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Speech Delay

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81. Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Early-Implanted, Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users Are Independent of Audibility and Speech Production. (PubMed)

Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Early-Implanted, Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users Are Independent of Audibility and Speech Production. To determine whether early-implanted, long-term cochlear implant (CI) users display delays in verbal short-term and working memory capacity when processes related to audibility and speech production are eliminated.Twenty-three long-term CI users and 23 normal-hearing controls each completed forward and backward digit span tasks under testing (...) conditions that differed in presentation modality (auditory or visual) and response output (spoken recall or manual pointing).Normal-hearing controls reproduced more lists of digits than the CI users, even when the test items were presented visually and the responses were made manually via touchscreen response.Short-term and working memory delays observed in CI users are not due to greater demands from peripheral sensory processes such as audibility or from overt speech-motor planning and response output

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2017 Ear and hearing

82. Speech Intelligibility and Psychosocial Functioning in Deaf Children and Teens with Cochlear Implants (PubMed)

Speech Intelligibility and Psychosocial Functioning in Deaf Children and Teens with Cochlear Implants Deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are at risk for psychosocial adjustment problems, possibly due to delayed speech-language skills. This study investigated associations between a core component of spoken-language ability-speech intelligibility-and the psychosocial development of prelingually deaf CI users. Audio-transcription measures of speech intelligibility and parent reports (...) of psychosocial behaviors were obtained for two age groups (preschool, school-age/teen). CI users in both age groups scored more poorly than typically hearing peers on speech intelligibility and several psychosocial scales. Among preschool CI users, five scales were correlated with speech intelligibility: functional communication, attention problems, atypicality, withdrawal, and adaptability. These scales and four additional scales were correlated with speech intelligibility among school-age/teen CI users

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2017 The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education

83. Cingulo-opercular activity affects incidental memory encoding for speech in noise (PubMed)

decreased for correctly identified words in noise that were not recognized in the delayed memory test. These results suggest that memory encoding in difficult listening conditions is poorer when elevated cingulo-opercular activity is not sustained. Although increased attention to speech when presented in difficult conditions may detract from more active forms of memory maintenance (e.g., sub-vocal rehearsal), we conclude that task performance monitoring and/or elevated tonic attention supports (...) Cingulo-opercular activity affects incidental memory encoding for speech in noise Correctly understood speech in difficult listening conditions is often difficult to remember. A long-standing hypothesis for this observation is that the engagement of cognitive resources to aid speech understanding can limit resources available for memory encoding. This hypothesis is consistent with evidence that speech presented in difficult conditions typically elicits greater activity throughout cingulo

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2017 NeuroImage

84. Increase in Beta-Band Activity during Preparation for Overt Speech in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PubMed)

presentation of the visual cue, β-power was significantly increased in PD patients compared to healthy controls. Previous research has shown that the physiological decrease of β-power preceding limb movement onset is delayed and smaller in PD patients off medication and normalizes under dopaminergic treatment. By contrast, our study demonstrates that β-power during preparation for speech production is higher in patients on dopaminergic therapy than controls. Thus, our results suggest that the mechanisms (...) Increase in Beta-Band Activity during Preparation for Overt Speech in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Speech impairment is a frequent and often serious symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by a disorder of phonation, articulation and prosody. While research on the pathogenesis of the prominent limb motor symptoms has made considerable progress in recent years, the pathophysiology of PD speech impairment is still incompletely understood. To investigate the neural correlates

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2017 Frontiers in human neuroscience

85. Waiting for lexical access: Cochlear implants or severely degraded input lead listeners to process speech less incrementally (PubMed)

cochlear implant (CI) users, and normal hearing (NH) adults listening to severely degraded speech. In Experiment 1, adolescent CI users and NH controls matched spoken words to arrays of pictures including pictures of the target word and phonological competitors. Eye-movements to each referent were monitored asa measure of how strongly that candidate was considered over time. Relative to NH controls, CI users showed a large delay in fixating any object, less competition from onset competitors (e.g (...) Waiting for lexical access: Cochlear implants or severely degraded input lead listeners to process speech less incrementally Spoken language unfolds over time. Consequently, there are brief periods of ambiguity, when incomplete input can match many possible words. Typical listeners solve this problem by immediately activating multiple candidates which compete for recognition. In two experiments using the visual world paradigm, we examined real-time lexical competition in prelingually deaf

