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Sodium and Water Homeostasis

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1. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis. (PubMed)

Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis. The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight (...) , blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however

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2017 Kidney International

2. New Neuroscience of Homeostasis and Drives for Food, Water, and Salt. (PubMed)

New Neuroscience of Homeostasis and Drives for Food, Water, and Salt. Well-being requires the maintenance of energy stores, water, and sodium within permissive zones. The brain, as ringleader, orchestrates their homeostatic control. It senses disturbances, decides what needs to be done next, and then restores balance by altering physiological processes and ingestive drives (i.e., hunger, thirst, and salt appetite). But how the brain orchestrates this control has been unknown until recently (...) profoundly changing, our understanding of energy, water, and salt homeostasis and the linked ingestive drives.

2019 NEJM

3. Sodium and Water Homeostasis

Sodium and Water Homeostasis Sodium and Water Homeostasis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Sodium and Water Homeostasis (...) Sodium and Water Homeostasis Aka: Sodium and Water Homeostasis , Fluid Homeostasis , Sodium Hemeostasis , Fluid Shifts , Osmoregulation , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Sodium , Sodium Cation II. Physiology: Total blody water distribution See (TBW) accounts for 60% of body weight in men (50% in women) Example: 70 kg man has ~42 L TBW and a 70 kg woman has ~35 L TBW Intracellular fluid volume or ICFV (66% of ) Example: 70 kg man has ~28 L ICFV and a 70 kg woman has ~23 L ICFV High concentrations of (>130

2018 FP Notebook

4. Distinct leaf transcriptomic response of water deficient Eucalyptus grandis submitted to potassium and sodium fertilization. (PubMed)

Distinct leaf transcriptomic response of water deficient Eucalyptus grandis submitted to potassium and sodium fertilization. While potassium fertilization increases growth yield in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations, it could also increase water requirements, making trees more vulnerable to drought. Sodium fertilization, which has been shown to promote eucalyptus growth compared to K-deficient trees, could partially mitigate this adverse effect of potassium. However, little is known about (...) the influence of K and Na fertilization on the tree metabolic response to water deficit. The aim of the present study was thus to analyze the transcriptome of leaves sampled from Eucalyptus grandis trees subjected to 37% rainfall reduction, and fertilized with potassium (K), sodium (Na), compared to control trees (C). The multifactorial experiment was set up in a field with a throughfall exclusion system. Transcriptomic analysis was performed on leaves from two-year-old trees, and data analyzed using

2019 PLoS ONE

5. Sodium and water handling during hemodialysis: new pathophysiologic insights and management approaches for improving outcomes in end-stage kidney disease. (PubMed)

Sodium and water handling during hemodialysis: new pathophysiologic insights and management approaches for improving outcomes in end-stage kidney disease. Space medicine and new technology such as magnetic resonance imaging of tissue sodium stores (23NaMRI) have changed our understanding of human sodium homeostasis and pathophysiology. It has become evident that body sodium comprises 3 main components. Two compartments have been traditionally recognized, namely one that is circulating (...) the combination of novel technologies to quantitate tissue salt accumulation (e.g., 23NaMRI) with devices to facilitate the precise attainment of a prescribed hemodialytic sodium mass balance (e.g., sodium and water balancing modules) will improve our therapeutic approach to sodium management in dialysis patients. While prospective studies are required, we think that these new diagnostic and sodium balancing tools will enhance our ability to pursue more personalized therapeutic interventions on sodium

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2019 Kidney International

6. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes. (PubMed)

Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes. Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non (...) -alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05) in W (-1.1%), AB (-1.0%) and NAB (-1.0%). In the last

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2017 Nutrients

7. CHIP Regulates Aquaporin-2 Quality Control and Body Water Homeostasis. (PubMed)

CHIP Regulates Aquaporin-2 Quality Control and Body Water Homeostasis. The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining (...) membrane abundance of AQP2 in these cells. Compared with wild-type controls, CHIP knockout mice or novel CRISPR/Cas9 mice without CHIP E3 ligase activity had greater AQP2 abundance and altered renal water handling, with decreased water intake and urine volume, alongside higher urine osmolality. We did not observe significant changes in other water- or sodium-transporting proteins in the gene-modified mice. In summary, these results suggest that CHIP regulates AQP2 and subsequently, renal water

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2017 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

8. The Rab-GAP TBC1D4 (AS160) is dispensable for the control of sodium and water homeostasis but regulates GLUT4 in mouse kidney. (PubMed)

The Rab-GAP TBC1D4 (AS160) is dispensable for the control of sodium and water homeostasis but regulates GLUT4 in mouse kidney. The Rab GTPase-activating protein TBC1D4 (AS160) controls trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 in adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells. TBC1D4 is also highly abundant in the renal distal tubule, although its role in this tubule is so far unknown. In vitro studies suggest that it is involved in the regulation of renal transporters and channels (...) such as the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), aquaporin-2 (AQP2), and the Na+-K+-ATPase. To assess the physiological role of TBC1D4 in the kidney, wild-type (TBC1D4+/+) and TBC1D4-deficient (TBC1D4-/-) mice were studied. Unexpectedly, neither under standard nor under challenging conditions (low Na+/high K+, water restriction) did TBC1D4-/- mice show any difference in urinary Na+ and K+ excretion, urine osmolarity, plasma ion and aldosterone levels, and blood pressure compared with TBC1D4+/+ mice. Also

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2015 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

9. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems (PubMed)

Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots (...) (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth.

