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Speech Delay

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81. Will diminishing cochlear delay affect speech perception in noise? (Abstract)

Will diminishing cochlear delay affect speech perception in noise? Normal auditory systems appear well habituated to time/phase delays inherent to sound encoding along the hearing organ, sending frequency information non-simultaneously to the central auditory system. Eliminating, or simply perturbing, the cochlear delay might be expected to decrease speech recognition ability, especially under demanding listening conditions. Resources of a larger-scale investigation permitted a preliminary (...) examination of this issue, particularly on a relevant timescale of empirically demonstrated cochlear delays.In a randomized controlled trial study, word recognition was tested for mono-syllabic tokens treated digitally to exacerbate, if not diminish/nullify, such delays. Speech-weighted noise was used to interfere with listening to time-frequency reversed (nominally no delay) versus non-reversed (natural timing) transforms under three treatments of speech tokens: (1) original-digitally recorded; digitally

2015 International journal of audiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

82. Preterm delivery and risk for early language delays: a sibling-control cohort study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Preterm delivery and risk for early language delays: a sibling-control cohort study Studies suggest that preterm delivery is a risk factor for early language delays, but knowledge is scarce about the persistence of the delays and whether the association is of a linear kind. To resolve this, effects of confounding risk factors that are both shared within a family and pregnancy specific need to be distinguished from effects of preterm delivery. Our study examines the association between early (...) ), and compared these findings with conventional cohort analyses.The findings revealed inverse linear relations between the gestational age groups, and persistent but diminishing language delays. Effects of preterm delivery were substantial on both language production and comprehension at 18 months. By 36 months, the effects of preterm delivery were weaker, but still extensive, in particular for language production in provider-initiated births. When comparing sibling-control with cohort analyses, preterm

2015 International journal of epidemiology

83. Language Production in Children With and At Risk for Delay: Mediating Role of Parenting Skills. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Language Production in Children With and At Risk for Delay: Mediating Role of Parenting Skills. The current study examined the effect of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a parent-training intervention for child behavior problems, on child language production. Participants were 46 children (ages 20-70 months) with externalizing behavior problems and with or at risk for developmental delay. Parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to a waitlist control or immediate treatment group (...) . Parenting skills learned during PCIT (i.e., "do skills") and children's word tokens and word types were measured at baseline and 4 months later. Findings suggest an indirect effect of parent do skills on the relation between group and child word types, such that more parent do skills predicted more child word types for families receiving PCIT. The present study found that mothers' use of child-directed skills played an important role in the growth and improvement of child language. Results suggest

2015 Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology : the official journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53 Controlled trial quality: uncertain

84. Avoidance symptoms and delayed verbal memory are associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms in female victims of sexual violence. (Abstract)

Avoidance symptoms and delayed verbal memory are associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms in female victims of sexual violence. Victimization by sexual violence is strongly associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While several psychological and cognitive factors are known to be associated with PTSD prognosis, multivariable analysis is scarce. This study examined factors affecting the severity of PTSD symptoms in early stage of traumatic experience (...) Scale.Stepwise multiple regression showed that avoidance symptoms (β = 0.551, P < 0.01) and delayed verbal memory (β = -0.331, P < 0.05) at early stage of trauma predicted the severity of PTSD symptoms one to five month later. The regression model, factoring in avoidance and delayed verbal memory, showed a 34.9% explanatory power regarding the PTSD symptom severity.This study suggests that avoidance symptoms and verbal memory at the early stage of trauma are associated with later PTSD symptoms. It is also

2015 Journal of Affective Disorders

85. The effects of delayed auditory and visual feedback on speech production Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effects of delayed auditory and visual feedback on speech production Monitoring the sensory consequences of articulatory movements supports speaking. For example, delaying auditory feedback of a speaker's voice disrupts speech production. Also, there is evidence that this disruption may be decreased by immediate visual feedback, i.e., seeing one's own articulatory movements. It is, however, unknown whether delayed visual feedback affects speech production in fluent speakers. Here (...) , the effects of delayed auditory and visual feedback on speech fluency (i.e., speech rate and errors), vocal control (i.e., intensity and pitch), and speech rhythm were investigated. Participants received delayed (by 200 ms) or immediate auditory feedback, while repeating sentences. Moreover, they received either no visual feedback, immediate visual feedback, or delayed visual feedback (by 200, 400, and 600 ms). Delayed auditory feedback affected fluency, vocal control, and rhythm. Immediate visual