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2017 Cognition

86. Speech rate, rate-matching, and intelligibility in early-implanted cochlear implant users (PubMed)

speech rates, less accurate and less consistent rate-matching, and poorer speech intelligibility than hearing peers. Among cochlear implant users, speech rate and rate-matching were correlated with intelligibility: faster talkers and better rate-matchers were more intelligible. Rate-matching and intelligibility improved during preschool, with cochlear implant users delayed by about a year compared to hearing peers. By school-age, rate-matching and intelligibility were good overall, but delays (...) Speech rate, rate-matching, and intelligibility in early-implanted cochlear implant users An important speech-language outcome for deaf people with cochlear implants is speech intelligibility-how well their speech is understood by others, which also affects social functioning. Beyond simply uttering recognizable words, other speech-language skills may affect communicative competence, including rate-matching or converging toward interlocutors' speech rates. This initial report examines speech

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2017 The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

87. Dual-Channel Cosine Function Based ITD Estimation for Robust Speech Separation (PubMed)

for the separation of mixed speech sources. The novelties of the paper consist in: (1) the extended application of delay-and-sum beamforming (DSB) and cosine function for ITD calculation; and (2) the clarification of the connection between ideal binary mask and DSB amplitude ratio. Our objective quality evaluation experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. (...) Dual-Channel Cosine Function Based ITD Estimation for Robust Speech Separation In speech separation tasks, many separation methods have the limitation that the microphones are closely spaced, which means that these methods are unprevailing for phase wrap-around. In this paper, we present a novel speech separation scheme by using two microphones that does not have this restriction. The technique utilizes the estimation of interaural time difference (ITD) statistics and binary time-frequency mask

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

88. Effects of a Conversation-Based Intervention on the Linguistic Skills of Children With Motor Speech Disorders Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (PubMed)

Effects of a Conversation-Based Intervention on the Linguistic Skills of Children With Motor Speech Disorders Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a conversation-based intervention on the expressive vocabulary and grammatical skills of children with severe motor speech disorders and expressive language delay who use augmentative and alternative communication.Eight children aged from 8 to 13 years participated in the study. After (...) ; Miller & Chapman, 1991).Results indicate that participants showed improvements in their use of spontaneous clauses, and a greater use of pronouns, verbs, and bound morphemes. These improvements were sustained and generalized to conversations with familiar partners.The results demonstrate the positive effects of the conversation-based intervention for improving the expressive vocabulary and grammatical skills of children with severe motor speech disorders and expressive language delay who use

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2017 Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR

89. Brain stem responses to speech in younger and older adults. (PubMed)

in latency across the entire S-ABR.Results of this study partially supported the hypothesis of age-related differences in neural processing of speech at the brain stem level. There were significant delays in the timing of the offset portion of the S-ABR in older listeners compared with their younger counterparts, even after accounting for the differences in peripheral hearing threshold between groups. There were also significant reductions in amplitude of the S-ABR at the onset. These results (...) Brain stem responses to speech in younger and older adults. This experiment was designed to evaluate whether neural encoding of speech features at the brain stem level is altered in the aging auditory system. In addition, the effect of minimal peripheral hearing loss on the auditory brain stem response (ABR) evoked by speech stimuli and interactions with aging were examined.Speech-evoked ABRs (S-ABRs) were recorded using a synthetic 40-msec /da/ stimulus from both ears of participants in two

2017 Ear and hearing

90. Audiovisual asynchrony detection and speech intelligibility in noise with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing impairment. (PubMed)

Audiovisual asynchrony detection and speech intelligibility in noise with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The objective of this study is to explore the sensitivity to intermodal asynchrony in audiovisual speech with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Based on previous studies, two opposing expectations were an increase in sensitivity, as hearing-impaired listeners heavily rely on lipreading in daily life, and a reduction in sensitivity, as hearing-impaired (...) speech was measured in speech-shaped noise, and correlations were explored between the synchrony window and intelligibility scores for individual listeners.Similar to previous studies, a sensitivity window on the order of a few hundred milliseconds was observed with all listeners. The average window shapes did not differ between normal-hearing and hearing-impaired groups; however, there was large individual variability. Individual windows were quantified by Gaussian curve fitting. Point of subjective

2017 Ear and hearing

91. Biallelic sequence variants in INTS1 in patients with developmental delays, cataracts, and craniofacial anomalies. (PubMed)

