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Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma

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1. Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma

Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Skull Fracture from (...) Birth Trauma Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma Aka: Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma From Related Chapters II. Signs Linear with soft tissue swelling May be asymptomatic Depressed Visible, palpable indentation may be hidden beneath III. Associated Conditions IV. Complications V. Radiology Diagnose Rule-out Intracranial edema VI. Management Depressed : Neurosurgery Non-displaced : Re-XRay in 4-6 weeks Ensure line closure Rule-out formation Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing

2018 FP Notebook

2. Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma

Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Skull Fracture from (...) Birth Trauma Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma Aka: Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma From Related Chapters II. Signs Linear with soft tissue swelling May be asymptomatic Depressed Visible, palpable indentation may be hidden beneath III. Associated Conditions IV. Complications V. Radiology Diagnose Rule-out Intracranial edema VI. Management Depressed : Neurosurgery Non-displaced : Re-XRay in 4-6 weeks Ensure line closure Rule-out formation Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing

2015 FP Notebook

3. Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review

osteoporosis drug treatment (ODT) and ODT discontinuation and holidays on fractures and harms. Data sources. MEDLINE ® , Embase ® , and Cochrane databases from 1995 to October 2018; ClinicalTrials.gov; bibliographies of relevant systematic reviews. Review methods. We defined long-term ODT as >3 years and ODT holidays as discontinuation for =1 year after =1 year of use. Trials were used for incident fractures and harms, and controlled observational studies were included for additional harms. Two (...) studies showed that long-term bisphosphonates may increase atypical femoral fractures (AFF) (low SOE) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (low SOE in 2 comparisons, insufficient in 1). Limitations. Most data were from white, healthy, postmenopausal women, limiting generalizability. Trials often had low power for incident clinical fractures. No trials compared active treatments, sequential treatments, or different durations of drug holidays. Harms and controls were inconsistently defined. Conclusions. Long

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

4. Fractures (non-complex): assessment and management

for people who have had surgery for distal femoral fractures. 1.5 Documentation The NICE guideline on major trauma: service delivery contains recommendations for ambulance and hospital trust boards, senior managers and commissioners on documentation within a trauma network. 1.5.1 Consider developing and using standard documentation to prompt the assessment of the following from first presentation in people with fractures: safeguarding comorbidities falls risk nature of fracture, including classification (...) to repeated outpatient reviews with casting and imaging. These fractures result from trauma to growing bones and account for an estimated 500,000 emergency department attendances a year in the UK. Current treatment often involves application of a bandage, or a removable cast or a soft cast, with review in outpatient clinics and repeated X-ray imaging. This is despite anecdotal evidence that treatment with simple analgesia and immediate discharge from the emergency department is safe and effective

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

5. Assisted Vaginal Birth

haemorrhage, skull fracture and spinal cord injury, can result in perinatal death and that these complications are more likely to occur with midpelvic, rotational and failed attempts at assisted vaginal birth. , The alternative choice of a caesarean birth late in the second stage of labour can be very challenging and result in significant maternal and perinatal morbidity. As a result, complex decision making is required when choosing between assisted vaginal birth and second‐stage caesarean birth. Two new (...) , alloimmune thrombocytopenia) or a predisposition to fracture (for example, osteogenesis imperfecta) are relative contraindications to assisted vaginal birth. However, there may be considerable risks if the fetal head has to be delivered abdominally from deep in the pelvis. Experienced obstetricians should be involved in the decision making for exceptional indication and, ideally, a discussion will have taken place and be documented in advance of labour. A low forceps may be acceptable for assisted

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

6. Osteoporosis: Diagnosis, Treatment and Fracture Prevention

at increased risk of fracture, including: Previous fragility fracture: Fractures sustained in falls from standing height or less, in which bone damage is disproportional to the degree of trauma. Includes vertebral compression fractures not attributable to previous major trauma, which may be suggested by height loss. Where other disease has been ruled out, patients with low trauma fragility fractures may have OP and are at high risk of other fragility fractures within 10 years. Fractures of the hip (...) Osteoporosis: Diagnosis, Treatment and Fracture Prevention Osteoporosis: Diagnosis, Treatment and Fracture Prevention - Province of British Columbia theme_3_collection theme_3_frontend theme_3_collection theme_3_frontend Birth, Adoption, Death, Marriage & Divorce theme_1_collection theme_1_frontend theme_1_collection theme_1_frontend British Columbians & Our Governments theme_data_collection data_frontend theme_data_collection data_frontend Data theme_5_collection theme_5_frontend

