164. Multi-time resolution analysis of speech: evidence from psychophysics (PubMed)

Multi-time resolution analysis of speech: evidence from psychophysics How speech signals are analyzed and represented remains a foundational challenge both for cognitive science and neuroscience. A growing body of research, employing various behavioral and neurobiological experimental techniques, now points to the perceptual relevance of both phoneme-sized (10-40 Hz modulation frequency) and syllable-sized (2-10 Hz modulation frequency) units in speech processing. However, it is not clear how (...) information associated with such different time scales interacts in a manner relevant for speech perception. We report behavioral experiments on speech intelligibility employing a stimulus that allows us to investigate how distinct temporal modulations in speech are treated separately and whether they are combined. We created sentences in which the slow (~4 Hz; Slow) and rapid (~33 Hz; Shigh) modulations-corresponding to ~250 and ~30 ms, the average duration of syllables and certain phonetic properties

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2015 Frontiers in neuroscience

165. Management of developmental speech and language disorders: Part 1. (PubMed)

Management of developmental speech and language disorders: Part 1. The identification of developmental problems in a child's acquisition of speech, language and/or communication is a core activity in child surveillance. These are common difficulties with up to 15% of toddlers being 'late talkers' and 7% of children entering school with persisting impairments of their language development. These delays can confer disadvantages in the long term, adversely affecting language, cognition, academic (...) attainment, behaviour and mental health. All children presenting with significant speech and language delay should be investigated with a comprehensive hearing assessment and be considered for speech and language therapy assessment. Socioeconomic adversity correlates with delayed language development. Clinical assessment should confirm that the presentation is definitely not acquired (see part 2) and will also guide whether the difficulty is primary, in which there are often familial patterns

2015 Archives of Disease in Childhood

166. DYRK1A haploinsufficiency causes a new recognizable syndrome with microcephaly, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and distinct facies. (PubMed)

microdeletion and those with translocation, SNVs, or INDELs within DYRK1A. All individuals shared congenital microcephaly at birth, intellectual disability, developmental delay, severe speech impairment, short stature, and distinct facial features. The severity of the microcephaly varied from -2 SD to -5 SD. Seizures, structural brain abnormalities, eye defects, ataxia/broad-based gait, intrauterine growth restriction, minor skeletal abnormalities, and feeding difficulties were present in two-thirds of all (...) DYRK1A haploinsufficiency causes a new recognizable syndrome with microcephaly, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and distinct facies. Dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1 A (DYRK1A ) is a highly conserved gene located in the Down syndrome critical region. It has an important role in early development and regulation of neuronal proliferation. Microdeletions of chromosome 21q22.12q22.3 that include DYRK1A (21q22.13) are rare and only a few pathogenic single

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2015 European Journal of Human Genetics

167. A de novo FOXP1 variant in a patient with autism, intellectual disability and severe speech and language impairment. (PubMed)

A de novo FOXP1 variant in a patient with autism, intellectual disability and severe speech and language impairment. FOXP1 (forkhead box protein P1) is a transcription factor involved in the development of several tissues, including the brain. An emerging phenotype of patients with protein-disrupting FOXP1 variants includes global developmental delay, intellectual disability and mild to severe speech/language deficits. We report on a female child with a history of severe hypotonia, autism (...) spectrum disorder and mild intellectual disability with severe speech/language impairment. Clinical exome sequencing identified a heterozygous de novo FOXP1 variant c.1267_1268delGT (p.V423Hfs*37). Functional analyses using cellular models show that the variant disrupts multiple aspects of FOXP1 activity, including subcellular localization and transcriptional repression properties. Our findings highlight the importance of performing functional characterization to help uncover the biological

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2015 European Journal of Human Genetics

168. Effects of electrode array length on frequency-place mismatch and speech perception with cochlear implants. (PubMed)

. A deeper insertion was responsible for a larger frequency-place mismatch and a decreased and delayed speech perception improvement by comparison with a shallower insertion, for which a similar but slighter effect was noticed. Our results support the notion that selecting an electrode array length adapted to each individual's cochlear anatomy may reduce frequency-place mismatch and thus improve speech perception outcome.© 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel (...) Effects of electrode array length on frequency-place mismatch and speech perception with cochlear implants. Frequency-place mismatch often occurs after cochlear implantation, yet its effect on speech perception outcome remains unclear. In this article, we propose a method, based on cochlea imaging, to determine the cochlear place-frequency map. We evaluated the effect of frequency-place mismatch on speech perception outcome in subjects implanted with 3 different lengths of electrode arrays

2015 Audiology & Neuro-Otology

169. Effects of Aging on the Encoding of Dynamic and Static Components of Speech. (PubMed)

-related delays in subcortical timing specific to the dynamic, transition region of the stimulus. However, it is unknown whether this delay is mainly due to a failure to encode rapid changes in the formant transition because of central temporal processing deficits or as a result of cochlear damage that reduces audibility for the high-frequency components of the speech syllable. To investigate the nature of this delay, the authors compared subcortical responses in younger and older adults with normal (...) hearing to the speech syllables /da/ and /a/, hypothesizing that the delays in peak timing observed in older adults are mainly caused by temporal processing deficits in the central auditory system.The frequency following response was recorded to the speech syllables /da/ and /a/ from 15 younger and 15 older adults with normal hearing, normal IQ, and no history of neurological disorders. Both speech syllables were presented binaurally with alternating polarities at 80 dB SPL at a rate of 4.3 Hz through

