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Skin of Color

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6081. Effects of G-protein mutations on skin color. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of G-protein mutations on skin color. A new class of dominant dark skin (Dsk) mutations discovered in a screen of approximately 30,000 mice is caused by increased dermal melanin. We identified three of four such mutations as hypermorphic alleles of Gnaq and Gna11, which encode widely expressed Galphaq subunits, act in an additive and quantitative manner, and require Ednrb. Interactions between Gq and Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signaling can mediate coordinate or independent control (...) of skin and hair color. Our results provide a mechanism that can explain several aspects of human pigmentary variation and show how polymorphism of essential proteins and signaling pathways can affect a single physiologic system.

2004 Nature Genetics

6082. Implications of correlations between skin color and genetic ancestry for biomedical research. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Implications of correlations between skin color and genetic ancestry for biomedical research. Skin pigmentation is a central element of most discussions on 'race' and genetics. Research on the genetic basis of population variation in this phenotype, which is important in mediating both social experiences and environmental exposures, is sparse. We studied the relationship between pigmentation and ancestry in five populations of mixed ancestry with a wide range of pigmentation and ancestral (...) proportions (African Americans from Washington, DC; African Caribbeans living in England; Puerto Ricans from New York; Mexicans from Guerrero; and Hispanics from San Luis Valley). The strength of the relationship between skin color and ancestry was quite variable, with the correlations ranging in intensity from moderately strong (Puerto Rico, rho = 0.633) to weak (Mexico, rho = 0.212). These results demonstrate the utility of ancestry-informative genetic markers and admixture methods and emphasize

2004 Nature Genetics

6083. Color homogeneity and visual perception of age, health, and attractiveness of female facial skin. (Abstract)

Color homogeneity and visual perception of age, health, and attractiveness of female facial skin. Evolutionary psychology suggests that skin signals aspects of mate value, yet only limited empirical evidence exists for this assertion.We sought to study the relationship between perception of skin condition and homogeneity of color/chromophore distribution.Cropped skin cheek images from 170 girls and women (11-76 years) were blind-rated for attractiveness, healthiness, youthfulness (...) with estimated age (r = -0.32, -0.38; P < .001).Female skin only was studied.Skin color homogeneity, driven by melanin and hemoglobin distribution, influences perception of age, attractiveness, health, and youth.

2007 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

6084. Polarization color imaging system for on-line quantitative evaluation of facial skin lesions. (Abstract)

Polarization color imaging system for on-line quantitative evaluation of facial skin lesions. A number of studies have been performed for accurate evaluation of chromophores in skin lesions. Qualitative methods are subjective and cause user-dependent error in evaluation. Quantitative methods have limitations for widely distributed skin lesions due to poor spatial resolution, potential skin blanching, and difficulty in relocating identical sites for subsequent measurements and analysis.The (...) objective was to develop a new imaging modality that provides both qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate widely distributed skin lesions.We have developed a prototype polarization color imaging system named "DermaVision," which provides quantitative on-line image analysis of polarization color images. Herein, we describe the hardware and software of DermaVision in terms of its performance and usefulness for dermatologic applications.Polarization color images were successfully acquired from

2007 Dermatologic Surgery

6085. Quantitative comparison of skin colors in patients with ESRD undergoing different dialysis modalities. (Abstract)

Quantitative comparison of skin colors in patients with ESRD undergoing different dialysis modalities. Little is known about the alterations in skin pigmentation in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the modern dialysis era. Aims of this study are to quantitatively investigate the skin color of patients with ESRD undergoing different dialysis modalities and determine factors associated with skin color changes.One hundred twenty-four patients with ESRD undergoing either hemodialysis (...) (HD; n = 51) or peritoneal dialysis (PD; n = 73) were enrolled, and 59 subjects with normal renal function served as controls. Skin colors of the abdomen (non-sun-exposed site) and forearm (sun-exposed site) were measured by using a reflected-light colorimeter and recorded by using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage recommended L*a*b* system, in which a higher L* value represents brighter skin.For sun-exposed skin, brightness was not different between patients with ESRD and controls

