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Skin Discoloration

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81. Antiphospholipid syndrome

or current dx of vascular thrombosis hx of pregnancy loss hx of pregnancy-associated morbidity hx of SLE features of thrombocytopenia arthralgia/arthritis livedo reticularis hx of other rheumatological disorders or connective tissue disorders cardiac murmur oedema seizure, headache, memory loss, signs of transverse myelopathy limb discomfort, swelling, skin discoloration, and ulcers hx of SLE hx of other autoimmune rheumatological disorders hx of other autoimmune diseases hx of autoimmune haematological

2018 BMJ Best Practice

82. Dermatophyte infections

, vesicles, and maceration vesicles, pustules with or without bullae on the soles fissuring, maceration, and scaling in the interdigital spaces of the fourth and fifth toes chronically scaly, hyperkeratotic plantar skin with erythema of the soles, heels, and sides of the feet folliculitis with nodules thickened nail with subungual hyperkeratosis, onycholysis, and white-yellow to brown discoloration small, white speckled patches on the surface of the nail plate with crumbling nail lymphadenopathy absence (...) is sufficient for most tinea infections. Fungicidal topical allylamines demonstrate good cure rates with short duration of treatment. Systemic therapy is preferred for tinea capitis, tinea barbae, tinea manuum, and onychomycosis. Definition Superficial fungal infection with varying presentation depending on site. Dermatophytes are fungal organisms that require keratin for growth. These fungi can cause superficial infections of the hair, skin, and nails. Dermatophytes are spread by direct contact from other

2018 BMJ Best Practice

83. Raynaud's phenomenon

be a painful condition and can lead to complications. History and exam presence of risk factors digit pain/discomfort digital paraesthesia pallor of digits red and/or blue discoloration of digits dilated capillaries at nailbeds well-defined discoloration magnification of nailbeds heartburn dysphagia puffy hands tight skin arthralgia photosensitivity oral/nasal ulcers alopecia butterfly rash sclerodactyly telangiectasia pleuritic chest pain digital ulcers digital pits digital tuft resorption gangrene

2018 BMJ Best Practice

84. Allopurinol / lesinurad (Duzallo) - Gout

skin (“leaking tophi”). Tophus forming in the kidney may lead to lithiasis and inflammation, and if uncontrolled, to renal failure. 2.1.5. Management Several urate lowering therapies (ULTs) are available for the prophylaxis of recurrent gouty attacks and reduction of tophi, which include: a) oral xanthine-oxidase inhibitors (XOI), allopurinol and febuxostat, which decrease the de novo synthesis of urate. b) oral uricosuric agents probenecid, benzbromarone, and sulphinpyrazone. Uricosuric agents

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

85. Rucaparib camsylate - Ovarian Neoplasms

occurred at 40 mg/kg/day. Dose-related clinical observations included; decreased activity, defecation, increased respiratory rate, lateral recumbency, salivation, retching, vomiting, tremors and red skin discoloration. At 40 mg/kg/day, ECG abnormalities (persistent sinus tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal rhythm) were noted. Dose-related reversible reductions in platelets and reticulocytes were seen. Thymus weights were decreased across all groups. Dark discoloration in the left ventricular (...) in those tissues were low and near the LLOQ, which indicated that complete elimination was expected. Following a single PO dose of [14C]rucaparib in male pigmented LE rats, the radioactivity distribution pattern in pigmented and albino rats was qualitatively similar, with the exception of the uveal pigment of the eyes and the pigmented skin where a higher concentration of radioactivity was observed, suggesting an association of radioactive drug-related material with melanin. At 168 hours (7 days

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

87. Cooling Lower Leg Skin to Prevent Venous Leg Ulcers in Patients With Poor Vein Circulation

of South Carolina Collaborator: National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) Information provided by (Responsible Party): Teresa Kelechi, Medical University of South Carolina Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Leg vein circulation problems can damage the skin of the lower legs, especially around the ankles, by making it discolored, hard, itchy, red, and swollen. Ulcers often develop. Inflammation is often present in the damaged skin. This study will test whether using a special low (...) Cooling Lower Leg Skin to Prevent Venous Leg Ulcers in Patients With Poor Vein Circulation Cooling Lower Leg Skin to Prevent Venous Leg Ulcers in Patients With Poor Vein Circulation - Full Text View - Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more