Biallelic sequence variants in INTS1 in patients with developmental delays, cataracts, and craniofacial anomalies. The Integrator complex subunit 1 (INTS1) is a component of the integrator complex that comprises 14 subunits and associates with RPB1 to catalyze endonucleolytic cleavage of nascent snRNAs and assist RNA polymerase II in promoter-proximal pause-release on protein-coding genes. We present five patients, including two sib pairs, with biallelic sequence variants in INTS1. The patients (...) manifested absent or severely limited speech, an abnormal gait, hypotonia and cataracts. Exome sequencing revealed biallelic variants in INTS1 in all patients. One sib pair demonstrated a missense variant, p.(Arg77Cys), and a frameshift variant, p.(Arg1800Profs*20), another sib pair had a homozygous missense variant, p.(Pro1874Leu), and the fifth patient had a frameshift variant, p.(Leu1764Cysfs*16) and a missense variant, p.(Leu2164Pro). We also report additional clinical data on three previously

2019 European Journal of Human Genetics

92. Kirsty Gadsby on delayed diagnosis: “I felt validated after years of feeling a fraud”

Kirsty Gadsby on delayed diagnosis: “I felt validated after years of feeling a fraud” Kirsty Gadsby on delayed diagnosis: “I felt validated after years of feeling a fraud” - The BMJ ---> Listening to patients and thinking outside the box can make the difference between diagnosis and dismissal, says Kirsty Gadsby When I was diagnosed with achalasia after six years of symptoms I felt like a heavy weight had been lifted off my shoulders. I was now able to see a way forward and felt validated after (...) many years of feeling like a fraud. My journey to diagnosis, as I suspect with most people with rare conditions, was not straightforward. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease was always the go to diagnosis when barium swallows, endoscopies, investigative surgery, x rays, blood tests, and speech and language assessments showed nothing remarkable. After years of being prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on and off to no effect, in between being told there was nothing wrong and just to live

2018 The BMJ Blog

93. First Implant-Induced Changes in Rostral Brainstem Impair Second Implant Outcomes in Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implant Children With Long Inter-Implant Delay. (PubMed)

with implant use was compared between the CI1 and CI2 sides. Their speech perception scores were evaluated 3 years after the second implantation.eIII-eV slopes evoked by the CI2 showed less mature pattern than those by the CI1. This CI2 versus CI1 difference in eIII-eV slopes, however, reduced as the inter-implant delay was prolonged, suggesting CI1-induced maturation of the rostral brainstem innervating the second ear before the second implantation. The smaller CI2 versus CI1 difference in eIII-eV slopes (...) First Implant-Induced Changes in Rostral Brainstem Impair Second Implant Outcomes in Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implant Children With Long Inter-Implant Delay. Long-term unilateral use of a cochlear implant (CI) induces abnormal maturation of the rostral brainstem innervating the contralateral ear.In sequential bilateral CI children with long inter-implant delay, both sides of auditory cortices were dominantly activated by the first CI, but mechanisms of this abnormal development

2019 Otology and Neurotology

94. Jeeves Wijesuriya: Rota delays for junior doctors—an endemic problem that undervalues the workforce

Jeeves Wijesuriya: Rota delays for junior doctors—an endemic problem that undervalues the workforce Jeeves Wijesuriya: Rota delays for junior doctors—an endemic problem that undervalues the workforce - The BMJ ---> It is unacceptable that there are doctors who are yet to receive their August rotas The process of starting a new job can be many things: exciting, nerve racking, and stressful in equal measure. It is a time of change and the sense of the unknown can cause anxiety at the best (...) and patient safety, must be seen by the CQC as important as the four hour A&E waiting times target—and implemented as such. Doctors across the UK, supported by the BMA, should be encouraged to come forward locally when these deadlines are missed, to log complaints with HR departments and recruiters, and to use the BMA’s rostering guidance as a practical tool to help ensure these timelines are being implemented properly. In her speech on long term NHS funding last month, even the Prime Minister highlighted

2018 The BMJ Blog

95. Detecting Developmental Delay and Autism Through Machine Learning Models Using Home Videos of Bangladeshi Children: Development and Validation Study. (PubMed)

of US-based children, identifying a reduced subset of behavioral features that are scored by untrained raters using a machine learning classifier to determine children's "risk scores" for autism. We achieved an accuracy of 92% (95% CI 88%-97%) on US videos using a classifier built on five features.Using videos of Bangladeshi children collected from Dhaka Shishu Children's Hospital, we aim to scale our pipeline to another culture and other developmental delays, including speech and language (...) Detecting Developmental Delay and Autism Through Machine Learning Models Using Home Videos of Bangladeshi Children: Development and Validation Study. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently diagnosed using qualitative methods that measure between 20-100 behaviors, can span multiple appointments with trained clinicians, and take several hours to complete. In our previous work, we demonstrated the efficacy of machine learning classifiers to accelerate the process by collecting home videos

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2019 Journal of medical Internet research

