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1. Operational framework for deployment of the World Health Organization smallpox vaccine emergency stockpile in response to a smallpox event

Operational framework for deployment of the World Health Organization smallpox vaccine emergency stockpile in response to a smallpox event Operational framework for deployment of the World Health Organization smallpox vaccine emergency stockpile in response to a smallpox event JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links Operational framework for deployment of the World (...) Health Organization smallpox vaccine emergency stockpile in response to a smallpox event View/ Open Rights View Statistics Altmetrics Share Citation World Health Organization . (‎2017)‎. Operational framework for deployment of the World Health Organization smallpox vaccine emergency stockpile in response to a smallpox event. World Health Organization. . License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO Description 69 p. Gov't Doc # WHO/WHE/IHM/2017.14 ISBN 9789241513418 Collections Language English Metadata Related items

2017 WHO

2. Tecovirimat (TPOXX) - To treat smallpox

Tecovirimat (TPOXX) - To treat smallpox Drug Approval Package: TPOXX (tecovirimat) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Search FDA Submit search Drug Approval Package: TPOXX (tecovirimat) Company: SIGA Technologies, Inc. Application Number: 208627 Approval Date: 07/13/2018 Persons with disabilities having problems accessing the PDF files below may call (301) 796-3634 for assistance. FDA Approval Letter and Labeling (PDF) (PDF) FDA Application Review Files (PDF) (PDF) (PDF) (PDF) (PDF

2018 FDA - Drug Approval Package

4. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks: report by the Secretariat

Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks: report by the Secretariat Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks: report by the Secretariat JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks: report by the Secretariat View/ Open View Statistics Altmetrics Share Citation World Health Assembly (...) , 69 . (‎2016)‎. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks: report by the Secretariat. World Health Organization. Gov't Doc # A69/23 Collections Language English Metadata Related items Showing items related by title and MeSH subject.  World Health Assembly, 60 (‎ A60/40 , 2007 )‎  Executive Board, 120 (‎ EB120/39 , 2007 )‎  Executive Board, 138 (‎ EB138/22 , 2016 )‎ View Item

2016 WHO

5. WHO Advisory committee on variola virus research: report of the eighteenth meeting, 2–3 November 2016, Geneva, Switzerland

WHO Advisory committee on variola virus research: report of the eighteenth meeting, 2–3 November 2016, Geneva, Switzerland WHO Advisory committee on variola virus research: report of the eighteenth meeting, 2–3 November 2016, Geneva, Switzerland JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links WHO Advisory committee on variola virus research: report of the eighteenth meeting, 2 (...) –3 November 2016, Geneva, Switzerland View/ Open Rights View Statistics Altmetrics Share Citation World Health Organization . (‎2017)‎. WHO Advisory committee on variola virus research: report of the eighteenth meeting, 2–3 November 2016, Geneva, Switzerland. World Health Organization. . License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO Description 58 p. Gov't Doc # WHO/WHE/IHM/GIM/2017.1 Collections Language English Metadata Related items Showing items related by title and MeSH subject.  World Health Assembly, 60

2017 WHO

6. Variola minor in coalfield areas of England and Wales, 1921-34: Geographical determinants of a national smallpox epidemic that spread out of effective control. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Variola minor in coalfield areas of England and Wales, 1921-34: Geographical determinants of a national smallpox epidemic that spread out of effective control. This paper uses techniques of binary logistic regression to identify the spatial determinants of the last national epidemic of smallpox to spread in England and Wales, the variola minor epidemic of 1921-34. Adjusting for age and county-level variations in vaccination coverage in infancy, the analysis identifies a dose-response gradient (...) with increasing odds of elevated smallpox rates in local government areas with (i) medium (odds ratio [OR] = 5.32, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.96-14.41) and high (OR = 11.32, 95% CI 4.20-31.59) coal mining occupation rates and (ii) medium (OR = 16.74, 95% CI 2.24-125.21) and high (OR = 63.43, 95% CI 7.82-497.21) levels of residential density. The results imply that the spatial transmission of variola virus was facilitated by the close spatial packing of individuals, with a heightened transmission risk

2017 Social Science & Medicine

7. Health system capacity in Sydney, Australia in the event of a biological attack with smallpox. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Health system capacity in Sydney, Australia in the event of a biological attack with smallpox. Planning for a re-emergent epidemic of smallpox requires surge capacity of space, resources and personnel within health systems. There are many uncertainties in such a scenario, including likelihood and size of an attack, speed of response and health system capacity. We used a model for smallpox transmission to determine requirements for hospital beds, contact tracing and health workers (HCWs (...) ) in Sydney, Australia, during a modelled epidemic of smallpox. Sensitivity analysis was done on attack size, speed of response and proportion of case isolation and contact tracing. We estimated 100638 clinical HCWs and 14595 public hospital beds in Sydney. Rapid response, case isolation and contact tracing are influential on epidemic size, with case isolation more influential than contact tracing. With 95% of cases isolated, outbreak control can be achieved within 100 days even with only 50% of contacts

