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Speech Delay

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11421. Developmental and functional outcomes in children with global developmental delay or developmental language impairment. (Abstract)

Developmental and functional outcomes in children with global developmental delay or developmental language impairment. Preschool children diagnosed with either global developmental delay (GDD) or developmental language impairment (DLI) were reassessed during their early school years with standardized developmental (Battelle Developmental Inventory [BDI]) and functional (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale [VABS]) outcome measures. Of an original cohort of 99 children with GDD and 70 children

2005 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

11422. Delayed developmental language milestones in children with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. (Full text)

Delayed developmental language milestones in children with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. To document the attainment of developmental milestones in children with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to determine whether early delays are associated with later performance on measures of cognition.Retrospective parental report was utilized to document the acquisition of 10 common developmental milestones in children with DMD (n = 130) and their unaffected siblings (n = 59). Children completed (...) tests of cognitive functioning.Parents rated children with DMD as delayed on achieving both language and motor milestones more frequently than their unaffected siblings. Furthermore, those children with DMD who were rated as late talkers or late walkers performed more poorly on tests of cognitive function than their on-time peers.In addition to the commonly reported delays in motor milestones, the current study documents delays in the acquisition of language milestones as well. These early delays

2007 Journal of Pediatrics PubMed abstract

11423. The implications of different approaches to evaluating intervention: evidence from the study of language delay/disorder. (Abstract)

The implications of different approaches to evaluating intervention: evidence from the study of language delay/disorder. There is a pressure to both identify and expand the evidence base with regard to the treatment of speech and language disorders in children, as there is in other areas of speech and language therapy. This paper addresses two sources of evidence, a systematic review and meta-analysis of early language interventions and the monitoring of an early language target for socially (...) disadvantaged children in Sure Start programmes in England. There is a growing number of efficacy studies in the field of speech and language disorders in children. For example, in a recent review for the Cochrane Collaboration in the UK 36 articles reporting a total of 33 different trials. Twenty-five of these articles provided sufficient information for use in a series of meta-analyses. The results indicate that speech and language therapy may be effective for children with phonological or expressive

2004 Folia phoniatrica et logopaedica : official organ of the International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics (IALP)

11424. Dissociation of neural correlates of verbal and non-verbal visual working memory with different delays (Full text)

in the long non-verbal condition in left language-associated areas (STG) and bilateral posterior parietal areas, including precuneus. Interestingly, right DLPFC and bilateral superior frontal gyrus was more active in the non-verbal long delay condition than in the long verbal condition.The results point to a dissociation between the cortical sites involved in verbal and non-verbal WM for long and short delays. Right DLPFC seems to be engaged in non-verbal WM tasks especially for long delays. Furthermore (...) Dissociation of neural correlates of verbal and non-verbal visual working memory with different delays Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior parietal cortex, and regions in the occipital cortex have been identified as neural sites for visual working memory (WM). The exact involvement of the DLPFC in verbal and non-verbal working memory processes, and how these processes depend on the time-span for retention, remains disputed.We used functional MRI to explore the neural correlates

2007 Behavioral and brain functions : BBF PubMed abstract

11425. A cluster-randomized trial of screening for language delay in toddlers: effects on school performance and language development at age 8. (Full text)

A cluster-randomized trial of screening for language delay in toddlers: effects on school performance and language development at age 8. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of screening and early treatment of preschool children for language delay on language development and school performance at age 8.A cluster-randomized, controlled trial and follow-up study of 55 child health centers in 6 geographic regions were conducted from January 2002 to September 2005. A total of 9419 (...) at speech and hearing centers and subsequent early treatment if needed. Percentages of children who attended a special school, repeated a class because of language problems, and scored low on standardized language tests, in intention-to-screen analyses, were measured.At age 8, 2.7% in the intervention group and 3.7% in the control group attended a special school, 6.1% vs 4.9% had repeated a grade, 8.8% vs 9.7% had deficient oral language performance, 4.7% vs 4.7% had deficient reading, and 2.8% vs 4.2

2007 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

11426. Speech and language delay are early manifestations of juvenile-onset Huntington disease. (Abstract)

Speech and language delay are early manifestations of juvenile-onset Huntington disease. The neurocognitive features of juvenile-onset Huntington disease (HD) are not well understood. We present three patients with onset of HD symptoms before age 10 years in whom speech delay was the first symptom. Speech delay predated motor symptoms by at least 2 years, and language function was consistently impaired on formal testing. Screening for speech delay is particularly important in children

2006 Neurology

11427. Re: Law, Garrett, and Nye (2004a). "The efficacy of treatment for children with developmental speech and language delay/disorder: a meta-analysis". (Abstract)