2011 Clinical Trials

88. Dermal carbonyl modification is related to the yellowish color change of photo-aged Japanese facial skin. (Abstract)

colorimetrically.The dermal samples obtained from the photo-aged facial skin exhibited an appearance of yellowish color, whereas neither the facial epidermis nor the dermis obtained from the abdomen or buttock showed such a yellowish discoloration. The upper layer of the dermis that revealed the yellowish color showed elastosis whose elastic fibers were found to colocalize with carbonyl protein as detected by a labeled hydrazide, as well as by an immunohistochemical examination using the antibody against acrolein (...) Dermal carbonyl modification is related to the yellowish color change of photo-aged Japanese facial skin. The photo-aged facial skin is characterized by various unique features such as dark spots, wrinkles, and sagging. Elderly people, particularly Asians, tend to show a yellowish skin color change with photo-aging. However, there has been no analytical study conducted on this unique skin color change of the aged facial skin.The purpose of the present study is to examine whether the carbonyl

2011 Journal of dermatological science

89. Compression therapy after invasive treatment of superficial veins of the lower extremities

| eccentric and concentric, x 14 Ferrara, F. and Ferrera, G. Sclerotherapy in the patient with diabetes: indications and results. Phlebolymphology . 2012 ; 19 : 193–198 or tangential. x 15 Ragg, J. Film compression bandage: a new modality to improve sclerotherapy of superficial varicosities. Veins Lymphat . 2017 ; 6 : 6635–6636 | , x 16 Barnaby J, Azzam M, Choe E, Ash S, Kalodiki E, Lattimer CR. The effect of tangential skin compression with adhesive tape in reducing the size of bulging varicose veins (...) in the standing position. x 13 Mosti, G., Mattaliano, V., Arleo, S., and Partsch, H. Thigh compression after great saphenous surgery is more effective with high pressure. Int Angiol . 2009 ; 28 : 274–280 | Outcomes reported included postoperative pain at the end of 7 days, edema, complications (hematoma, bleeding through the dressings, skin irritation, phlebitis, and deep venous thrombosis [DVT]), and quality of life. Pain was assessed in all five studies, various combinations of complications in three, x 13

2019 American Venous Forum

90. Syphilis in pregnancy

, QSSS, midwife, nurse, nurse practitioner, obstetrician, personnel managing follow-up and/or contact tracing. Pinta/yaws/bejel Infections caused by bacteria that are closely related to Treponema pallidum. Pinta affects only the skin while yaws and bejel can also affect the joints and bones. Not endemic in Australia. QSSS Queensland Syphilis Surveillance Service (QSSS) is an important source of information, support and advice for health care providers engaged in the detection and management of women (...) is an obligate human parasite Transmission · Direct contact with infectious lesions of the mucous membranes or abraded skin 29,30 : o Almost always as sexually transmitted infection o Contact with moist mucocutaneous lesions of an infected baby · Vertical transmission (transplacental passage) during pregnancy: o Treponema pallidum readily crosses the placenta o Can occur as early as 9–10 weeks gestation o Can occur at any stage of disease, including during incubation, although risk is greatest in infectious

2019 Queensland Health

91. Child Abuse, Elder Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence

for infants too young to defend themselves or toddlers too afraid to say anything. The burden of safety rests on the shoulders of trauma and medical professionals to correctly interpret these (often subtle) skin and oral injuries. Studies of sentinel injuries identified missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis of PCA by medical and/or CPS providers. 2-4,7-9 In many cases the repeat injury was more severe, 2,3,5,7-9 with mortality rates significantly increasing with repeat episodes of physical abuse. 9 (...) z Ongoing cognitive and physical development, z Thin skin (a temperature of 65 degrees Celsius causes a burn in a child in 0.5 seconds), z Propensity to “freeze” when in contact with a heat source (resulting in deeper burns), and z Curiosity leading them to investigate their environment and risk burn exposure. Burn injury is both a source and a marker of abuse-related injury in children. Small children are susceptible to abuse- related burn injuries due to their small size, reliance on adults