2006 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

6086. Forensic sexual assault examination and genital injury: is skin color a source of health disparity? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Forensic sexual assault examination and genital injury: is skin color a source of health disparity? The study objectives were to (1) estimate the frequency, prevalence, type, and location of anogenital injury in black and white women after consensual sex and (2) investigate the role of skin color in the detection of injury during the forensic sexual assault examination.A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with 120 healthy volunteers who underwent a well-controlled forensic examination (...) after consensual sexual intercourse.Fifty-five percent of the sample had at least 1 anogenital injury after consensual intercourse; percentages significantly differed between white (68%) and black (43%) participants (P = .02). Race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of injury prevalence and frequency in the external genitalia but not in the internal genitalia or anus. However, skin color variables--lightness/darkness-, redness/greenness-, and yellowness/blueness-confounded the original

2008 American Journal of Emergency Medicine

6087. Skin of color education in dermatology residency programs: Does residency training reflect the changing demographics of the United States? (Abstract)

Skin of color education in dermatology residency programs: Does residency training reflect the changing demographics of the United States? It is projected that by the year 2050, close to 50% of the US population will comprise people with skin of color.We sought to assess whether future dermatologists will be prepared to treat patients with skin of color.An e-mail with a link to a brief 9-question survey was sent to 109 program directors and chief residents.A total of 41 (37.6%) program (...) directors and 63 (50.0%) chief residents completed the online survey. In all, 14.3% (P<.001) of chief residents and 14.6% (P<.001) of program directors recognized an expert at their institutions who conducted a skin of color clinic. In all, 25.4% (P<.001) of chief residents and 19.5% (P<.001) of program directors reported having lectures on skin of color from an acknowledged expert. In all, 30.2% (P<.001) of chief residents and 12.2% (P<.001) of program directors reported a specific rotation in which

2008 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

6088. Objective evaluation of the effect of intense pulsed light on rosacea and solar lentigines by spectrophotometric analysis of skin color. (Abstract)

Objective evaluation of the effect of intense pulsed light on rosacea and solar lentigines by spectrophotometric analysis of skin color. To date, intense pulsed light (IPL) has been applied to various skin diseases, but there have been few objective evaluations of its efficacy.The aim of this study was to perform objective evaluations of the effect of the IPL system on rosacea and solar lentigines.Twelve patients with rosacea were treated with IPL at the wavelength of 550 to 670 nm, three times (...) every 4 weeks, and the skin color was determined with L(*)a(*)b(*) color space using a spectrophotometer. In addition, 18 patients with solar lentigines were treated once, and the lightness L(*) was determined. RESULTS In all of 6 erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients and in 5 of 6 papulopustular rosacea patients, each of the L(*)a(*)b(*) values of the posttreated lesions approached those of normal skin areas (efficacy rate, 91.6%). The mean level of the L(*)a(*)b(*) values improved

2007 Dermatologic Surgery

6089. Photorejuvenation by intense pulsed light with objective measurement of skin color in Japanese patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Photorejuvenation by intense pulsed light with objective measurement of skin color in Japanese patients. This study had two objectives: subjective evaluation of overall skin rejuvenation effects of relatively short-wavelength intense pulsed light (IPL) and objective changes in basic skin tone as measured by a spectrophotometer.Twenty-five women selected at random received a series of three IPL treatments. Efficacy was evaluated over a 3-month follow-up period. Concurrently, a spectrophotometer (...) was used to measure "lightness" (L(*)) to quantify the lightening effect changes to pretreatment and posttreatment basic skin tone.Subjective improvement of 50% or more was seen in 18 of 25 patients for pigmentation. One patient showed exacerbation of latent epidermal melasma as a complication. In the spectrophotometric analysis, the mean value of L(*) increased from a baseline value of 60.86 to 63.22, at 3-month follow-up period, with statistical significance.IPL skin rejuvenation using relatively

2006 Dermatologic Surgery

6090. Ultraviolet-B radiation increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: the effect of UVB dose and skin color. (Abstract)

