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Skeletal Muscle Relaxant

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1. Age affects myosin relaxation states in skeletal muscle fibers of female but not male mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Age affects myosin relaxation states in skeletal muscle fibers of female but not male mice. The recent discovery that myosin has two distinct states in relaxed muscle-disordered relaxed (DRX) and super-relaxed (SRX)-provides another factor to consider in our fundamental understanding of the aging mechanism in skeletal muscle, since myosin is thought to be a potential contributor to dynapenia (age-associated loss of muscle strength independent of atrophy). The primary goal of this study (...) was to determine the effects of age on DRX and SRX states and to examine their sex specificity. We have used quantitative fluorescence microscopy of the fluorescent nucleotide analog 2'/3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) ATP (mantATP) to measure single-nucleotide turnover kinetics of myosin in skinned skeletal muscle fibers under relaxing conditions. We examined changes in DRX and SRX in response to the natural aging process by measuring the turnover of mantATP in skinned fibers isolated from psoas muscle of adult

2018 PLoS ONE

2. Effects of muscle relaxants on ischaemia damage in skeletal muscle Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of muscle relaxants on ischaemia damage in skeletal muscle Muscle ischaemia is frequently induced intraoperatively by i.e. a surgical tourniquet or during the re-grafting phase of a free muscle transplant. The resulting muscle cell damage may impact on postoperative recovery. Neuromuscular paralysis may mitigate the effects of ischaemia. After ethics approval, 25 male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: Sham operation, treatment with normal (...) saline, treatment with rocuronium (muscle relaxant) 0.6 or 1 mg kg-1, respectively. In the non-sham groups, ischaemia of one hind leg was achieved by ligation of the femoral vessels. Muscle biopsies were taken at 30 and 90 min, respectively. Cell damage was assessed in the biopsies via the expression of dystrophin, free calcium, as well as the assessment of cell viability. Pre-ischaemia muscle relaxation led to a reduction in ischaemia-induced muscle cell damage when measured by the expression

2018 Scientific reports Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3. β-alanine supplementation improves in-vivo fresh and fatigued skeletal muscle relaxation speed Full Text available with Trip Pro

β-alanine supplementation improves in-vivo fresh and fatigued skeletal muscle relaxation speed In fresh muscle, supplementation with the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, β-alanine (BA), results in a decline in muscle half-relaxation time (HRT) potentially via alterations to calcium (Ca2+) handling. Accumulation of hydrogen cation (H+) has been shown to impact Ca2+ signalling during muscular contraction, carnosine has the potential to serve as a cytoplasmic regulator of Ca2+ and H (...) + coupling, since it binds to both ions. The present study examined the effect of BA supplementation on intrinsic in-vivo isometric knee extensor force production and muscle contractility in both fresh and fatigued human skeletal muscle assessed during voluntary and electrically evoked (nerve and superficial muscle stimulation) contractions.Twenty-three males completed two experimental sessions, pre- and post- 28 day supplementation with 6.4 g.day-1 of BA (n = 12) or placebo (PLA; n = 11). Isometric

2017 European journal of applied physiology

4. Bi-component T1ρ and T2 Relaxation Mapping of Skeletal Muscle In-Vivo Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bi-component T1ρ and T2 Relaxation Mapping of Skeletal Muscle In-Vivo The goal of this paper was to evaluate the possibility of bi-component T1ρ and T2 relaxation mapping of human skeletal muscle at 3 T in clinically feasible scan times. T1ρ- and T2-weighted images of calf muscle were acquired using a modified 3D-SPGR sequence on a standard 3 T clinical MRI scanner. The mono- and biexponential models were fitted pixel-wise to the series of T1ρ and T2 weighted images. The biexponential decay (...) of T1ρ and T2 relaxations was detected in ~30% and ~40% of the pixels across all volunteers, respectively. Monoexponential and bi-exponential short and long T1ρ relaxation times were estimated to be 26.9 ms, 4.6 ms (fraction 22%) and 33.2 ms (fraction: 78%), respectively. Similarly, the mono- and bi-exponential short and long T2 relaxation times were 24.7 ms, 4.2 ms (fraction 15%) and 30.4 ms (fraction 85%) respectively. The experiments had good repeatability with RMSCV < 15% and ICC > 60

2017 Scientific reports

5. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE) of V. officinalis had (...) in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly.