2019 American College of Surgeons

92. Clinically Suspected Vascular Malformation of the Extremities

approximately 10% of peripheral vascular malformations and may present with pain, skin discoloration, warmth, or mass with palpable thrill or bruit [6]. Compression neuropathy, soft-tissue ulceration, bleeding, arterial steal phenomenon, and high-output cardiac failure may be seen in extreme cases [4,7]. Low-flow lesions include capillary, venous, and lymphatic malformations and are overall more common than high-flow lesions. Of these, capillary malformations are the most common but rarely require imaging (...) for diagnosis because of their characteristic cutaneous manifestations [3,4]. Venous and lymphatic malformations have a reported prevalence of 1% in the general population with 40% involving the extremities [6]. Although symptomatology is variable, these lesions may present with focal or more generalized extremity pain, swelling, or compressible mass with or without associated skin discoloration. Involvement of the deep tissues, including bone, is not uncommon, and physical examination often underestimates

2019 American College of Radiology

93. Canadian Urological Association guideline on the care of the normal foreskin and neonatal circumcision in Canadian infants (Full Version)

is in a normal location and rules out signifi- cant hypospadias. The collection of smegma (a white exudate of skin cells and keratin) separating the prepuce from the glans and repeated reflex erections are the primary mechanisms that lead to resolution of physiological adhesions over time. This process is usually complete by three years of age in 90% of the boys, although this study is a reflection of the poor cur - rent data in this regard. 8 In a more recent study from Taiwan, the incidence of non (...) studies and randomized trials have investigated the role of topical steroids and preputial stretch- ing in resolving physiological phimosis. The key to success with these protocols lies in differentiating physiological and true phimosis, active counselling and patient selec- tion. Topical steroid aids by thinning the preputial skin and obliterating the stratum corneum, which then allows gentle retraction over time. Level 1 evidence Letendre conducted a randomized, double-blind study com- paring a two

2018 Canadian Urological Association

94. Use of Silver Diamine Fluoride for Pediatric Dental Patients

, are antimicrobial. It also is theorized that SDF reacts with hydroxyapatite in an alkaline environment to form calcium fluoride (CaF 2) and silver phosphate as major reaction products. CaF 2 provides sufficient fluoride to form fluorapatite which is less soluble than hydroxyapatite in an acidic environment. 6, 7 A side effect is the discoloration of demineralized or cavitated surfaces. Patients and parents should be advised regarding the black staining of the lesions associated with application of SDF. Ideally (...) highlighting expected staining of treated lesions, potential staining of skin and clothes, and the need for reapplication for disease control, is recommended. 41 Careful monitoring and behavioral intervention to reduce individual risk factors should be part of a comprehensive caries management program that aims not only to sustain arrest of existing caries lesions, but also to prevent new caries lesion development. 42 Although no severe pulpal damage or reaction to SDF has been reported, SDF should

2018 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

95. Human skin color

or participate in hormone replacement therapy. Disorders of pigmentation [ ] Uneven pigmentation of some sort affects most people, regardless of bioethnic background or skin color. Skin may either appear lighter, or darker than normal, or lack pigmentation at all; there may be blotchy, uneven areas, patches of brown to gray discoloration or freckling. Apart from blood-related conditions such as , , or , skin pigmentation disorders generally occur because the body produces either too much or too little (...) . describes skin discolorations caused by hormones. These hormonal changes are usually the result of pregnancy, birth control pills or estrogen replacement therapy. , also known as "liver spots" or "senile freckles", refers to darkened spots on the skin caused by aging and the sun. These spots are quite common in adults with a long history of unprotected sun exposure. Aside from sun exposure and hormones, hyperpigmentation can be caused by skin damage, such as remnants of blemishes, wounds or rashes