2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

7. Skull Fracture (Diagnosis)

Sabuncuoğlu (1385-1468) in his textbook "Cerrahiyyetu'l Haniyye" (Imperial Surgery). [ ] Charles Bell first described occipital condylar fracture in 1817 based on an autopsy finding. [ ] The same fracture was described for the first time as a radiograph finding in 1962 and by computed tomography (CT) in 1983. [ , ] Previous Next: Problem Skull fractures are classified in the image below. Classification of skull fractures Linear skull fracture Linear fracture results from low-energy blunt trauma over (...) bone fractures: traditional classification and clinical relevance. Laryngoscope . 2004 Oct. 114(10):1734-41. . Arrey EN, Kerr ML, Fletcher S, Cox CS Jr, Sandberg DI. Linear nondisplaced skull fractures in children: who should be observed or admitted?. J Neurosurg Pediatr . 2015 Sep 4. 1-6. . Idriz S, Patel JH, Ameli Renani S, Allan R, Vlahos I. CT of Normal Developmental and Variant Anatomy of the Pediatric Skull: Distinguishing Trauma from Normality. Radiographics . 2015 Jul 31. 140177. . Orman G

2014 eMedicine Surgery

8. Skull, Fractures

are usually the result of low-energy transfer due to blunt trauma over a wide surface area of the skull. The fracture involves the entire thickness of the skull. Generally, these fractures are of little clinical significance unless they involve a vascular channel, a venous sinus groove, or a suture. Thus, complications include , venous sinus thrombosis, and suture diastasis. (See the following images.) Lateral skull radiograph in a child shows a long, linear fracture extending from the midline (...) . Axial computed tomography scan shows a growing skull fracture nicely, depicting the widened fracture on the left and the fluid collection extending from the intracranial cavity into and through the fracture site. The diagnosis is based on clinical and imaging findings; early recognition of growing skull fractures is crucial to prevent long-term neurologic sequelae. Hence, radiologic and clinical follow-up is essential in cases of head trauma. Serial conventional radiographs of the skull show

2014 eMedicine Radiology

9. Skull Fracture (Overview)

Sabuncuoğlu (1385-1468) in his textbook "Cerrahiyyetu'l Haniyye" (Imperial Surgery). [ ] Charles Bell first described occipital condylar fracture in 1817 based on an autopsy finding. [ ] The same fracture was described for the first time as a radiograph finding in 1962 and by computed tomography (CT) in 1983. [ , ] Previous Next: Problem Skull fractures are classified in the image below. Classification of skull fractures Linear skull fracture Linear fracture results from low-energy blunt trauma over (...) bone fractures: traditional classification and clinical relevance. Laryngoscope . 2004 Oct. 114(10):1734-41. . Arrey EN, Kerr ML, Fletcher S, Cox CS Jr, Sandberg DI. Linear nondisplaced skull fractures in children: who should be observed or admitted?. J Neurosurg Pediatr . 2015 Sep 4. 1-6. . Idriz S, Patel JH, Ameli Renani S, Allan R, Vlahos I. CT of Normal Developmental and Variant Anatomy of the Pediatric Skull: Distinguishing Trauma from Normality. Radiographics . 2015 Jul 31. 140177. . Orman G

2014 eMedicine Surgery

10. Facial Trauma, Frontal Sinus Fractures

nonvertical frontal sinus fractures and 98 vertical fractures with or without frontal sinus involvement. [ ] Previous Next: Epidemiology Frequency Frontal sinus fractures comprise 5-12% of maxillofacial traumas. [ , ] The incidence appears to be approximately 9 cases per 100,000 adults. [ ] Previous Next: Etiology Fractures of the frontal sinus occur most commonly as a result of blunt trauma from a motor vehicle accident; the next most common cause is high-impact sports-related injury. [ , , , ] Frontal (...) sinus fractures may result from low-velocity, high-velocity, blunt, or penetrating trauma. With low-velocity impact, the anterior table may confer some protection to the posterior table and may be the only table to fracture. Conversely, high-velocity or penetrating trauma may cause severe damage to both the anterior and posterior tables, with comminution and significant displacement. [ ] Previous Next: Pathophysiology The force required to fracture the frontal sinus has been reported to be 800-2200