2019 PLoS ONE

8. Oral Tecovirimat for the Treatment of Smallpox. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral Tecovirimat for the Treatment of Smallpox. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980, but variola virus (VARV), which causes smallpox, still exists. There is no known effective treatment for smallpox; therefore, tecovirimat is being developed as an oral smallpox therapy. Because clinical trials in a context of natural disease are not possible, an alternative developmental path to evaluate efficacy and safety was needed.We investigated the efficacy of tecovirimat in nonhuman primate (...) (monkeypox) and rabbit (rabbitpox) models in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Animal Efficacy Rule, which was interpreted for smallpox therapeutics by an expert advisory committee. We also conducted a placebo-controlled pharmacokinetic and safety trial involving 449 adult volunteers.The minimum dose of tecovirimat required in order to achieve more than 90% survival in the monkeypox model was 10 mg per kilogram of body weight for 14 days, and a dose of 40 mg per kilogram for 14 days

2018 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9. Immunogenicity and safety of three consecutive production lots of the non replicating smallpox vaccine MVA: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled phase III trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immunogenicity and safety of three consecutive production lots of the non replicating smallpox vaccine MVA: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled phase III trial. Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a live, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial was conducted to demonstrate the humoral immunogenic equivalence of three consecutively manufactured MVA production lots

2018 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: predicted high

10. Long-term effects of smallpox vaccination on expression of the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 in women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-term effects of smallpox vaccination on expression of the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 in women. Smallpox vaccinations were stopped globally in 1980. Recent studies have shown that in women, being smallpox vaccinated was associated with a reduced risk of HIV infection compared with not being smallpox vaccinated. At the initial infection, HIV-1 most often uses CCR5 as a co-receptor to infect the T-lymphocytes. We therefore investigated whether smallpox vaccination is associated with a down (...) -regulation of CCR5 on the surface of peripheral T-lymphocytes in healthy women in Guinea-Bissau.We included HIV seronegative women from Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, born before 1974, with and without a smallpox vaccination scar. Blood samples were stabilised in a TransFix buffer solution and stained for flow cytometry according to a T-cell maturation profile.Ninety-seven women were included in the study; 52 with a smallpox vaccination scar and 45 without a scar. No association between smallpox vaccination scar

2018 PLoS ONE

11. Position on reproductive donors and smallpox vaccine: a committee opinion

-smallpox-vaccine/ Use your smartphone to scan this QR code and connect to the discussion forum for this article now.* * Download a free QR code scanner by searching for “QR scanner” in your smartphone’s app store or app marketplace. V accinia virus is a double- stranded DNA virus related to cowpox virus that has been used to vaccinate against smallpox for more than 100 years. Vaccinia virus is closelyrelatedtosmallpox(variola)vi- rus, and the immune response to vaccinia is therefore protective against (...) Position on reproductive donors and smallpox vaccine: a committee opinion Position on reproductive donors and smallpox vaccine: a committee opinion Practice Committees of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology American Society for Reproductive Medicine and Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, Birmingham, Alabama Although there is presently no de?nitive evidence linking vaccinia virus transmission through reproductive cells

2016 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

12. Assessing a drug for an eradicated human disease: US Food and Drug Administration review of tecovirimat for the treatment of smallpox. (Abstract)

Assessing a drug for an eradicated human disease: US Food and Drug Administration review of tecovirimat for the treatment of smallpox. The development and ultimate approval of tecovirimat for the antiviral treatment of smallpox, a disease that has been eradicated from the world for nearly 40 years, required a unique regulatory approach based on the US Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule. We summarise the regulatory pathway and describe the challenges involved.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier

2019 Lancet infectious diseases

13. "Remarkable solutions to impossible problems": lessons for malaria from the eradication of smallpox. Full Text available with Trip Pro

"Remarkable solutions to impossible problems": lessons for malaria from the eradication of smallpox. Malaria elimination and eventual eradication will require internationally coordinated approaches; sustained engagement from politicians, communities, and funders; efficient organizational structures; innovation and new tools; and well-managed programmes. As governments and the global malaria community seek to achieve these goals, their efforts should be informed by the substantial past (...) experiences of other disease elimination and eradication programmes, including that of the only successful eradication programme of a human pathogen to date: smallpox.A review of smallpox literature was conducted to evaluate how the smallpox programme addressed seven challenges that will likely confront malaria eradication efforts, including fostering international support for the eradication undertaking, coordinating programmes and facilitating research across the world's endemic countries, securing

2019 Malaria journal

14. Atypical Cowpox Virus Infection in Smallpox-Vaccinated Patient, France. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Atypical Cowpox Virus Infection in Smallpox-Vaccinated Patient, France. We report a case of atypical cowpox virus infection in France in 2016. The patient sought care for thoracic lesions after injury from the sharp end of a metallic guardrail previously stored in the ground. We isolated a cowpox virus from the lesions and sequenced its whole genome. The patient reported that he had been previously vaccinated against smallpox. We describe an alternative route of cowpox virus infection and raise (...) questions about the immunological status of smallpox-vaccinated patients for circulating orthopoxviruses.