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2016 Frontiers in plant science

10. An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential (PubMed)

An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential Plant zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) comprise a large protein family and they are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Although Arabidopsis RING/FYVE/PHD ZFP At5g62460 (AtRZFP) is found to bind to zinc, whether it is involved in abiotic stress tolerance is still unknown. In the present study, we characterized (...) aperture and the water loss rate. Conversely, AtRZFP knockout plants displayed the opposite physiological changes when exposed to salt or osmotic stress conditions. These data suggested that AtRZFP enhances salt and osmotic tolerance through a series of physiological processes, including enhanced ROSs scavenging, maintaining Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis, controlling the stomatal aperture to reduce the water loss rate, and accumulating soluble sugars and proline to adjust the osmotic potential.

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2016 Frontiers in plant science

11. CRACKCast E126 – Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis

important determinant of the patient’s mental status. Glucose in the renal tubules draws water, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and other ions from the circulation into the urine. This osmotic diuresis, combined with poor intake and vomiting, produces the profound dehydration and electrolyte imbalance associated with DKA Insulin deficiency results in activation of a hormone-sensitive lipase that increases circulating free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Long-chain FFAs, now circulating (...) CRACKCast E126 – Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis CRACKCast E126 - Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis - CanadiEM CRACKCast E126 – Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis In by Chris Lipp November 13, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 118, Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis. This chapter covers diabetes and its related complications. Having knowledge of these disease states and their related

2017 CandiEM

12. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (Lokelma) - Hyperkalemia

in all directions within the crystals make sodium zirconium cyclosilicate a compound insoluble in water or in organic solvents. It is neither hygroscopic nor sensitive to light and it is resistant to heat. During the hydrothermal synthesis, the possibility that other crystalline phases are formed exists. The observed crystalline forms are controlled by the manufacturing process parameters and release specifications. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate is considered to be a new active substance (...) 12/103 the proposed container, double colourless low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags inside a rigid opaque outer container/ drum. 2.2.3. Finished Medicinal Product Description of the product and pharmaceutical development The finished product is a powder for oral suspension containing 5 g or 10 g of sodium zirconium cyclosilicate as active substance. It is readily suspended in water with stirring or swirling. Powder for oral suspension was selected as the optimal dosage form based on posology

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

13. Selective lysis of breast carcinomas by simultaneous stimulation of sodium channels and blockade of sodium pumps (PubMed)

Selective lysis of breast carcinomas by simultaneous stimulation of sodium channels and blockade of sodium pumps Sodium influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) coupled with balanced removal of sodium ions via Na+, K+-ATPase is a major determinant of cellular homeostasis and intracellular ionic concentration. Interestingly, many metastatic carcinomas express high levels of these channels. We hypothesized that if excess VGSCs are activated and Na+, K+-ATPase is simultaneously blocked (...) , the intracellular Na+ concentration should increase, resulting in water movement into the cell, causing swelling and lytic cell death. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells over-express VGSCs by 7-fold. To test our hypothesis, we treated these cells in vitro with the Na+, K+-ATPase blocker, ouabain, and then stimulated with a sublethal electric current. For in vivo histologic and survival studies, MDA-MB-231 xenografts were established in Nu/J mice. Mice injected with saline or ouabain were electrically stimulated

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2018 Oncotarget

14. Sodium and Water Homeostasis

Sodium and Water Homeostasis Sodium and Water Homeostasis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Sodium and Water Homeostasis (...) Sodium and Water Homeostasis Aka: Sodium and Water Homeostasis , Fluid Homeostasis , Sodium Hemeostasis , Fluid Shifts , Osmoregulation , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Sodium , Sodium Cation II. Physiology: Total blody water distribution See (TBW) accounts for 60% of body weight in men (50% in women) Example: 70 kg man has ~42 L TBW and a 70 kg woman has ~35 L TBW Intracellular fluid volume or ICFV (66% of ) Example: 70 kg man has ~28 L ICFV and a 70 kg woman has ~23 L ICFV High concentrations of (>130

2015 FP Notebook

15. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet (PubMed)

Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet (...) . Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce obesity. Empagliflozin was dosed once daily (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 28 days. Combination studies were subsequently performed using a submaximal empagliflozin dose (10 mg/kg) with either sibutramine or orlistat. Body weight, food, and water intake were recorded daily. The effect of drug treatment on glucose tolerance, relevant plasma parameters, and carcass composition was determined. Empagliflozin dose-dependently reduced body weight

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2014 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy

16. Determinants of water and sodium intake and output. (PubMed)

Determinants of water and sodium intake and output. Physiological regulation of sodium and water intake and output is required for the maintenance of homeostasis. The behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms that govern fluid and salt balance are highly interdependent, with acute and chronic alterations in renal output tightly balanced by appropriate changes in thirst and, to a lesser extent in humans, sodium appetite. In healthy individuals, these tightly coupled mechanisms maintain (...) extracellular fluid volume and body tonicity within a narrow homeostatic range by initiating ingestive behaviors and the release of hormones necessary to conserve water and sodium within the body. In this review, the factors that determine output of sodium and fluid and those that determine "normal" input (i.e., matched to output) are addressed. For output, individual variability accompanied by dysregulation of homeostatic mechanisms may contribute to acute and/or chronic disease. To illustrate that point

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2015 Nutrition reviews

17. Clinical impact of tissue sodium storage. (PubMed)

Clinical impact of tissue sodium storage. In recent times, the traditional nephrocentric, two-compartment model of body sodium has been challenged by long-term sodium balance studies and experimental work on the dermal interstitium and endothelial surface layer. In the new paradigm, sodium can be stored without commensurate water retention in the interstitium and endothelial surface layer, forming a dynamic third compartment for sodium. This has important implications for sodium homeostasis (...) , osmoregulation and the hemodynamic response to salt intake. Sodium storage in the skin and endothelial surface layer may function as a buffer during periods of dietary depletion and excess, representing an extra-renal mechanism regulating body sodium and water. Interstitial sodium storage may also serve as a biomarker for sodium sensitivity and cardiovascular risk, as well as a target for hypertension treatment. Furthermore, sodium storage may explain the limitations of traditional techniques used

2019 Pediatric Nephrology

18. Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic fibrosis (PubMed)

Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic fibrosis Mucociliary clearance is composed of three components (i.e., mucin secretion, airway surface hydration, and ciliary-activity) which function coordinately to clear inhaled microbes and other foreign particles from airway surfaces. Airway surface hydration is maintained by water fluxes driven predominantly by active chloride and sodium ion transport. The ion (...) channels that mediate electrogenic ion transport are regulated by extracellular purinergic signals that signal through G protein-coupled receptors. These purinoreceptors and the signaling pathways they activate have been identified as possible therapeutic targets for treating lung disease. A systems-level description of airway surface liquid (ASL) homeostasis could accelerate development of such therapies. Accordingly, we developed a mathematical model to describe the dynamic coupling of ion and water

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2017 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

19. Time-dependent effects of ipragliflozin on behaviour and energy homeostasis in normal and type 2 diabetic rats: continuous glucose telemetry analysis (PubMed)

Time-dependent effects of ipragliflozin on behaviour and energy homeostasis in normal and type 2 diabetic rats: continuous glucose telemetry analysis Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote urinary glucose excretion. Conversely, they cause behavioural changes, such as hyperphagia, that result in a positive energy balance. The relationship between energy homeostasis and SGLT2 inhibitors-induced behavioural changes remains unclear. Here we show (...) that ipragliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, time-dependently affects behaviour and enhances energy expenditure in normal and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, using continuous glucose telemetry. Alongside increased urinary glucose excretion, ipragliflozin increased total food and water intakes in normal and GK rats. In normal rats, ipragliflozin treatment acutely disturbed the circadian rhythms of food and water intakes, activity, and body temperature. Subsequently, these rhythms gradually returned towards

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2017 Scientific reports

20. Epithelial sodium channel biogenesis and quality control in the early secretory pathway. (PubMed)

, cytosolic lysines are acetylated in the early secretory pathway, which inhibits ubiquitination and endocytosis at the cell surface.As sodium reabsorption by ENaC in the distal nephron regulates salt and water homeostasis, ENaC function is critical for human health. Therefore, identifying and characterizing modifiers of ENaC in the early secretory pathway may provide both new therapeutic targets and further our basic understanding of membrane protein assembly and regulation. (...) Epithelial sodium channel biogenesis and quality control in the early secretory pathway. The epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, is responsible for Na reabsorption in several epithelia and is composed of homologous α, β, and γ subunits. Here, we will explore the differential regulation of ENaC subunits during biogenesis in the early secretory pathway.ENaC subunits are subject to numerous posttranslational modifications, including glycosylation, protease activation, disulfide bond formation

2018 Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

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