Ultraviolet-B radiation increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: the effect of UVB dose and skin color. Ultraviolet (UV)-B light increases vitamin D levels, but the dose response and the effect of skin pigmentation have not been well characterized.We sought to define the relationship between UVB exposure and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) concentrations as a function of skin pigmentation.Seventy two participants with various skin tones had 90% of their skin exposed to UVB light (20-80 mJ/cm2 (...) ) 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Serum 25-OH-D was measured weekly.Eighty percent of the variation in treatment response was explained by UVB dose and skin tone. Therapeutically important changes in 25-OH-D were achieved with minimal tanning.Four weeks was not long enough to reach a steady state at the higher dose rates.The response of 25-OH-D levels to UVB light is dependent on skin pigmentation and the amount of UVB given, and useful increases in vitamin D status can be achieved by defined UVB

2007 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

6091. Skin color measurement in Chinese female population: analysis of 407 cases from 4 major cities of China. (Abstract)

Skin color measurement in Chinese female population: analysis of 407 cases from 4 major cities of China. Color assessment of human skin is an important index both in dermatology and in cosmetology.Skin color measured in 407 Chinese women selected from four different cities in China is reported in the 1976 Commission International de L'eclairage (CIE)-color space, according to the skin color typing method proposed by Chardon et al. in 1991. The skin color of buttocks and hands, which represent (...) sun unexposed and exposed sites, respectively, were measured with a Minolta 2500d chromameter. Individual typology angle (ITA degrees) of each volunteer was calculated based on the measured L* and b* values and her skin complexion was graded accordingly.The results show that most of the volunteers had a "light" skin color at their unexposed sites, namely grade II (65.5%), and then grade III (intermediate, 23.1%), and I (very light, 9.6%). The skin colors at exposed sites of the studied group were

2007 International Journal of Dermatology

6092. Noninvasive techniques for the evaluation of skin color. (Abstract)

Noninvasive techniques for the evaluation of skin color. Visual assessment remains one of the "gold standard" methods of assessing skin color and a number of tools are currently available to reduce the interobserver variability. Ultraviolet light examination remains a mainstay of the assessment of pigmentary disorders, while polarized light photography is useful for the appraisal of dermal changes, in particular those related to vascularity. With the introduction of modern instruments (...) , reflectance spectroscopy using tristimulus colorimeters or narrowband spectrophotometers provides a convenient, objective, and reproducible methodology for the evaluation of pigmentation and skin color. In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy is a powerful technique for the examination of pigmented lesions, which shows promise in the detection and diagnosis of early melanoma. Dermoscopy is also useful for the differential diagnosis of benign melanocytic lesions and melanoma, and its use has been shown

2006 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

6093. From genesis to gene sequencing: historical progress in the understanding of skin color. (Abstract)

From genesis to gene sequencing: historical progress in the understanding of skin color. Since at least biblical times, humans have pondered on why there might be variation in skin color and what might constitute the nature of that difference. In this article, two historical trails are followed, one beginning with the Ancient Greeks, the other with the Ancient Chinese. These two paths converge to provide us with some historical evidence to back recent scientific discoveries in the dynamic (...) regulation of skin pigmentation, focusing on melanocyte-stimulating hormone and its natural antagonist agouti-signaling protein.

2007 International Journal of Dermatology

6094. Skin cancer in skin of color. (Abstract)

Skin cancer in skin of color. Skin cancer is less common in persons with skin of color than in light-skinned Caucasians but is often associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is crucial that physicians become familiar with skin cancer in persons of color so as to maximize the likelihood of early detection of these tumors. In dark-skinned ethnic groups, squamous cell carcinoma is most common; squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma usually occur on nonsun-exposed sites (...) ; and ultraviolet radiation is not an important etiologic factor for skin cancer with the exception of basal cell carcinoma. Races of intermediate pigmentation, such as Hispanics and Asians, share epidemiologic and clinical features of dark-skinned ethnic groups and Caucasians. Skin cancers pose a significant risk in skin of color and clinicians should focus on preventive measures in these groups such as regular skin exams, self-examination, public education, and screening programs.At the completion

2006 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

6095. Skin color and education effects on blood pressure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Skin color and education effects on blood pressure. This study reports that education effects but not skin color effects were associated with blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension in a cohort of Black females in Charleston, South Carolina, observed over the period 1960-1975. The authors suggest that skin color may be a secondary (non-causal) associate of blood pressure in Blacks.