2014 eMedicine Surgery

11. Paediatric trauma protocols

help in providing data on paediatric trauma. Dr Pete Cavanagh Vice-President Faculty of Clinical Radiology This document has been endorsed by 4 www.rcr.ac.uk Executive summary Children are different – they are not just small adults. What defines a child? What is severe trauma in relation to a child? How should a child with severe trauma be imaged? These are simple questions but the answers are complex. Childhood covers the period from birth through adolescence to adulthood and thus there can (...) of paediatric data from the Trauma Audit & Research Network for the year beginning 1 April 2012, corresponding to the introduction of the National Trauma Networks in England, clearly illustrates this point. 2 The total number of individuals aged 16 years and above admitted to hospitals in the UK and submitted to TARN was 36,369 and there were 2,409 children under 16 years (Table 1). 2 While the national paediatric trauma workload is relatively low, the majority of children in this 12- month period were

2014 Royal College of Radiologists

12. Abusive Head Trauma and the Eye in Infancy

link a less than violent event with fatal head injury. Nonetheless, in eight infants there was no bruising, skull fracture, or extra cranial injury to specifically indicate a violent event. It is now appreciated that evidence from mechanical models (15) may reveal an imperfect picture of the events occurring during injury (36). It has been conceded that, ‘whilst controversy still exists as to the exact mechanism, most authors now agree that the forces necessary to cause this type of injury are far (...) Aims of the guidance 1. To review the literature from the time of the last publications on AHT and the eye. 2. To update the previously published articles 10 3. To identify good practice in the management of cases referred with suspected abusive head trauma and encourage evidence based standardized assessment of such children. 4. To identify new information concerning conditions which may simulate the ocular findings in abusive head trauma in children. 1.4 Scope of guidance This guidance deals

2013 Royal College of Ophthalmologists

13. Trauma in pregnancy

expectations, aspirations and needs, rather than the institutional or professional needs • Recognising the woman’s right to self determination through choice, control and continuity of care from a known or known caregivers • Recognising the needs of the baby, the woman’s family and significant others Queensland Clinical Guideline: Trauma in pregnancy Refer to online version, destroy printed copies after use Page 6 of 31 Table of Contents 1 Introduction 7 1.1 Principles of care 7 1.2 Patient stratification (...) 18 5.6 Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy 19 5.7 Musculoskeletal injury 19 5.8 Minor trauma 20 References 21 Appendix A: Classification of major trauma in pregnancy 24 Appendix B: Perimortem caesarean section procedure 25 Appendix C: Haemodynamic and laboratory values in pregnancy 26 Appendix D: Seat belt positioning in pregnancy 27 Appendix E: Estimation of gestation 28 Appendix F: Left lateral tilt positioning 29 Appendix G: Approximate fetal effective doses (mSv) from common radiological

2014 Queensland Health

14. Trauma in pregnancy

expectations, aspirations and needs, rather than the institutional or professional needs • Recognising the woman’s right to self determination through choice, control and continuity of care from a known or known caregivers • Recognising the needs of the baby, the woman’s family and significant others Queensland Clinical Guideline: Trauma in pregnancy Refer to online version, destroy printed copies after use Page 6 of 31 Table of Contents 1 Introduction 7 1.1 Principles of care 7 1.2 Patient stratification (...) 18 5.6 Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy 19 5.7 Musculoskeletal injury 19 5.8 Minor trauma 20 References 21 Appendix A: Classification of major trauma in pregnancy 24 Appendix B: Perimortem caesarean section procedure 25 Appendix C: Haemodynamic and laboratory values in pregnancy 26 Appendix D: Seat belt positioning in pregnancy 27 Appendix E: Estimation of gestation 28 Appendix F: Left lateral tilt positioning 29 Appendix G: Approximate fetal effective doses (mSv) from common radiological

2014 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

15. Birth Trauma (Treatment)

performed if a concomitant depressed skull fracture is a possibility. Subgaleal hematoma Subgaleal hematoma is bleeding in the potential space between the skull periosteum and the scalp galea aponeurosis. Ninety percent of cases result from a vacuum applied to the head at delivery. Subgaleal hematoma has a high frequency of occurrence of associated head trauma (40%), such as intracranial hemorrhage or skull fracture. [ ] The occurrence of these features does not significantly correlate with the severity (...) , MBBS, MD; Chief Editor: Ted Rosenkrantz, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Birth Trauma Overview Overview Injuries to the infant that result from mechanical forces (ie, compression, traction) during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Factors responsible for mechanical injury may coexist with hypoxic-ischemic insult; one may predispose the infant to the other. Lesions that are predominantly hypoxic in origin are not discussed in this article. Significant birth

