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Speech Delay

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141. Postmenopausal hormone treatment alters neural pathways but does not improve verbal cognitive function. Full Text available with Trip Pro

on the verbal discrimination task (mean accuracy 81.72 ± 11.57 ever-treated, 85.30 ± 5.87 never-treated, P = 0.14), took longer to respond (mean reaction time 1.10 ± 0.17 s ever-treated, 1.02 ± 0.11 never-treated, P = 0.03), and remembered fewer previously viewed words (mean accuracy 62.21 ± 8.73 ever-treated, 65.45 ± 7.49 never-treated, P = 0.18). Increased posterior cingulate activity was associated with longer response times (R = 0.323, P = 0.015) and worse delayed verbal recall (R = -0.328, P = 0.048 (...) Postmenopausal hormone treatment alters neural pathways but does not improve verbal cognitive function. Cognitive outcomes in trials of postmenopausal hormone treatment have been inconsistent. Differing outcomes may be attributed to hormone formulation, treatment duration and timing, and differential cognitive domain effects. We previously demonstrated treatment benefits on visual cognitive function. In the present study, we describe the effects of hormone treatment on verbal outcomes

2018 Menopause

142. Why does language not emerge until the second year? (Abstract)

that functional connectivity in speech networks is mature at 3 months, suggesting that the delay in the onset of language is not due to brain immaturity but rather to the time needed to develop representations through experience. Future avenues for the study of language development are proposed, and the implications for clinical care and infant education are discussed.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. (...) an early birth. An alternative proposal, inspired by discoveries in machine learning, is that the language systems are mature enough to function but need auditory experience to develop effective representations of speech, before the language functions that manifest in behaviour can emerge. Growing evidence, in particular from neuroimaging, is supporting this latter hypothesis. We have previously shown with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that the acoustic radiation, carrying rich information

2018 Hearing Research

143. Medical Attention Seeking After Transient Ischemic Attack and Minor Stroke Before and After the UK Face, Arm, Speech, Time (FAST) Public Education Campaign: Results From the Oxford Vascular Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

took place from July 1, 2013, to March 2, 2015.Face, Arm, Speech, Time (FAST) public education campaign in the United Kingdom.Number of early recurrent strokes in patients who delayed or failed to seek medical attention, as well as the odds of seeking urgent attention after TIA and minor stroke before vs after initiation of the public education campaign.Among 2243 consecutive patients with first TIA or stroke (mean [SD] age, 73.6 [13.4] years; 1126 [50.2%] female; 96.3% of white race/ethnicity (...) Medical Attention Seeking After Transient Ischemic Attack and Minor Stroke Before and After the UK Face, Arm, Speech, Time (FAST) Public Education Campaign: Results From the Oxford Vascular Study. Risk of major stroke is high during the hours and days after transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke but is substantially reduced by urgent medical treatment. Public education campaigns have improved the response after major stroke, but their association with behavior after TIA and minor

2018 JAMA neurology

144. Longitudinal growth of receptive language in children with cerebral palsy between 18 months and 54 months of age. Full Text available with Trip Pro

significant language delays, limited developmental change over time, and comprised their own latent class. Children with speech motor impairment had slight receptive language delays over time. Children with no speech motor impairment had age-appropriate receptive language over time. Early language comprehension scores were highly predictive of later latent profile group membership.Early language comprehension abilities are highly predictive of language comprehension growth trajectory and suggest (...) that children with early language delay, particularly those who are non-speaking, should receive language intervention to support development.There are two growth trajectories for language comprehension among children with cerebral palsy. Children with speech motor impairment had a constant 6-month receptive language delay. Children without speech motor impairment had age-appropriate receptive language. Non-speaking children had significant receptive language delay. Early language comprehension change

2018 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

145. Prenatal and perinatal risks for late language emergence in a population-level sample of twins at age 2. Full Text available with Trip Pro

odds of LLE.The results suggest that adverse prenatal and perinatal environments are important in the etiology of LLE in twins at age 2. It is important that health professionals discuss twin pregnancy and birth risks for delayed speech and language milestones with parents and provide ongoing developmental monitoring for all twins, not just twins with overt disability. (...) Prenatal and perinatal risks for late language emergence in a population-level sample of twins at age 2. Late Language Emergence (LLE) in the first two years of life is one of the most common parental concerns about child development and reasons for seeking advice from health professionals. LLE is much more prevalent in twins (38%) than singletons (20%). In studies of language development in twins without overt disability, adverse prenatal and perinatal environments have been reported to play