Re: Law, Garrett, and Nye (2004a). "The efficacy of treatment for children with developmental speech and language delay/disorder: a meta-analysis". 16411799 2006 07 25 2007 11 15 1092-4388 48 5 2005 Oct Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. Re: Law, Garrett, and Nye (2004a). "The efficacy of treatment for children with developmental speech and language delay/disorder: a meta-analysis". 1114-7; author reply 1118-20 Johnston Judith R JR eng Comment (...) Letter United States J Speech Lang Hear Res 9705610 1092-4388 IM J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2004 Aug;47(4):924-43 15324296 Age Factors Child, Preschool Humans Language Development Disorders therapy Language Therapy methods Meta-Analysis as Topic Time Factors 2005 05 20 2005 07 06 2006 1 18 9 0 2006 7 26 9 0 2006 1 18 9 0 ppublish 16411799 10.1044/1092-4388(2005/077)

2006 Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR

11428. The efficacy of treatment for children with developmental speech and language delay/disorder: a meta-analysis. (Full text)

The efficacy of treatment for children with developmental speech and language delay/disorder: a meta-analysis. A meta-analysis was carried out of interventions for children with primary developmental speech and language delays/disorders. The data were categorized depending on the control group used in the study (no treatment, general stimulation, or routine speech and language therapy) and were considered in terms of the effects of intervention on expressive and receptive phonology, syntax (...) ; however, only 13 of these, spanning 25 years, were considered to be sufficiently similar to be combined. The results indicated that speech and language therapy might be effective for children with phonological or expressive vocabulary difficulties. There was mixed evidence concerning the effectiveness of intervention for children with expressive syntax difficulties and little evidence available considering the effectiveness of intervention for children with receptive language difficulties

2004 Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR PubMed abstract

11429. Fast mapping word-learning abilities of language-delayed preschoolers. (Abstract)

Fast mapping word-learning abilities of language-delayed preschoolers. The fast mapping skills of language-delayed 5-year-old children were investigated. Children viewed a video presentation in which four kinds of unfamiliar words (object, action, attribute, and affective state) were incorporated into a narrative script. The pre- and postviewing comprehension of the targeted words was measured. The language-delayed children were compared to two groups, one matched for chronological age (CA (...) ) and the other matched for mean length of utterance (MLU). Children were randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions. All three groups indicated fast mapping of unfamiliar words, although the language-delayed children scored lower than the MLU-matched group, who in turn scored lower than the CA-matched group. The experimental effects were most pronounced for object and attribute words. The limited fast mapping of the language-delayed group was not accounted for by a restricted general vocabulary

1990 The Journal of speech and hearing disorders

11430. Relative treatment effects of two prelinguistic communication interventions on language development in toddlers with developmental delays vary by maternal characteristics. (Abstract)

Relative treatment effects of two prelinguistic communication interventions on language development in toddlers with developmental delays vary by maternal characteristics. This paper tests whether two prelinguistic communication interventions have a differential effect on productive and receptive language development 6 and 12 months after the end of treatment. We predicted that treatment effects on language development would vary as a function of pretreatment maternal responsivity or amount (...) of mothers' formal education. Fifty-eight prelinguistic children with developmental delays and their mothers participated in the study. Children were randomly assigned to one of two staff-implemented treatments that were designed to increase intentional communication ability. Results confirmed the prediction that treatment effects on children's receptive and expressive language 6 and 12 months after the end of interventions vary as a function of pretreatment maternal responsivity and education level.

2001 Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR

11431. Using time delay to promote spontaneous speech in an autistic child. (Full text)

Using time delay to promote spontaneous speech in an autistic child. One of the frequently observed deficits in autistic children is their lack of spontaneous speech. We used a multiple baseline across behaviors to investigate the effectiveness of a time delay procedure for inducing spontaneous speech in a 10-year-old male autistic child during play. We first taught the child to imitate the experimenter's verbal prompts that described the child's motor response. Once the child reached criteria (...) on imitation, we implemented baseline wherein an immediate verbal prompt for speech was provided after each of the child's motor responses. Intervention consisted of a gradual delay in the presentation of the verbal prompts. The time delay effectively increased the child's spontaneous speech on trained items; some generalization to untrained items also occurred, but only within the same behavioral class of car play. Generalization was also observed across settings. Spontaneous speech remained at high

1991 Journal of applied behavior analysis PubMed abstract

11432. The use of noncontingent escape to reduce disruptive behaviors in children with speech delays. (Full text)

The use of noncontingent escape to reduce disruptive behaviors in children with speech delays. Noncontingent escape (NCE) was used to reduce disruptive behavior in 3 children during regularly scheduled speech therapy sessions. Results showed rapid decreases in disruptive behavior and accompanying increases in compliance across children. Findings suggest that speech therapists with little expertise in behavior analysis can effectively implement NCE.