2015 The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

86. Adults who stutter lack the specialised pre-speech facilitation found in non-stutterers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(MEPs), which were recorded from the tongue. Eighteen adults who stutter (AWS) and 17 adults who do not stutter (ANS) completed three experiments, which involved reading a German prefix+verb utterance from a screen. Each experiment involved 120 trials with three distinct levels of speech production: immediate speech, delayed speech without pacing and delayed speech with predefined pacing. TMS was applied shortly before speech onset. Trial MEPs were normalised to average non-speech MEPs. MEP (...) Adults who stutter lack the specialised pre-speech facilitation found in non-stutterers. Persistent developmental stuttering is a speech fluency disorder defined by its symptoms, where the underlying neurophysiological causes remain uncertain. This study examined the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of the speech planning process, using facilitation in the motor cortex during speech preparation as an analogue.transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses induced motor evoked potentials

2018 PLoS ONE

87. Maintaining information about speech input during accent adaptation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with subsequent input. Previous evidence for such subcategorical information maintenance has come from paradigms that lack many of the demands typical to everyday language use. We ask whether information maintenance is also possible under more typical constraints, and in particular whether it can facilitate accent adaptation. In a web-based paradigm, participants listened to isolated foreign-accented words in one of three conditions: subtitles were displayed concurrently with the speech, after speech offset (...) , or not displayed at all. The delays between speech offset and subtitle presentation were manipulated. In a subsequent test phase, participants then transcribed novel words in the same accent without the aid of subtitles. We find that subtitles facilitate accent adaptation, even when displayed with a 6 second delay. Listeners thus maintained subcategorical information for sufficiently long to allow it to benefit adaptation. We close by discussing what type of information listeners maintain-subcategorical

2018 PLoS ONE

88. Confidence in uncertainty: Error cost and commitment in early speech hypotheses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Confidence in uncertainty: Error cost and commitment in early speech hypotheses. Interactions with artificial agents often lack immediacy because agents respond slower than their users expect. Automatic speech recognisers introduce this delay by analysing a user's utterance only after it has been completed. Early, uncertain hypotheses of incremental speech recognisers can enable artificial agents to respond more timely. However, these hypotheses may change significantly with each update

2018 PLoS ONE

89. Evaluating verbal learning and memory in patients with an at-risk mental state or first episode psychosis using structural equation modelling. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluating verbal learning and memory in patients with an at-risk mental state or first episode psychosis using structural equation modelling. Verbal learning and memory are impaired not only in patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) but also-to a lower extent-in those with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS). However, little is known about the specific nature of these impairments. Hence, we aimed to study learning and memory processes in ARMS and FEP patients by making use (...) of structural equation modelling.Verbal learning was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) in 98 FEP patients, 126 ARMS patients and 68 healthy controls (HC) as part of the Basel early detection of psychosis (FePsy) study. The four-factorial CFA model of Donders was used to estimate test performance on latent variables of the CVLT and growth curve analysis was used to model the learning curve. The latter allows disentangling initial recall, which is strongly determined by attentional

2018 PLoS ONE

90. Recommendations on screening for developmental delay

@canadiantaskforce.ca CMAJ 2016. DOI:10.1503 /cmaj.151437 D evelopmental delay in children may be transitory or sustained and is character- ized by a significant delay (i.e., perfor- mance 1.5 standard deviations or more below age-expected norms) in one or more of the fol- lowing domains: gross and fine motor skills, speech and language, social and personal skills, activities of daily living and cognition. 1,2 Chil- dren with sustained developmental delay are at higher risk of learning difficulties, behavioural (...) cases, but there is evidence that the low specificity of these tools would lead to a high proportion of false positives. • High-quality evidence from RCTs on the effectiveness of treatment for known developmental delay is lacking; a few small trials have suggested that speech and language therapy may improve language impairment and that treatment of autism may improve cognitive function. • Clinicians should remain vigilant to deficits in children’s performance in terms of gross and fine motor skills