2018 BMC Pediatrics

146. The immediate and short-term effects of bilateral intrahippocampal depth electrodes on verbal memory. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus on verbal learning and especially on delayed verbal memory and recognition performance. This is demonstrated in 31 patients with memory assessments before implantation, after explantation, and 3 months later after left/right temporal lobe surgery. After surgery, significant recovery from postimplantation impairment is found in right temporal patients. Left temporal resection patients stay on the level seen after implantation and do not recover. Surgery, however, has its (...) The immediate and short-term effects of bilateral intrahippocampal depth electrodes on verbal memory. In contrast to previous studies, Ljung et al. provide evidence of permanent cognitive consequences of bilateral intrahippocampal depth electrodes for verbal memory in patients who were not operated or operated in the right temporal lobe. Stimulated by this, we provide historical confirmatory and supplementary evidence of the detrimental effect of bilateral depth electrodes implanted along

2018 Epilepsia

147. Association of Prenatal Phthalate Exposure With Language Development in Early Childhood. Full Text available with Trip Pro

phthalate metabolite levels, language delay, and modeled covariables. For SELMA, the data were collected from November 1, 2007, to June 30, 2013, and data analysis was conducted from November 1, 2016, to June 30, 2018. For TIDES, data collection began January 1, 2010, and ended March 29, 2016, and data analysis was performed from September 15, 2016, to June 30, 2018.Mothers completed a language development questionnaire that asked the number of words their children could understand or use at a median (...) of 30 months of age (SELMA) and 37 months of age (TIDES). The responses were categorized as fewer than 25, 25 to 50, and more than 50 words, with 50 words or fewer classified as language delay.In the SELMA study, 963 mothers, 455 (47.2%) girls, and 508 (52.8%) boys were included. In TIDES, 370 mothers, 185 (50.0%) girls, and 185 (50.0%) boys were included in this analysis. The prevalence of language delay was 10.0% in both SELMA (96 reported) and TIDES (37 reported), with higher rates of delay

2018 JAMA pediatrics

148. Sonority's Effect as a Surface Cue on Lexical Speech Perception of Children With Cochlear Implants. (Abstract)

), a grammatical phonotactic rule, which facilitates the recognition and segmentation of syllables within speech. The more nonsonorous the onset of a syllable is, the larger is the degree of sonority rise to the nucleus, and the more optimal the SSP. Children with CIs may experience hindered or delayed development of the language-learning rule SSP, as a result of their deprived/degraded auditory experience. The purpose of the study was to explore sonority's role in speech perception and lexical access (...) Sonority's Effect as a Surface Cue on Lexical Speech Perception of Children With Cochlear Implants. Sonority is the relative perceptual prominence/loudness of speech sounds of the same length, stress, and pitch. Children with cochlear implants (CIs), with restored audibility and relatively intact temporal processing, are expected to benefit from the perceptual prominence cues of highly sonorous sounds. Sonority also influences lexical access through the sonority-sequencing principle (SSP

2018 Ear and hearing

149. Left hippocampal dosimetry correlates with visual and verbal memory outcomes in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

). For the entire cohort, delayed and immediate verbal memory scaled scores demonstrated small declines. The mean decline for delayed verbal memory scores was 0.6 (P = .01), and that for immediate verbal memory scores was 0.5 (P = .06). Immediate and delayed visual memory scores were not found to change significantly (+0.1 and -0.3, respectively; P>.30). A higher left hippocampal V20GyE (percentage of the volume of a particular anatomical region receiving at least a 20 gray equivalent) was correlated (...) with a score decline in all 4 measures. Female sex was found to be predictive of lower delayed verbal memory follow-up scores (P = .035).Only delayed verbal memory scores were found to have declined statistically significantly at follow-up after PRT, reflecting some weakness in verbal memory retrieval. Given a correlation of left hippocampal dosimetry and memory outcomes after PRT, left hippocampal-sparing PRT plans may assist patients with pediatric brain tumors in preserving memory-retrieval abilities

2018 Cancer

150. Virtual reality therapy for refractory auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: A pilot clinical trial. (Abstract)

Virtual reality therapy for refractory auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: A pilot clinical trial. Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental illness that poses significant challenges. While many pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are available, many treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients continue to suffer from persistent psychotic symptoms, notably auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), which are highly disabling. This unmet clinical need requires new innovative (...) -assisted therapy (VRT) or treatment-as-usual (TAU). The group allocated to TAU consisted of antipsychotic treatment and usual meetings with clinicians. The TAU group then received a delayed 7weeks of VRT. A follow-up was ensured 3months after the last VRT therapy session. Changes in psychiatric symptoms, before and after TAU or VRT, were assessed using a linear mixed-effects model. Our findings showed that VRT produced significant improvements in AVH severity, depressive symptoms and quality of life