1998 Journal of applied behavior analysis PubMed abstract

11433. Effects of differential reinforcement on the generalization of a replacement mand in three children with severe language delays. (Full text)

Effects of differential reinforcement on the generalization of a replacement mand in three children with severe language delays. We investigated variables that may influence the generalization of a replacement mand in 3 young children with severe language delays. A multiple baseline design consisting of one stimulus class of manding opportunities that we arbitrarily divided into three categories (i.e., food, toys, and events) was used for each child. During baseline probes, all children manded

1998 Journal of applied behavior analysis PubMed abstract

11434. A functional analysis of verbal delay in preschool children: Implications for prevention and total recovery (Full text)

behavior. These paradigms are contrasted with parent-child interactions that typically result in age-appropriate verbal repertoires. Identifying the reinforcement contingencies that produce delays in acquisition of verbal behavior could lead to the development of more effective behavioral programs for remediating nonorganic language delay. Recommendations for prevention, treatment and total recovery from functional verbal delay and associated mental retardation are presented. The relation between (...) A functional analysis of verbal delay in preschool children: Implications for prevention and total recovery Delays in acquiring age-appropriate verbal repertoires in preschool children with no known organic etiology may be explained by defective or absent behavior-environmental contingencies. This paper presents six possible behavioral paradigms that describe verbal episodes between parents and their preschool children and how these interactions may inhibit or prevent the acquisition of verbal

1993 The Analysis of verbal behavior PubMed abstract

11435. Increasing autistic children's spontaneous verbalizations of affection: an assessment of time delay and peer modeling procedures. (Full text)

Increasing autistic children's spontaneous verbalizations of affection: an assessment of time delay and peer modeling procedures. We assessed the efficacy of time delay and peer modeling procedures in increasing autistic children's spontaneous verbalizations of affection. Four autistic children were taught to spontaneously say "I like (love) you" in response to a hug from a familiar person and their mother. Generalization from a free play training setting to free play outdoors and at home (...) was assessed. Ancillary social and affection behaviors were also observed. Results indicated that the time delay was a quick and effective procedure for all the children. Peer modeling was unsuccessful in teaching the target behavior.

1986 Journal of applied behavior analysis PubMed abstract

11436. Verbal behavior and initial exposure to delayed reinforcement (Full text)

Verbal behavior and initial exposure to delayed reinforcement Ten subjects responded under a tandem fixed-ratio 1 not-responding-greater-than-t schedule of point delivery during one 75-min session in which the delay was either 10 or 20 s. Subjects were asked to describe the contingencies throughout the session. Although studies with non-humans have demonstrated response acquisition under similar delayed-consequence procedures, a minority of subjects in the current study demonstrated sensitivity (...) to delayed consequences convincingly. All subjects exhibited inefficient patterns of responding and descriptions of nonexistent contingencies. Subjects who demonstrated learning were more likely to verbalize the actual contingencies, but this was not true in all cases. Furthermore, some subjects who demonstrated learning did not describe the delay contingency. Results suggest that learning may occur in the absence of a person's ability to describe environment-behavior relations.

2000 The Analysis of verbal behavior PubMed abstract

11437. Parental-based intervention with pre-school language-delayed children. (Abstract)

Parental-based intervention with pre-school language-delayed children. Mothers of children randomly allocated to an experimental group attended fortnightly group parental language training sessions, over a 6-month period. Mothers of children allocated to a matched no intervention control group received no special attention. The results showed significantly greater gains in the expressive language skills of the experimental group compared to the control group. A second experiment was designed (...) to compare the parental involvement approach with direct, individual treatment and to clarify the role of non-specific 'Hawthorne-type' effects. The experimental group mothers attended parental language training sessions, as above. The parental control group mothers also attended training sessions, with the emphasis on general learning skills rather than language. A third group of children received individual, direct speech and language therapy. Results showed significantly greater language gains

1994 European journal of disorders of communication : the journal of the College of Speech and Language Therapists, London Controlled trial quality: uncertain

11438. The effect of a diagnostic label of language delay on adults' perceptions of preschool children. (Abstract)

The effect of a diagnostic label of language delay on adults' perceptions of preschool children. The effects of the label of expressive language disorder (ELD) on adults' perceptions of preschoolers were investigated. Twenty adults interacted with 3 children of typical development and one child previously diagnosed with ELD. Adults were randomly assigned to a label group (in which the child with ELD was identified) or a nonlabel group (in which the child with ELD was not identified). After

1996 Journal of learning disabilities Controlled trial quality: uncertain

11439. Studying delayed speech. (Full text)

Studying delayed speech. 8179670 1994 03 24 2018 11 13 0820-3946 150 5 1994 Mar 01 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ Studying delayed speech. 647 Dyke C C eng Letter Comment Canada CMAJ 9711805 0820-3946 AIM IM CMAJ. 1993 Nov 15;149(10):1435-40 8221427 Bias Case-Control Studies Child Child, Preschool Female Humans Language Development Disorders etiology Pregnancy Research Design Ultrasonography, Prenatal adverse effects 1994 3 1 1994

1994 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal PubMed abstract

11440. Studying delayed speech. (Full text)

Studying delayed speech. 8313281 1994 03 24 2017 11 16 0820-3946 150 5 1994 Mar 01 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ Studying delayed speech. 647-8 Torbiak C C eng Letter Comment Canada CMAJ 9711805 0820-3946 AIM IM CMAJ. 1993 Nov 15;149(10):1435-40 8221427 Bias Case-Control Studies Child Female Humans Language Development Disorders etiology Pregnancy Retrospective Studies Ultrasonography, Prenatal adverse effects 1994 3 1 1994 3 1 0

1994 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal PubMed abstract

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