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Sodium and Water Homeostasis

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1. New Neuroscience of Homeostasis and Drives for Food, Water, and Salt. (Abstract)

New Neuroscience of Homeostasis and Drives for Food, Water, and Salt. Well-being requires the maintenance of energy stores, water, and sodium within permissive zones. The brain, as ringleader, orchestrates their homeostatic control. It senses disturbances, decides what needs to be done next, and then restores balance by altering physiological processes and ingestive drives (i.e., hunger, thirst, and salt appetite). But how the brain orchestrates this control has been unknown until recently (...) profoundly changing, our understanding of energy, water, and salt homeostasis and the linked ingestive drives.

2019 NEJM

2. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis. The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight (...) , blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however

2017 Kidney International

3. Sodium and Water Homeostasis

Sodium and Water Homeostasis Sodium and Water Homeostasis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Sodium and Water Homeostasis (...) Sodium and Water Homeostasis Aka: Sodium and Water Homeostasis , Fluid Homeostasis , Sodium Hemeostasis , Fluid Shifts , Osmoregulation , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Sodium , Sodium Cation II. Physiology: Total blody water distribution See (TBW) accounts for 60% of body weight in men (50% in women) Example: 70 kg man has ~42 L TBW and a 70 kg woman has ~35 L TBW Intracellular fluid volume or ICFV (66% of ) Example: 70 kg man has ~28 L ICFV and a 70 kg woman has ~23 L ICFV High concentrations of (>130

2018 FP Notebook

4. Distinct leaf transcriptomic response of water deficient Eucalyptus grandis submitted to potassium and sodium fertilization. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Distinct leaf transcriptomic response of water deficient Eucalyptus grandis submitted to potassium and sodium fertilization. While potassium fertilization increases growth yield in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations, it could also increase water requirements, making trees more vulnerable to drought. Sodium fertilization, which has been shown to promote eucalyptus growth compared to K-deficient trees, could partially mitigate this adverse effect of potassium. However, little is known about (...) the influence of K and Na fertilization on the tree metabolic response to water deficit. The aim of the present study was thus to analyze the transcriptome of leaves sampled from Eucalyptus grandis trees subjected to 37% rainfall reduction, and fertilized with potassium (K), sodium (Na), compared to control trees (C). The multifactorial experiment was set up in a field with a throughfall exclusion system. Transcriptomic analysis was performed on leaves from two-year-old trees, and data analyzed using

2019 PLoS ONE

5. MicroRNA-132 controls water homeostasis through regulating MECP2-mediated vasopressin synthesis. (Abstract)

MicroRNA-132 controls water homeostasis through regulating MECP2-mediated vasopressin synthesis. Fine-tuning of the body's water balance is regulated by vasopressin (AVP), which induces the expression and apical membrane insertion of aquaporin-2 water channels and subsequent water reabsorption in the kidney. Here we demonstrate that silencing of microRNA-132 (miR-132) in mice causes severe weight loss due to acute diuresis coinciding with increased plasma osmolality, reduced renal total (...) is a miR-132 target and which blocks AVP gene expression by binding its enhancer region. In line with this, treatment of hypothalamic N6 cells with a high-salt solution increased its miR-132 levels, whereas it attenuated endogenous Mecp2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, we identified miR-132 as a first miRNA regulating the osmotic balance by regulating the hypothalamic AVP gene mRNA expression.

2018 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

6. Sodium and water handling during hemodialysis: new pathophysiologic insights and management approaches for improving outcomes in end-stage kidney disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sodium and water handling during hemodialysis: new pathophysiologic insights and management approaches for improving outcomes in end-stage kidney disease. Space medicine and new technology such as magnetic resonance imaging of tissue sodium stores (23NaMRI) have changed our understanding of human sodium homeostasis and pathophysiology. It has become evident that body sodium comprises 3 main components. Two compartments have been traditionally recognized, namely one that is circulating (...) the combination of novel technologies to quantitate tissue salt accumulation (e.g., 23NaMRI) with devices to facilitate the precise attainment of a prescribed hemodialytic sodium mass balance (e.g., sodium and water balancing modules) will improve our therapeutic approach to sodium management in dialysis patients. While prospective studies are required, we think that these new diagnostic and sodium balancing tools will enhance our ability to pursue more personalized therapeutic interventions on sodium

2019 Kidney International

7. Secretin, at the Hub of Water-Salt Homeostasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Secretin, at the Hub of Water-Salt Homeostasis. Water and salt metabolism are tightly regulated processes. Maintaining this milieu intérieur within narrow limits is critical for normal physiological processes to take place. Disturbances to this balance can result in disease and even death. Some of the better-characterized regulators of water and salt homeostasis include angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin. Although secretin (SCT) was first described >100 years ago (...) , little is known about the role of this classic gastrointestinal hormone in the maintenance of water-salt homeostasis. In recent years, increasing body of evidence suggested that SCT and its receptor play important roles in the central nervous system and kidney to ensure that the mammalian extracellular fluid osmolarity is kept within a healthy range. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular, cellular, and network mechanisms by which SCT and its receptor