2018 Schizophrenia Research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

151. Identification of Mild Cognitive Impairment From Speech in Swedish Using Deep Sequential Neural Networks Full Text available with Trip Pro

Identification of Mild Cognitive Impairment From Speech in Swedish Using Deep Sequential Neural Networks While people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) portray noticeably incipient memory difficulty in remembering events and situations along with problems in decision making, planning, and finding their way in familiar environments, detailed neuropsychological assessments also indicate deficits in language performance. To this day, there is no cure for dementia but early-stage treatment can (...) delay the progression of MCI; thus, the development of valid tools for identifying early cognitive changes is of great importance. In this study, we provide an automated machine learning method, using Deep Neural Network Architectures, that aims to identify MCI. Speech materials were obtained using a reading task during evaluation sessions, as part of the Gothenburg MCI research study. Measures of vowel duration, vowel formants (F1 to F5), and fundamental frequency were calculated from speech

2018 Frontiers in neurology

152. Training Language and Literacy for Children Who Use CIs

-intervention (8 weeks post-baseline), 6 months post-baseline ] Change in a standardized test of phonological awareness Change in Children's Test of Nonword Repetition [ Time Frame: Baseline, post-intervention (8 weeks post-baseline), 6 months post-baseline ] Change in a standardized test of verbal working memory Secondary Outcome Measures : Change in Oral Written Language Scales [ Time Frame: Baseline, post-intervention (8 weeks post-baseline), 6 months post-baseline ] Change in a standardized test (...) Training Language and Literacy for Children Who Use CIs Training Language and Literacy for Children Who Use CIs - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Training Language and Literacy for Children

2018 Clinical Trials

153. Neural Indices of Intervention Outcomes in Children With Speech Sound Disorders

Typical hearing abilities Typical overall development No apparent organic anomalies of the speech mechanism No global cognitive delays No receptive language impairments Inclusion criteria (children with speech sound disorders): Speech production abilities below the 10th percentile Exclude a minimum of 4 English consonants from sound repertoire No prior speech and/or language intervention services Prior diagnosis of speech sound disorder (SSD) Inclusion criteria (typically developing children): - All (...) of SSD will be better informed and treatment approaches targeting all deficient areas can be utilized. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Speech Sound Disorder Behavioral: Speech Production Treatment. Behavioral: Speech Production + Speech Perception Treatment. Not Applicable Detailed Description: Five to eight percent of all children in the United States have a speech sound disorder (SSD). Children with SSD have difficulty producing sounds of their target language system. Some

2018 Clinical Trials

154. Neural preservation underlies speech improvement from auditory deprivation in young cochlear implant recipients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neural preservation underlies speech improvement from auditory deprivation in young cochlear implant recipients Although cochlear implantation enables some children to attain age-appropriate speech and language development, communicative delays persist in others, and outcomes are quite variable and difficult to predict, even for children implanted early in life. To understand the neurobiological basis of this variability, we used presurgical neural morphological data obtained from MRI (...) of individual pediatric cochlear implant (CI) candidates implanted younger than 3.5 years to predict variability of their speech-perception improvement after surgery. We first compared neuroanatomical density and spatial pattern similarity of CI candidates to that of age-matched children with normal hearing, which allowed us to detail neuroanatomical networks that were either affected or unaffected by auditory deprivation. This information enables us to build machine-learning models to predict

2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

155. Sensorimotor Representation of Speech Perception. Cross-Decoding of Place of Articulation Features during Selective Attention to Syllables in 7T fMRI Full Text available with Trip Pro

shape the processing and performance of speech perception tasks. Whether and where sensorimotor integration takes place during attentive speech perception remains to be explored. Here, we investigate articulatory feature representations of spoken consonant-vowel (CV) syllables during two distinct tasks. Fourteen healthy humans attended to either the vowel or the consonant within a syllable in separate delayed-match-to-sample tasks. Single-trial fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses (...) Sensorimotor Representation of Speech Perception. Cross-Decoding of Place of Articulation Features during Selective Attention to Syllables in 7T fMRI Sensorimotor integration, the translation between acoustic signals and motoric programs, may constitute a crucial mechanism for speech. During speech perception, the acoustic-motoric translations include the recruitment of cortical areas for the representation of speech articulatory features, such as place of articulation. Selective attention can

2018 eNeuro

156. The Effects of Fluency Enhancing Conditions on Sensorimotor Control of Speech in Typically Fluent Speakers: An EEG Mu Rhythm Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