1981 American Journal of Public Health

6096. Color analysis of skin lesion regions for melanoma discrimination in clinical images Full Text available with Trip Pro

Color analysis of skin lesion regions for melanoma discrimination in clinical images Skin lesion colour is an important feature for diagnosing malignant melanoma. Colour histogram analysis over a training set of images has been used to identify colours characteristic of melanoma, i.e., melanoma colours. A percent melanoma colour feature defined as the percentage of the lesion pixels that are melanoma colours has been used as a feature to discriminate melanomas from benign lesions.In (...) this research, the colour histogram analysis technique is extended to evaluate skin lesion discrimination based on colour feature calculations in different regions of the skin lesion. The colour features examined include percent melanoma colour and a novel colour clustering ratio. Experiments are performed using clinical images of 129 malignant melanomas and 129 benign lesions consisting of 40 seborrheic keratoses and 89 nevocellular nevi.Experimental results show improved discrimination capability

2003 Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)

6097. Racial discrimination and skin color in the CARDIA study: implications for public health research. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Racial discrimination and skin color in the CARDIA study: implications for public health research. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. This study assessed whether skin color and ways of handling anger can serve as markers for experiences of racial discrimination and responses to unfair treatment in public health research.Survey data on 1844 Black women and Black men (24 to 42 years old), collected in the year 5 (1990-1991) and year 7 (1992-1993) examinations of the Coronary Artery (...) Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, were examined.Skin color was not associated with self-reported experiences of racial discrimination in 5 of 7 specified situations (getting a job, at work, getting housing, getting medical care, in a public setting). Only moderate associations existed between darker skin color and being working class, having low income or low education, and being male (risk ratios under 2). Comparably moderate associations existed between internalizing anger

1998 American Journal of Public Health

6098. [Violence, ethnic groups and skin color: a study on differences in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil]. (Abstract)

[Violence, ethnic groups and skin color: a study on differences in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil]. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of various forms of violence--structural, institutional, interpersonal, and crime-related--in the three most common color groups of Bahian society: mulattos, whites, and blacks. The study compared the levels of victimization of mulatto, white, and black individuals with their assessments of the efficiency of crime (...) : first, residential areas were chosen at random; then, a systematic selection was made from the homes in each of the selected areas; finally, the persons to be interviewed were chosen at random. To collect the data the researchers used a pretested questionnaire that had been designed for the ACTIVA study. The results showed an unequal distribution of structural violence that mainly affected blacks. There were no differences by color group for interpersonal and institutional violence. Criminal

1999 Revista panamericana de salud pública = Pan American journal of public health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6099. Genetics of hair and skin color. (Abstract)

Genetics of hair and skin color. Differences in skin and hair color are principally genetically determined and are due to variation in the amount, type, and packaging of melanin polymers produced by melanocytes secreted into keratinocytes. Pigmentary phenotype is genetically complex and at a physiological level complicated. Genes determining a number of rare Mendelian disorders of pigmentation such as albinism have been identified, but only one gene, the melanocortin 1 receptor (MCR1), has so

2003 Annual Review of Genetics

6100. Confocal histopathology of irritant contact dermatitis in vivo and the impact of skin color (black vs white). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Confocal histopathology of irritant contact dermatitis in vivo and the impact of skin color (black vs white). The pathogenesis of irritant contact dermatitis and its modulation according to skin color is not well understood. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) enables high-resolution, real-time, in-vivo imaging of human skin.The goal of our study was to use RCM to determine whether susceptibility to irritant contact dermatitis differs between black and white skin.Participants were placed (...) in groups on the basis of skin color and the volar aspects of their forearms exposed to 1% and 4% sodium lauryl sulfate using Finn Chambers (Allerderm Laboratories Inc, Petaluma, Calif). They were evaluated at 6, 24, and 48 hours by RCM, transepidermal water loss, laser Doppler velocimetry, and routine histology.Participants with white skin had more severe clinical reactions than those with black skin. RCM revealed microscopic changes even without clinical evidence of irritation. Confocal features

2003 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

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