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Self-reported health, perceived racial discrimination, and skincolor in African Americans in the CARDIA study. This study investigates the association between self-reported physical and mental health and both perceived racial discrimination and skincolor in African American men and women. We used data from the longitudinal coronary artery risk development in young adults study (CARDIA) in African American men and women (n=1722) in the USA. We assessed self-reported mental and physical health (...) status and depressive symptoms at the Year 15 (2000-2001) follow-up examination using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-12) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Skincolor was measured at the Year 7 examination (1992-1993). To assess racial discrimination, we used a summary score (range 0-21) for 7 questions on experiencing racial discrimination: at school, getting a job, getting housing, at work, at home, getting medical care, on the street or in a public setting. Self
Skincolor, social classification, and blood pressure in southeastern Puerto Rico. We tested competing hypotheses for the skincolor-blood pressure relationship by analyzing the association between blood pressure and 2 skincolor variables: skin pigmentation and social classification.We measured skin pigmentation by reflectance spectrophotometry and social classification by linking respondents to ethnographic data on the cultural model of "color" in southeastern Puerto Rico. We used multiple (...) use of antihypertensive medication, and skin reflectance.Our findings suggest that sociocultural processes mediate the relationship between skincolor and blood pressure. They also help to clarify the meaning and measurement of skincolor and "race" as social variables in health research.
Relationships between skincolor, income, and blood pressure among African Americans in the CARDIA Study. We explored how income and skincolor interact to influence the blood pressure of African American adults enrolled in the longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.Data were derived from 1893 African American CARDIA year-15 participants who had undergone skin reflectance assessments at year 7. We adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status (...) , and use of antihypertensive medication to examine whether year-15 self-reported family incomes, in interaction with skin reflectance, predicted blood pressure levels.Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were 117.1 (+/-16.07) and 76.9 (+/-12.5) mm Hg, respectively. After adjustment, the interaction between skin reflectance and income was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (P< .01). Among lighter-skinned African Americans, systolic pressure decreased as income increased
The Evaluation of Relevant Factors Influencing Skin Graft Changes in Color Over Time. Objective studies evaluating the relevant factors that affect skin graft changes in color over time have yet to be published.Therefore, the patterns of the grafted skin'scolor changes and the presence of relevant factors were analyzed statistically.The study included 107 skin grafts in 107 subjects. Using a chromameter, the colors of skin graft, the area adjacent to the recipient site, and the donor site were (...) measured. The grafted skin'scolor changes and the color difference were analyzed with respect to several factors.Over time, the grafted skin became lighter, redness decreased, yellowness increased, and the color difference decreased. As the donor site was lighter, the grafted skin was lighter and less red. The grafted skin was lighter in females than in males. The skin graft type was not related to the lightness and the redness. The grafted skin was lightest in the upper arm and darkest in the lower
Skin cancer in skin of color. Skin cancer is less common in persons with skin of color than in light-skinned Caucasians but is often associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is crucial that physicians become familiar with skin cancer in persons of color so as to maximize the likelihood of early detection of these tumors. In dark-skinned ethnic groups, squamous cell carcinoma is most common; squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma usually occur on nonsun-exposed sites (...) ; and ultraviolet radiation is not an important etiologic factor for skin cancer with the exception of basal cell carcinoma. Races of intermediate pigmentation, such as Hispanics and Asians, share epidemiologic and clinical features of dark-skinned ethnic groups and Caucasians. Skin cancers pose a significant risk in skin of color and clinicians should focus on preventive measures in these groups such as regular skin exams, self-examination, public education, and screening programs.At the completion
The relationship between iris color, hair color, and skin sun sensitivity and the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. To examine the association between iris color, hair color, and skin sun sensitivity and the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM).Population-based cohort study.A population of 4926 adults (range, 43-86 years of age at baseline) living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, was studied at baseline (1988-1990); of these, 3684 and 2764 subjects (...) , respectively, participated in 5-year and 10-year follow-up examinations.Data on hair color at age 15 years and skin responsiveness to sun exposure were obtained from a standardized questionnaire administered at the baseline examination. Iris color was determined with penlight illumination during the baseline examination by using photographic standards. Age-related maculopathy status was determined by grading stereoscopic color fundus photos with the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading
[Violence, ethnic groups and skincolor: a study on differences in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil]. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of various forms of violence--structural, institutional, interpersonal, and crime-related--in the three most common color groups of Bahian society: mulattos, whites, and blacks. The study compared the levels of victimization of mulatto, white, and black individuals with their assessments of the efficiency of crime (...) : first, residential areas were chosen at random; then, a systematic selection was made from the homes in each of the selected areas; finally, the persons to be interviewed were chosen at random. To collect the data the researchers used a pretested questionnaire that had been designed for the ACTIVA study. The results showed an unequal distribution of structural violence that mainly affected blacks. There were no differences by color group for interpersonal and institutional violence. Criminal
Racial discrimination and skincolor in the CARDIA study: implications for public health research. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. This study assessed whether skincolor and ways of handling anger can serve as markers for experiences of racial discrimination and responses to unfair treatment in public health research.Survey data on 1844 Black women and Black men (24 to 42 years old), collected in the year 5 (1990-1991) and year 7 (1992-1993) examinations of the Coronary Artery (...) Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, were examined.Skin color was not associated with self-reported experiences of racial discrimination in 5 of 7 specified situations (getting a job, at work, getting housing, getting medical care, in a public setting). Only moderate associations existed between darker skincolor and being working class, having low income or low education, and being male (risk ratios under 2). Comparably moderate associations existed between internalizing anger
Skincolor and education effects on blood pressure. This study reports that education effects but not skincolor effects were associated with blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension in a cohort of Black females in Charleston, South Carolina, observed over the period 1960-1975. The authors suggest that skincolor may be a secondary (non-causal) associate of blood pressure in Blacks.