, delayed auditory feedback (DAF), prolonged speech and pseudostuttering). Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify sensorimotor μ components from EEG recordings. Time-frequency analyses measured μ-alpha (8-13 Hz) and μ-beta (15-25 Hz) event-related synchronization (ERS) and desynchronization (ERD) during each speech condition. Results: 19/24 participants contributed μ components. Relative to the control condition, the choral and DAF conditions elicited increases in μ-alpha ERD (...) The Effects of Fluency Enhancing Conditions on Sensorimotor Control of Speech in Typically Fluent Speakers: An EEG Mu Rhythm Study Objective: To determine whether changes in sensorimotor control resulting from speaking conditions that induce fluency in people who stutter (PWS) can be measured using electroencephalographic (EEG) mu rhythms in neurotypical speakers. Methods: Non-stuttering (NS) adults spoke in one control condition (solo speaking) and four experimental conditions (choral speech

2018 Frontiers in human neuroscience

157. Recovernow: A Multicentre Of Tablet-Based Speech Therapy For Post-Stroke Aphasia

in 2014 in an attempt to address the delays to access stroke rehabilitation from acute care centres. Our concept was to use mobile tablets to "bring rehab to the patient", and leverage the significant downtime experienced by stroke survivors in acute care. A pilot feasibility study using iPads to deliver speech therapy in the acute setting was started. In this study, our speech language pathologist (SLP) personalized the iPads by selecting commercially available speech therapy applications (...) outcome is improvement in the Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia (WAB-R) Overall Study Aim: The primary study aim is to determine the futility and potential efficacy of mobile tablet-based speech therapy for post stroke aphasia. Primary Endpoint: The primary outcome measure is change in the Aphasia quotient (AQ) from the WAB-R at 90 days. The WAB-R is a standardized aphasia battery. The AQ is calculated from four language sub-tests measuring spontaneous speech, word comprehension, repetition, and word

2018 Clinical Trials

158. Stroke 112: A Universal Stroke Awareness Program to Reduce Language and Response Barriers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stroke 112: A Universal Stroke Awareness Program to Reduce Language and Response Barriers. To improve stroke awareness and reduce life-threatening prehospital delays worldwide, a universal stroke educational program is needed. To meet this unmet need, we developed a universal program without language barriers and tested its acceptance in Taiwan, where Chinese is the native language.Stroke 112 was developed using the universal emergency phone number, 112. The numbers imply an emergency (...) and correspond to the 3 stroke recognition signs used in FAST (Face, Arm, Speech, and Time): 1 uneven face (crooked mouth); 1 weak arm (arm weakness); 2 incoherent lips (slurred speech). An online survey was used to determine the acceptance of the Stroke 112 program compared with that of FAST in Chinese. The surveys were delivered using SurveyMonkey (http://www.surveymonkey.com) on 2 separate occasions in Taiwan; in August 2017 for an initial estimation of the acceptance of Stroke 112 and in March 2018, 2

2018 Stroke

159. The verbal facilitation effect: re-reading person descriptions as a system variable to improve identification performance. (Abstract)

The verbal facilitation effect: re-reading person descriptions as a system variable to improve identification performance. When witnesses report a crime, police usually ask for a description of the perpetrator. Several studies suggested that verbalising faces leads to a detriment in identification performance (verbal overshadowing effect [VOE]) but the effect has been difficult to replicate. Here, we sought to reverse the VOE by inducing context reinstatement as a system variable through re (...) -reading one's own description before an identification task. Participants (N = 208) watched a video film and were then dismissed (control group), only described the perpetrator, or described and later re-read their own descriptions before identification in either target-present or target-absent lineups after a 2-day or a 5-week delay. Identification accuracy was significantly higher after re-reading (85.0%) than in the no description control group (62.5%) irrespective of target presence. Data were

2018 Memory (Hove, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

160. Familiarization Effects on Consonant Intelligibility in Dysarthric Speech. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Familiarization Effects on Consonant Intelligibility in Dysarthric Speech. This study investigates the effects of familiarization on naïve listeners' ability to identify consonants in dysarthric speech.A total of 120 listeners (30 listeners/speaker) participated in experiments over a 6-week period. Listeners were randomly assigned to one of the three familiarization conditions: a passive condition in which listeners heard audio recordings of words, an active condition in which listeners heard (...) audio recordings of words while viewing the written material of words, and a control condition in which listeners had no exposure to the audio signal prior to identification tasks.Familiarization improved naïve listeners' ability to identify consonants produced by a speaker with dysarthria. The active familiarization method exhibited an advantage over the other conditions, in terms of the magnitude and rapidness of improvement. One-month delayed test scores were higher than pre-familiarization

2018 Folia phoniatrica et logopaedica : official organ of the International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics (IALP) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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