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2015 Ear and hearing

170. Dynamics of Self-monitoring and Error Detection in Speech Production: Evidence from Mental Imagery and MEG (PubMed)

Dynamics of Self-monitoring and Error Detection in Speech Production: Evidence from Mental Imagery and MEG A critical subroutine of self-monitoring during speech production is to detect any deviance between expected and actual auditory feedback. Here we investigated the associated neural dynamics using MEG recording in mental-imagery-of-speech paradigms. Participants covertly articulated the vowel /a/; their own (individually recorded) speech was played back, with parametric manipulation using (...) four levels of pitch shift, crossed with four levels of onset delay. A nonmonotonic function was observed in early auditory responses when the onset delay was shorter than 100 msec: Suppression was observed for normal playback, but enhancement for pitch-shifted playback; however, the magnitude of enhancement decreased at the largest level of pitch shift that was out of pitch range for normal conversion, as suggested in two behavioral experiments. No difference was observed among different types

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2015 Journal of cognitive neuroscience

171. Age-related changes in the subcortical-cortical encoding and categorical perception of speech. (PubMed)

performance than younger listeners, which coincided with reduced brainstem amplitude and increased, but delayed, cortical speech-evoked responses. Mild age-related hearing loss showed differential correspondence with neurophysiological responses showing negative (brainstem) and positive (cortical) correlations with brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity, that is, "neural noise," did not differ between older and younger adults. Yet, mutual information and correlations computed between brainstem (...) Age-related changes in the subcortical-cortical encoding and categorical perception of speech. Aging is associated with declines in auditory processing including speech comprehension abilities. Here, we evaluated both brainstem and cortical speech-evoked brain responses to elucidate how aging impacts the neural transcription and transfer of speech information between functional levels of the auditory nervous system. Behaviorally, older adults showed slower, more variable speech classification

2014 Neurobiology of Aging

172. Speech evoked auditory brainstem response findings in children with epilepsy. (PubMed)

was recorded monaurally from both ears at 90 dB nHL then speech ABR was recorded monaurally from each ear at 80 dB SPL.Though the study group disclosed normal click ABR compared to age matched normative values, speech-evoked ABR revealed a delayed waves V and A latencies in both ears. These findings reflect abnormal neural encoding of speech at the level of brainstem. The younger the age of epileptic child the more prolonged wave A latency and increased V/A inter-latency values.Speech-evoked ABR results (...) Speech evoked auditory brainstem response findings in children with epilepsy. Children with epilepsy are at a considerable risk of cognitive impairment and school failure. Previous studies have typically documented abnormal responses in children with epilepsy at cortical level using speech stimuli. Recent studies reported that abnormal neural encoding of a speech syllable could be detected at the level of the brainstem using speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR). The aim of this study

2014 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

173. Natural speech comprehension in bipolar disorders: An event-related brain potential study among manic patients. (PubMed)

. At the electrophysiological level, our results show preserved N400 component in BD. LPC elicited under natural speech conditions shows preserved amplitude but delayed latency in difference waves.Small size of samples, absence of schizophrenic group and medication status.In contrast with the only previous N400 study in BD that uses written semantic priming, our results show a preserved N400 component in ecological and natural speech conditions among patients with BD. Possible implications in terms of clinical specificity (...) Natural speech comprehension in bipolar disorders: An event-related brain potential study among manic patients. Thought and language disturbances are crucial clinical features in Bipolar Disorders (BD), and constitute a fundamental basis for social cognition. In BD, clinical manifestations such as disorganization and formal thought disorders may play a role in communication disturbances. However, only few studies have explored language disturbances in BD at a neurophysiological level. Two main

2014 Journal of Affective Disorders

174. Differential modulation of auditory responses to attended and unattended speech in different listening conditions. (PubMed)

stronger N1 and P2 responses but a weaker P1 response compared to the cross-correlation with the unattended speech. Furthermore, the N1 response to the attended speech in the CS condition was enhanced and delayed compared with the active listening condition in quiet, while the P2 response to the unattended speaker in the CS condition was attenuated compared with the passive listening in quiet. Taken together, these results demonstrate that top-down attention differentially modulates envelope-tracking (...) Differential modulation of auditory responses to attended and unattended speech in different listening conditions. This study investigates how top-down attention modulates neural tracking of the speech envelope in different listening conditions. In the quiet conditions, a single speech stream was presented and the subjects paid attention to the speech stream (active listening) or watched a silent movie instead (passive listening). In the competing speaker (CS) conditions, two speakers

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2014 Hearing Research

175. Speech perception with interaction-compensated simultaneous stimulation and long pulse durations in cochlear implant users. (PubMed)