2016 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

8. Salt, water and nephron: Mechanisms of action and link to hypertension and chronic kidney disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

Salt, water and nephron: Mechanisms of action and link to hypertension and chronic kidney disease Our knowledge on sodium and water homeostasis and regulation continues to evolve. A considerable amount of new information in this area has emerged in recent years. This review summarizes existing and new literature and discusses complex multi-organ effects of high-salt and low-water intake and role of arginine vasopressin in this process, as well as the potential clinical significance of non (...) -osmotic sodium storage pool and rhythmicity of urine sodium excretion. It has become clear that sodium and water dysregulation can exert profound effects on kidney and vascular health, far greater than previously recognized. Maladaptation to a combined high-salt and low-water intake can be linked to the growing epidemic of hypertension and chronic kidney disease.© 2018 The Authors Nephrology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

2018 Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)

9. The Rab-GAP TBC1D4 (AS160) is dispensable for the control of sodium and water homeostasis but regulates GLUT4 in mouse kidney. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Rab-GAP TBC1D4 (AS160) is dispensable for the control of sodium and water homeostasis but regulates GLUT4 in mouse kidney. The Rab GTPase-activating protein TBC1D4 (AS160) controls trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 in adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells. TBC1D4 is also highly abundant in the renal distal tubule, although its role in this tubule is so far unknown. In vitro studies suggest that it is involved in the regulation of renal transporters and channels (...) such as the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), aquaporin-2 (AQP2), and the Na+-K+-ATPase. To assess the physiological role of TBC1D4 in the kidney, wild-type (TBC1D4+/+) and TBC1D4-deficient (TBC1D4-/-) mice were studied. Unexpectedly, neither under standard nor under challenging conditions (low Na+/high K+, water restriction) did TBC1D4-/- mice show any difference in urinary Na+ and K+ excretion, urine osmolarity, plasma ion and aldosterone levels, and blood pressure compared with TBC1D4+/+ mice. Also

2015 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

10. Effects of transportation stress and addition of salt to transport water on the skin mucosal homeostasis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of transportation stress and addition of salt to transport water on the skin mucosal homeostasis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Transportation of live fish is a common practice among aquaculture facilities. Many studies have previously reported how transport elicits physiological stress responses and increases disease susceptibility in farmed fish. The aim of this work is to investigate the changes that the skin of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) experiences due to stress (...) . Since NaCl is commonly added to transport water as a stress mitigator, the effects of salt addition on the skin mucosa and skin-associated bacteria were also examined. Three experimental groups (Control, post-transport no salt (PTNS) and post-transport with salt (PTS)) were analyzed in a 5-hour transport acute stress model. Results indicate that the skin mucosa and the skin-associated bacteria are affected by transport stress. Total numbers of culturable skin-associated bacteria increased by ~10

2015 Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

11. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes. Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non (...) -alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05) in W (-1.1%), AB (-1.0%) and NAB (-1.0%). In the last

2017 Nutrients Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12. CHIP Regulates Aquaporin-2 Quality Control and Body Water Homeostasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

CHIP Regulates Aquaporin-2 Quality Control and Body Water Homeostasis. The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining (...) membrane abundance of AQP2 in these cells. Compared with wild-type controls, CHIP knockout mice or novel CRISPR/Cas9 mice without CHIP E3 ligase activity had greater AQP2 abundance and altered renal water handling, with decreased water intake and urine volume, alongside higher urine osmolality. We did not observe significant changes in other water- or sodium-transporting proteins in the gene-modified mice. In summary, these results suggest that CHIP regulates AQP2 and subsequently, renal water

2017 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

13. Ectopic Expression of Aeluropus littoralis Plasma Membrane Protein Gene AlTMP1 Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco by Improving Water Status and Cation Homeostasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ectopic Expression of Aeluropus littoralis Plasma Membrane Protein Gene AlTMP1 Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco by Improving Water Status and Cation Homeostasis We report here the isolation and functional analysis of AlTMP1 gene encoding a member of the PMP3 protein family. In Aeluropus littoralis, AlTMP1 is highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. Transgenic tobacco expressing AlTMP1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, osmotic, H₂O₂, heat (...) , and improved water status. Finally, accumulation of AlTMP1 in tobacco altered the regulation of some stress-related genes in either a positive (NHX1, CAT1, APX1, and DREB1A) or negative (HKT1 and KT1) manner that could be related to the observed tolerance. These results suggest that AlTMP1 confers stress tolerance in tobacco through maintenance of ion homeostasis, increased membrane integrity, and water status. The observed tolerance may be due to a direct or indirect effect of AlTMP1 on the expression