2012 Wikipedia

96. Human skin

appear hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and (hairless). The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis , skin). Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays an important role in protecting the body against and excessive . Its other functions are , , sensation, synthesis of , and the protection of folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming . This is often discolored and depigmented. In humans, varies among populations, and skin (...) is the decreasing ability of skin to heal itself as a person ages. Among other things, skin aging is noted by a decrease in volume and elasticity. There are many to skin aging. For example, aging skin receives less blood flow and lower glandular activity. A validated comprehensive grading scale has categorized the clinical findings of skin aging as laxity (sagging), rhytids (wrinkles), and the various facets of photoaging, including (redness), and , dyspigmentation (brown discoloration), solar elastosis

2012 Wikipedia

97. Onychomycosis

) cases are caused by the dermatophyte , T. rubrum . Candida albicans is involved in up to 5% of infections, most commonly in fingernails. Risk factors: Older age Gender – 2.4 times more common in males than females Tinea pedis infection (co-infection very common) Diabetes Peripheral vascular disease Immunodeficiency Psoriasis of the skin Nail trauma Occlusive footwear Sports or other activities involving bare feet Smoking Images: Anatomy of the nail Skinsight: Nail infections, fungal (Onychomycosis (...) ) DermnetNZ Fungal nail infections (Onychomycosis) Three major subtypes of OM: Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO) – infection is located under the tip and side of nail, . Most common type (90%) Nail thickening with white-yellowish discoloration Brittle, friable nail plate which may crumble leaving yellow debris Typical presentation is “butter”- coloured spikes descending vertically from the distal end (top) of the nail Onycholysis (separation of nail plate from nail bed) is common No change

2018 medSask

98. Scleroderma Morphea

Scleroderma Morphea EDF Guidelines Secretariat to Prof. Dr. Nast: Bettina Schulze, Klinik für Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany phone: ++49 30 450 518 062, fax: ++49 30 450 518 911, e-mail: S1-Guideline on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sclerosing Diseases of the Skin Developed by the Guideline Subcommittee “Scleroderma-Morphea” of the European Dermatology Forum (...) Histopathology 42 Differential diagnosis 43 Scleroderma 43 Scleredema 43 Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis/dermopathy 43 Localized lichen myxedematosus 43 Treatment 44 First-line therapy 44 Second-line therapies 46 Prognosis and follow-up 49 Summary and recommendations 50 References 54 III Systemic sclerosis 58 Introduction 58 Clinical manifestation and classification 59 Diagnostic procedures 60 5 Antinuclear antibodies 60 Capillaroscopy 60 Organ involvement and diagnostic work-up 60 Raynaud’s phenomenon 60 Skin

2018 European Dermatology Forum

100. Evaluation and Treatment of Hirsutism in Premenopausal Women Full Text available with Trip Pro

not a method of hair removal, bleaching with products containing hydrogen peroxide and sulfates is a method for masking the presence of undesired hair, particularly facial hair. Side effects include irritation, pruritus, and possible skin discoloration. In addition to cosmetic and/or pharmacologic therapy, lifestyle changes for obese women with PCOS may improve their hirsutism. In a meta-analysis of four studies that included 132 subjects, lifestyle changes (diet, exercise, behavioral, or combination (...) hair removal therapy, we suggest photoepilation for those whose unwanted hair is auburn, brown, or black, and we suggest electrolysis for those with white or blonde hair. (2 |⊕⊕OO) 4.2. For women of color who choose photoepilation treatment, we suggest using a long-wavelength, long pulse-duration light source such as Nd:YAG or diode laser delivered with appropriate skin cooling (2 |⊕OOO). Clinicians should warn Mediterranean and Middle Eastern women with facial hirsutism about the increased risk

2018 The Endocrine Society

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