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

16. Birth Trauma (Follow-up)

performed if a concomitant depressed skull fracture is a possibility. Subgaleal hematoma Subgaleal hematoma is bleeding in the potential space between the skull periosteum and the scalp galea aponeurosis. Ninety percent of cases result from a vacuum applied to the head at delivery. Subgaleal hematoma has a high frequency of occurrence of associated head trauma (40%), such as intracranial hemorrhage or skull fracture. [ ] The occurrence of these features does not significantly correlate with the severity (...) , MBBS, MD; Chief Editor: Ted Rosenkrantz, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Birth Trauma Overview Overview Injuries to the infant that result from mechanical forces (ie, compression, traction) during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Factors responsible for mechanical injury may coexist with hypoxic-ischemic insult; one may predispose the infant to the other. Lesions that are predominantly hypoxic in origin are not discussed in this article. Significant birth

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

17. Birth Trauma (Diagnosis)

performed if a concomitant depressed skull fracture is a possibility. Subgaleal hematoma Subgaleal hematoma is bleeding in the potential space between the skull periosteum and the scalp galea aponeurosis. Ninety percent of cases result from a vacuum applied to the head at delivery. Subgaleal hematoma has a high frequency of occurrence of associated head trauma (40%), such as intracranial hemorrhage or skull fracture. [ ] The occurrence of these features does not significantly correlate with the severity (...) , MBBS, MD; Chief Editor: Ted Rosenkrantz, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Birth Trauma Overview Overview Injuries to the infant that result from mechanical forces (ie, compression, traction) during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Factors responsible for mechanical injury may coexist with hypoxic-ischemic insult; one may predispose the infant to the other. Lesions that are predominantly hypoxic in origin are not discussed in this article. Significant birth

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

18. Birth Trauma (Overview)

performed if a concomitant depressed skull fracture is a possibility. Subgaleal hematoma Subgaleal hematoma is bleeding in the potential space between the skull periosteum and the scalp galea aponeurosis. Ninety percent of cases result from a vacuum applied to the head at delivery. Subgaleal hematoma has a high frequency of occurrence of associated head trauma (40%), such as intracranial hemorrhage or skull fracture. [ ] The occurrence of these features does not significantly correlate with the severity (...) , MD; Chief Editor: Ted Rosenkrantz, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Birth Trauma Overview Overview Injuries to the infant that result from mechanical forces (ie, compression, traction) during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Factors responsible for mechanical injury may coexist with hypoxic-ischemic insult; one may predispose the infant to the other. Lesions that are predominantly hypoxic in origin are not discussed in this article. Significant birth injury

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

19. Nasoorbitoethmoid Fractures

- stress propagation from face to neurocranium in a finite element analysis. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med . 2015 Apr 21. 23:35. . Sargent LA. Nasoethmoid orbital fractures: diagnosis and treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg . 2007 Dec. 120(7 Suppl 2):16S-31S. . Markowitz BL, Manson PN, Sargent L, et al. Management of the medial canthal tendon in nasoethmoid orbital fractures: the importance of the central fragment in classification and treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg . 1991 May. 87(5):843-53. . Liau JY (...) of the anterior cranial fossa may result in a CSF fistula, while disruption of the ethmoid complex and nasofrontal recess (NFR) may result in sinusitis. A study by Huempfner-Hierl et al using a finite element model of the human skull determined that a fistlike impact on the infraorbital rim or the NOE region resulted, at the impact site, in von Mises stresses that surpassed the yield criterion of the bone and also sent considerable stress traveling toward the skull base. Stress from a fistlike impact

2014 eMedicine Surgery

20. Maxillary Fractures in Children

Fractures in Children Updated: Nov 17, 2015 Author: Abbas A Younes, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Maxillary Fractures in Children Overview Background is the leading cause of death in children. Pediatric trauma patients admitted to the hospital have a 5% incidence of facial fractures. Pediatric trauma patients differ from their adult counterparts. Patterns of injury, treatment algorithms, and potential consequences of facial trauma (...) in facial shape and the development of the sinuses and dentition play crucial roles in the fracture pattern observed in the pediatric patient. [ ] The human head doubles in size from infancy to age 5 years, reaching 80% of adult size by that time. The shape and projection of the face change dramatically during the first years of life. At birth, the face-to-cranium ratio is 1:8. This increases to 1:4 at 5 years and reaches the adult ratio of 1:2.5 during adolescence. The cranium increases 4 times

2014 eMedicine Surgery

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