2017 International journal of molecular sciences

14. Salt and water: not so simple Full Text available with Trip Pro

the water retention that is needed to achieve osmotic homeostasis. Together, the results of these two studies lay the groundwork for future studies to determine how, in the face of chronic changes in salt intake, humans maintain volume and osmotic homeostasis. (...) Salt and water: not so simple It has long been viewed that the maintenance of osmotic balance in response to high salt intake is a passive process that is mediated largely by increased water consumption to balance the salt load. Two studies in this issue of the JCI challenge this notion and demonstrate that osmotic balance in response to high salt intake involves a complex regulatory process that is influenced by hormone fluctuation, metabolism, food consumption, water intake, and renal salt

2017 The Journal of clinical investigation

15. Kidney-specific genetic deletion of both AMPK α-subunits causes salt and water wasting. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Kidney-specific genetic deletion of both AMPK α-subunits causes salt and water wasting. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) controls cell energy homeostasis by modulating ATP synthesis and expenditure. In vitro studies have suggested AMPK may also control key elements of renal epithelial electrolyte transport but in vivo physiological confirmation is still insufficient. We studied sodium renal handling and extracellular volume regulation in mice with genetic deletion of AMPK catalytic subunits. AMPKα1 (...) to knock down AMPKα2 expression in renal epithelial cells. Combining this approach with the systemic deletion of AMPKα1 we achieved reduced renal AMPK activity, accompanied by a shift to a moderate water- and salt-wasting phenotype. Thus we confirm the physiologically relevant role of AMPK in the kidney. Furthermore, our results indicate that in vivo AMPK activity stimulates renal sodium and water reabsorption.Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

2017 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

16. CRACKCast E126 – Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis

important determinant of the patient’s mental status. Glucose in the renal tubules draws water, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and other ions from the circulation into the urine. This osmotic diuresis, combined with poor intake and vomiting, produces the profound dehydration and electrolyte imbalance associated with DKA Insulin deficiency results in activation of a hormone-sensitive lipase that increases circulating free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Long-chain FFAs, now circulating (...) CRACKCast E126 – Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis CRACKCast E126 - Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis - CanadiEM CRACKCast E126 – Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis In by Chris Lipp November 13, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 118, Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis. This chapter covers diabetes and its related complications. Having knowledge of these disease states and their related

2017 CandiEM

17. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems Full Text available with Trip Pro

Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots (...) (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth.

2016 Frontiers in plant science

18. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (Lokelma) - Hyperkalemia

in all directions within the crystals make sodium zirconium cyclosilicate a compound insoluble in water or in organic solvents. It is neither hygroscopic nor sensitive to light and it is resistant to heat. During the hydrothermal synthesis, the possibility that other crystalline phases are formed exists. The observed crystalline forms are controlled by the manufacturing process parameters and release specifications. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate is considered to be a new active substance (...) 12/103 the proposed container, double colourless low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags inside a rigid opaque outer container/ drum. 2.2.3. Finished Medicinal Product Description of the product and pharmaceutical development The finished product is a powder for oral suspension containing 5 g or 10 g of sodium zirconium cyclosilicate as active substance. It is readily suspended in water with stirring or swirling. Powder for oral suspension was selected as the optimal dosage form based on posology

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

19. Manganese-induced salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings: regulation of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems Full Text available with Trip Pro

Manganese-induced salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings: regulation of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems Hydroponically grown 12-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 150 mM NaCl alone and combined with 0.5 mM MnSO4. Salt stress resulted in disruption of ion homeostasis by Na+ influx and K+ efflux. Higher accumulation of Na+ and water imbalance under salinity caused osmotic stress, chlorosis, and growth inhibition. Salt-induced (...) ionic toxicity and osmotic stress consequently resulted in oxidative stress by disrupting the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG), respectively. The salt-induced damage increased with the increasing duration of stress. However, exogenous application of manganese (Mn) helped the plants to partially recover from the inhibited growth and chlorosis by improving ionic and osmotic homeostasis through decreasing Na

2016 Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants

20. An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential Full Text available with Trip Pro

aperture and the water loss rate. Conversely, AtRZFP knockout plants displayed the opposite physiological changes when exposed to salt or osmotic stress conditions. These data suggested that AtRZFP enhances salt and osmotic tolerance through a series of physiological processes, including enhanced ROSs scavenging, maintaining Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis, controlling the stomatal aperture to reduce the water loss rate, and accumulating soluble sugars and proline to adjust the osmotic potential. (...) An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential Plant zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) comprise a large protein family and they are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Although Arabidopsis RING/FYVE/PHD ZFP At5g62460 (AtRZFP) is found to bind to zinc, whether it is involved in abiotic stress tolerance is still unknown. In the present study, we characterized

2016 Frontiers in plant science

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