96. First Implant-Induced Changes in Rostral Brainstem Impair Second Implant Outcomes in Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implant Children With Long Inter-Implant Delay. (PubMed)

with implant use was compared between the CI1 and CI2 sides. Their speech perception scores were evaluated 3 years after the second implantation.eIII-eV slopes evoked by the CI2 showed less mature pattern than those by the CI1. This CI2 versus CI1 difference in eIII-eV slopes, however, reduced as the inter-implant delay was prolonged, suggesting CI1-induced maturation of the rostral brainstem innervating the second ear before the second implantation. The smaller CI2 versus CI1 difference in eIII-eV slopes (...) First Implant-Induced Changes in Rostral Brainstem Impair Second Implant Outcomes in Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implant Children With Long Inter-Implant Delay. Long-term unilateral use of a cochlear implant (CI) induces abnormal maturation of the rostral brainstem innervating the contralateral ear.In sequential bilateral CI children with long inter-implant delay, both sides of auditory cortices were dominantly activated by the first CI, but mechanisms of this abnormal development

2019 Otology and Neurotology

97. Influence of timing of delayed hard palate closure on articulation skills in 3-year-old Danish children with unilateral cleft lip and palate. (PubMed)

Influence of timing of delayed hard palate closure on articulation skills in 3-year-old Danish children with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Differing results regarding articulation skills in young children with cleft palate (CP) have been reported and often interpreted as a consequence of different surgical protocols.To assess the influence of different timing of hard palate closure in a two-stage procedure on articulation skills in 3-year-olds born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP (...) ). Secondary aims were to compare results with peers without CP, and to investigate if there are gender differences in articulation skills. Furthermore, burden of treatment was to be estimated in terms of secondary surgery, hearing and speech therapy.A randomized controlled trial (RCT). Early hard palate closure (EHPC) at 12 months versus late hard palate closure (LHPC) at 36 months in a two-stage procedure was tested in a cohort of 126 Danish-speaking children born with non-syndromic UCLP. All

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2019 International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

98. Status of prehospital delay and intravenous thrombolysis in the management of acute ischemic stroke in Nepal. (PubMed)

Status of prehospital delay and intravenous thrombolysis in the management of acute ischemic stroke in Nepal. Intravenous thrombolysis has been recently introduced in Nepal for the management of acute ischemic stroke. Pre-hospital delay is one of the main reasons that hinder thrombolytic therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of prehospital delay and thrombolysis in Nepal.Data were prospectively collected from patients of both genders, age >  18 years who arrived (...) at the emergency department (ED) with symptoms and neuroimaging findings consistent with an ischemic stroke. Patient data were obtained from ED form and standard questionnaires were used to assess factors resulting in prehospital delay. Modified Rankin scale and National Institute of Health stroke scale were used to assess the degree of disability and severity of stroke respectively.A total of 228 patients were enrolled in the study between August 2017 and August 2018. Only 46 (20.17%) patients arrived within

2019 BMC Neurology

99. Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia after uneventful clipping of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm - a case report. (PubMed)

Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia after uneventful clipping of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm - a case report. Due to improvements in both the quality and availability of intracranial imaging as well as the evolution of surgical and endovascular techniques during the last decade, the number of treatments of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) has increased steadily. However, it is not generally known that vasospasm can arise after an uneventful clipping.We present a case of a 69 (...) -year-old woman who suffered from vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia that occurred after an uneventful clipping of a UIA. The aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery was found incidentally via magnetic resonance imaging ordered after the patient complained of a short period of slight gait disturbances. To avoid a subarachnoid hemorrhage and consecutive complications like vasospasms, the patient elected microsurgical treatment. Clipping was managed by keyhole approach. Temporal clipping

2019 BMC Neurology

100. BRIGHT Coaching: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effectiveness of a Developmental Coach System to Empower Families of Children With Emerging Developmental Delay. (PubMed)

BRIGHT Coaching: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effectiveness of a Developmental Coach System to Empower Families of Children With Emerging Developmental Delay. Background: In preschool-aged children with, or at elevated risk for, developmental disabilities, challenges and needs arise from vulnerabilities linked to critical and newly emerging cognitive, speech, motor, behavioral, and social skills. For families, this can be a stressful period as they witness the gradual unfolding (...) social supports, and decreasing the demands on the overwhelmed health and developmental services. The primary objective is to evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of a coaching intervention (in comparison to usual and locally available care), for parents of children with emerging developmental delays. Method/Design: A multi-centered pragmatic randomized controlled trial design will be used. Families will be recruited from a representative sample of those awaiting publicly-funded regional

2019 Frontiers in pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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