2016 CPG Infobase

91. Immediate versus delayed treatment for recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to 26 January 2016), and trial registers (from inception to 26 January 2016). We also handsearched conference proceedings and journals, and searched reference lists. There were no language restrictions. We contacted colleagues and pharmaceutical companies to identify further studies and unpublished trials.All completed, truly randomized trials (RCT) that compared very early cerebral revascularization (within two days) with delayed treatment (after two days) for people with recently symptomatic (...) Immediate versus delayed treatment for recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. The timing of surgery for recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis remains controversial. Early cerebral revascularization may prevent a disabling or fatal ischemic recurrence, but it may also increase the risk of hemorrhagic transformation, or of dislodging a thrombus. This review examined the randomized controlled evidence that addressed whether the increased risk of recurrent events outweighed

2016 Cochrane

92. The effect of the Preparing Pequeños small-group cognitive instruction program on academic and concurrent social and behavioral outcomes in young Spanish-speaking dual-language learners. (Abstract)

increased learning for Spanish speaking DLL in language, literacy, and math. The DLL in the randomized Preparing Pequeños intervention classrooms were compared to control DLL with comparable Spanish language delays and in which the school district's core curriculum was being implemented. Intervention teachers and paraprofessionals, as part of Preparing Pequeños, implemented new classroom and time management systems in order to conduct 90 min of small-group instruction four days each week across (...) The effect of the Preparing Pequeños small-group cognitive instruction program on academic and concurrent social and behavioral outcomes in young Spanish-speaking dual-language learners. Academic achievement for young dual language learners (DLL) is a critically acknowledged problem of national significance that has been understudied. To address this shortage, this study evaluated the effectiveness of Preparing Pequeños, an integrated small-group instruction program designed to promote

2019 Journal of school psychology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

93. Mindfulness improves verbal learning and memory through enhanced encoding. (Abstract)

the relationship between the mindfulness condition and performance on the RAVLT. There were no differences between the conditions on consolidation or retrieval. Furthermore, these improvements were not accompanied by improvements in verbal fluency or attention. In a second study, we presented a mindfulness or control audio before the first RAVLT delayed free-recall trial and another one before the second RAVLT delayed free-recall trial in order to better determine the effect of mindfulness on consolidation (...) Mindfulness improves verbal learning and memory through enhanced encoding. Recent research has begun to demonstrate the effectiveness of mindfulness in improving certain cognitive abilities, including verbal learning and memory. However, no research has investigated the potential mechanism by which mindfulness may improve verbal learning and memory. We examined encoding, consolidation, and retrieval as potential mechanisms by which learning and memory may be increased on a list learning test

2019 Memory & cognition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

94. Role of Massed Versus Distributed Practice in Learning Novel Foreign Language Utterances. (Abstract)

groups. Both the groups completed an immediate retention as well as a delayed retention test. Participants' learning was evaluated based on phonetic accuracy and naturalness of the French utterances. The findings revealed that participants involved in distributed practice demonstrated better learning over participants involved in massed practice. Future research should aim to extrapolate these findings in treating speech disorders. (...) Role of Massed Versus Distributed Practice in Learning Novel Foreign Language Utterances. The current study compared the role of massed versus distributed practice in learning novel foreign language utterances. Fifty healthy native English-speaking participants were randomly assigned to either massed or distributed practice groups. All participants practiced eight novel French utterances 25 times each for a total of 200 times, with the spacing of practice sessions differing between the two

2019 Motor control Controlled trial quality: uncertain

95. Intersection of verbal memory and expressivity on cortical contrast and thickness in first episode psychosis. (Abstract)

changes in microstructure and their relation with negative symptoms and possible intersections with verbal memory.T1-weighted images and clinical data were collected longitudinally for patients (N = 88) over a two-year period. Cognitive data were also collected at baseline. Relationships between baseline VM (immediate/delayed recall) and rate of change in two negative symptom dimensions, amotivation and expressivity, were assessed at the behavioral level, as well as at the level of brain structure.VM (...) of the language processing network.This study shows common neural correlates of language-related brain areas underlying expressivity and VM in FEP, suggesting deficits in these domains may be more linked to speech production rather than general cognitive capacity. Together, white-gray matter contrast and cortical thickness may optimally inform clinical investigations aiming to capture peri-cortical microstructural changes.