2019 Emerging Infectious Diseases

15. Preemptive Tecovirimat Use in an Active Duty Member Presenting with Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Smallpox Vaccination. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Preemptive Tecovirimat Use in an Active Duty Member Presenting with Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Smallpox Vaccination. Smallpox vaccine is contraindicated in immunosuppression due to increased risk for adverse reactions (e.g., progressive vaccinia). We describe the first-ever use of tecovirimat as a preemptive vaccinia virus treatment strategy during induction chemotherapy in an active duty member who presented with acute leukemia and inadvertent auto-inoculation after smallpox

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

16. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations. Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist (...) activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity) may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay

2017 PLoS ONE

17. Freeze-Dried MVA-BN® Lot Consistency Smallpox Trial

Freeze-Dried MVA-BN® Lot Consistency Smallpox Trial Freeze-Dried MVA-BN® Lot Consistency Smallpox Trial - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Freeze-Dried MVA-BN® Lot Consistency Smallpox Trial (...) Advanced Research and Development Authority Information provided by (Responsible Party): Bavarian Nordic Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This is a Phase 3 multicenter trial to evaluate safety and immune response of three consecutive production lots of freeze-dried (FD) MVA-BN smallpox vaccine. The vaccine will be given to healthy subjects who do not have a smallpox scar. Approximately 1110 subjects will be randomly enrolled into one of three groups: Group 1 will include 370

2018 Clinical Trials

18. Beyond the myths: Novel findings for old paradigms in the history of the smallpox vaccine Full Text available with Trip Pro

101238921 1553-7366 0 Smallpox Vaccine IM Cowpox virus genetics immunology History, 18th Century History, 19th Century History, 20th Century Humans Orthopoxvirus genetics immunology Smallpox Vaccine history immunology Variola virus genetics immunology The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. 2018 7 27 6 0 2018 7 27 6 0 2019 1 15 6 0 epublish 30048524 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007082 PPATHOGENS-D-18-00764 PMC6062137 Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Jun;122(3):455-60 10459650 Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 (...) Beyond the myths: Novel findings for old paradigms in the history of the smallpox vaccine 30048524 2019 01 14 2019 01 14 1553-7374 14 7 2018 07 PLoS pathogens PLoS Pathog. Beyond the myths: Novel findings for old paradigms in the history of the smallpox vaccine. e1007082 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007082 Esparza José J Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. Nitsche Andreas A Centre for Biological Threats and Special

2018 PLoS pathogens

19. Bayesian Phylogeography and Pathogenic Characterization of Smallpox Based on HA, ATI, and CrmB Genes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bayesian Phylogeography and Pathogenic Characterization of Smallpox Based on HA, ATI, and CrmB Genes Variola virus is at risk of re-emergence either through accidental release, bioterrorism, or synthetic biology. The use of phylogenetics and phylogeography to support epidemic field response is expected to grow as sequencing technology becomes miniaturized, cheap, and ubiquitous. In this study, we aimed to explore the use of common VARV diagnostic targets hemagglutinin (HA), cytokine response (...) modifier B (CrmB), and A-type inclusion protein (ATI) for phylogenetic characterization as well as the representativeness of modelling strategies in phylogeography to support epidemic response should smallpox re-emerge. We used Bayesian discrete-trait phylogeography using the most complete data set currently available of whole genome (n = 51) and partially sequenced (n = 20) VARV isolates. We show that multilocus models combining HA, ATI, and CrmB genes may represent a useful heuristic to differentiate

2018 Molecular Biology and Evolution

20. E3L and F1L Gene Functions Modulate the Protective Capacity of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Immunization in Murine Model of Human Smallpox Full Text available with Trip Pro

E3L and F1L Gene Functions Modulate the Protective Capacity of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Immunization in Murine Model of Human Smallpox The highly attenuated Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) lacks most of the known vaccinia virus (VACV) virulence and immune evasion genes. Today MVA can serve as a safety-tested next-generation smallpox vaccine. Yet, we still need to learn about regulatory gene functions preserved in the MVA genome, such as the apoptosis inhibitor genes F1L and E3L. Here

2018 Viruses

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