Speech perception with interaction-compensated simultaneous stimulation and long pulse durations in cochlear implant users. Early multi-channel designs in the history of cochlear implant development were based on a vocoder-type processing of frequency channels and presented bands of compressed analog stimulus waveforms simultaneously on multiple tonotopically arranged electrodes. The realization that the direct summation of electrical fields as a result of simultaneous electrode stimulation (...) of simultaneous stimulation with channel interaction compensation (CIC) may also ameliorate the deleterious effects of simultaneous channel interaction on speech perception. In an acute study conducted in eleven experienced MED-EL implant users, configurations involving simultaneous stimulation with CIC and doubled pulse phase durations have been investigated. As pairs of electrodes were activated simultaneously and pulse durations were doubled, carrier rates remained the same. Comparison conditions involved

2014 Hearing Research

176. Integrating external evidence of intervention effectiveness with both practice and the parent perspective: development of 'What Works' for speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN). (PubMed)

for children with primary speech and language delays/disorder; current practice from an online survey of 534 speech and language therapists and other professionals working with children with SLCN; and parent reports of preferred outcomes. Evidence was ranked as strong, moderate, or indicative.Of the 58 interventions identified, three (5%) were found to have a strong level of evidence, 32 (56%) had moderate evidence, and 23 (39%) had indicative evidence. Five were universal interventions, the remainder (...) Integrating external evidence of intervention effectiveness with both practice and the parent perspective: development of 'What Works' for speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN). The aim of the study was to develop an ecologically valid synthesis of the evidence underpinning interventions for children with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN), integrating a range of different data sources.Three sources of information were integrated: the Cochrane Review of interventions

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2014 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

177. Treatment Efficacy for Developmental Motor Speech Disorders

or Delay Group Participants in this group are on the waitlist for 10 weeks Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Change in speech motor control [ Time Frame: At baseline and following 10 weeks of intervention or waitlist delay ] Formal assessment of the neuromotor integrity of the motor speech system will be carried out using the verbal motor production assessment for children (VMPAC). Change in speech articulation [ Time Frame: At baseline and following 10 weeks of intervention or waitlist (...) delay ] Assessment of speech articulation will be carried out using the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) test. Change in word-level speech intelligibility [ Time Frame: At baseline and following 10 weeks of intervention or waitlist delay ] Word level assessment of speech intelligibility will be carried out using the Children's speech Intelligibility Measure. Change in Functional Communication: [ Time Frame: At baseline and following 10 weeks of intervention or waitlist

2014 Clinical Trials

178. Capturing patient information at nursing shift changes: methodological evaluation of speech recognition and information extraction. (PubMed)

Capturing patient information at nursing shift changes: methodological evaluation of speech recognition and information extraction. We study the use of speech recognition and information extraction to generate drafts of Australian nursing-handover documents.Speech recognition correctness and clinicians' preferences were evaluated using 15 recorder-microphone combinations, six documents, three speakers, Dragon Medical 11, and five survey/interview participants. Information extraction correctness (...) evaluation used 260 documents, six-class classification for each word, two annotators, and the CRF++ conditional random field toolkit.A noise-cancelling lapel-microphone with a digital voice recorder gave the best correctness (79%). This microphone was also the most preferred option by all but one participant. Although the participants liked the small size of this recorder, their preference was for tablets that can also be used for document proofing and sign-off, among other tasks. Accented speech

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2014 Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association

179. Speech Sound Production in Two-Year-Olds who are Hard of Hearing (PubMed)

relationships existed between children's speech sound production abilities at 2 and 3 years of age.Assessment of early speech sound production abilities in combination with demographic, audiologic, and linguistic variables may be useful in identifying HH children who are at risk for delays in speech sound production. (...) Speech Sound Production in Two-Year-Olds who are Hard of Hearing The purpose of the study was to (a) compare the speech sound production abilities of 2-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) to children with normal hearing (NH), (b) identify sources of risk for individual children who are HH, and (c) determine whether speech sound production skills at age 2 were predictive of speech sound production skills at age 3.Seventy children with bilateral, mild-to-severe hearing loss who use

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2014 American journal of speech-language pathology / American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

180. Brain electrophysiology reveals intact processing of speech sounds in deformational plagiocephaly. (PubMed)

Brain electrophysiology reveals intact processing of speech sounds in deformational plagiocephaly. The prevalence of deformational plagiocephaly has risen dramatically in recent years, now affecting 15 percent or more of infants. Prior research using developmental scales suggests that these children may be at elevated risk for developmental delays. However, the low positive predictive value of such instruments in identifying long-term impairment, coupled with their poor reliability in infants (...) potentials were recorded while 16 infants with deformational plagiocephaly and 18 nonaffected controls passively listened to speech sounds. Given prior research suggesting their association with subsequent functioning, analyses focused on the P150 and N450 event-related potential components.Deformational plagiocephaly patients and normal controls showed comparable cortical responses to speech sounds at both auditory event-related potential components.Children with deformational plagiocephaly demonstrate

2014 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

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