2019 Psychological Medicine

96. An Evaluation of a Mobile Application Designed to Teach Receptive Language Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Evaluation of a Mobile Application Designed to Teach Receptive Language Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a mobile application, Camp Discovery, designed to teach receptive language skills to children with autism spectrum disorder based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. Participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to an immediate-treatment or a delayed-treatment control group. The treatment group made significant

2019 Behavior analysis in practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

97. Is there an association between age at first words and speech sound disorders among 4- to 5-year-old children? An epidemiological cross-sectional study based on parental reports. (Abstract)

impairment (p < 0.001) and stuttering (p = 0.001) which resulted significantly associated to SSD, age at first words does not seem to be a predictor of SSD (p = 0.11); however, it remains a useful indicator of language delay and, when considered in association with other language milestones, can be a reason of concern for parents and caregivers about their children's developmental and speech therapy needs.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (...) a questionnaire about potential risk factors for speech impairment. The presence of SSD was identified by a speech pathologist who administered Fanzago's Articulation Test to each child. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the relationships between variables and outcomes.Mean age at first words was 17.8 ± 6.5 months of life; 25.7% of patients suffered from SSD, and 3.7% from stuttering. A family history of language impairment was found in 12.9% of the sample, whereas a family history of reading

2019 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

98. Modulation of resting-state network connectivity by verbal divergent thinking training. (Abstract)

with an inter-test interval of four weeks each, and randomly assigned to two groups which received the verbal creativity training time-delayed. Findings revealed that successful training of verbal creativity was mirrored by functional connectivity changes in the DMN, sensorimotor and auditory network, and the attention network. These rather global changes in resting-state functional connectivity supplement the findings of task-based fMRI, where changes in more task specific brain regions were (...) Modulation of resting-state network connectivity by verbal divergent thinking training. A growing body of evidence suggests that creativity is associated with functional connectivity across widespread neural networks, including regions associated with executive processes and cognitive control, along with regions linked to the default mode network (DMN) of the brain. This study investigated whether a three-week verbal divergent thinking training modulates functional connectivity in networks

2019 Brain and cognition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

99. Acute treatment with the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast improves verbal word memory in healthy old individuals: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-way crossover design. Participants were first screened for their verbal word memory performance to ensure normal memory performance (within 0.5 standard deviation from norm score; n = 20) Drug effects on memory performance were tested in a verbal memory test and a spatial memory test. Reported side effects of drug treatment were registered. Roflumilast (100 μg) improved the delayed recall performance of the participants (Cohen's d, 0.69). No effects were observed (...) Acute treatment with the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast improves verbal word memory in healthy old individuals: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. There is ample evidence that phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibition can improve memory performance in animal studies. In the present study, we examined the acute effects of the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast on memory performance in healthy individuals (60-80 years of age). We tested the effects of acute roflumilast administration (100, 250, 1000 μg

2019 Neurobiology of Aging Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100. Health insurance literacy: disparities by race, ethnicity, and language preference. (Abstract)

Health insurance literacy: disparities by race, ethnicity, and language preference. To measure Connecticut's Affordable Care Act qualified health plan enrollees' health insurance literacy (HIL) by race, ethnicity, and language preference.Statewide landline and cell phone telephonic survey.Geographically balanced cohort that oversampled black and Hispanic enrollees. Questions tested enrollees' knowledge of basic health insurance terminology and their use. Survey data were supplemented (...) by deidentified administrative data from the state's health insurance exchange.Overall, subjects answered 62% of 13 questions correctly. The percentages of correct answers were 53% for black enrollees, 50% for Hispanic enrollees, 74% for white enrollees, and 45% for Spanish-speaking enrollees. The differences by race, ethnicity, and language preference were statistically significant. Overall, enrollees with a college education scored higher across all demographic groups, but disparities by race and ethnicity

2019 American Journal Of Managed Care

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