2017 Journal of traditional and complementary medicine

6. Spinal Cord is the Primary Site of Action for Skeletal Muscle Relaxation by Sevoflurane. (Abstract)

Spinal Cord is the Primary Site of Action for Skeletal Muscle Relaxation by Sevoflurane. MINI: A modified selective anesthetics delivery rabbit model was used validated to a better preferential anesthesia than previous models. Furthermore, we found evidence that primarily the spinal cord mediated the skeletal muscle relaxation action of sevoflurane.A randomized, in vivo study was performed to explore the skeletal muscle relaxation action site of sevoflurane.The aim of this study (...) was to investigate the skeletal muscle relaxation action of sevoflurane by a modified selective anesthetics delivery rabbit model.The action site and mechanisms of skeletal muscle relaxation caused by sevoflurane were unclear, so a modified selective anesthetics delivery model was used.Sixteen male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to the sevoflurane or sham group. In situ measurement of train of four, maximum single twitch, and tetanic muscle force of left tibialis anterior muscle was repeatedly

2017 Spine

7. Antispastic Skeletal Muscle Relaxant

Antispastic Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Antispastic Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Antispastic (...) Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Antispastic Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Aka: Antispastic Skeletal Muscle Relaxant , Baclofen , Lioresal , Dantrolene , Dantrium II. Pathophysiology These agents are used to reduce severe spasticity (e.g. spinal cord injury, , ) III. Indications: Spasticity Spinal Cord Injury IV. Contraindications Not indicated for general musculoskeletal problems V. Agents Baclofen (Lioresal) Baclofen binds GABA B receptors Oral Baclofen does not cross blood brain barrier well Instead, Baclofen

2018 FP Notebook

8. Skeletal Muscle Relaxant

Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Skeletal (...) Muscle Relaxant Aka: Skeletal Muscle Relaxant , Methocarbamol , Robaxin , Chlorzoxazone , Parafon Forte , Metaxalone , Skelaxin , Orphenadrine , Norflex , Tizanidine , Zanaflex , Carisoprodol , Soma II. Indications s III. Contraindications Older patients See Severe IV. Efficacy More effective than , but less effective than first-line agents such as s "Muscle relaxants" do not directly relax muscles (most of effect is likely sedation) V. Precautions Maximize s ( s and ) as they are generally more

2018 FP Notebook

9. Skeletal muscle magnetic resonance biomarkers correlate with function and sentinel events in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Skeletal muscle magnetic resonance biomarkers correlate with function and sentinel events in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To provide evidence for quantitative magnetic resonance (qMR) biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy by investigating the relationship between qMR measures of lower extremity muscle pathology and functional endpoints in a large ambulatory cohort using a multicenter study design.MR spectroscopy and quantitative imaging were implemented to measure intramuscular fat fraction (...) and the transverse magnetization relaxation time constant (T2) in lower extremity muscles of 136 participants with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Measures were collected at 554 visits over 48 months at one of three imaging sites. Fat fraction was measured in the soleus and vastus lateralis using MR spectroscopy, while T2 was assessed using MRI in eight lower extremity muscles. Ambulatory function was measured using the 10m walk/run, climb four stairs, supine to stand, and six minute walk tests.Significant

2018 PLoS ONE

10. A Global Loss of Dio2 Leads to Unexpected Changes in Function and Fiber Types of Slow Skeletal Muscle in Male Mice. (Abstract)

A Global Loss of Dio2 Leads to Unexpected Changes in Function and Fiber Types of Slow Skeletal Muscle in Male Mice. The type 2 iodothyronine-deiodinase (D2) enzyme converts T4 to T3, and mice deficient in this enzyme (D2KO mice) have decreased T3 derived from T4 in skeletal muscle despite normal circulating T3 levels. Because slow skeletal muscle is particularly susceptible to changes in T3 levels, we expected that D2 inactivation would result in more pronounced slow-muscle characteristics (...) in the soleus muscle, mirroring hypothyroidism. However, ex vivo studies of D2KO soleus revealed higher rates of twitch contraction and relaxation, while resistance to fatigue was reduced. Immunostaining of D2KO soleus showed that these properties were associated with changes in muscle fiber type composition, including a marked increase in the number of fast, glycolytic type IIB fibers. D2KO soleus muscle fibers also had a larger cross sectional area and this correlated with increased myonuclear accretion

2019 Endocrinology

11. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We (...) have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy

2016 PloS one

12. Association of skeletal muscle relaxers and antihistamines on mortality, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits in elderly patients: a nationwide retrospective cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of skeletal muscle relaxers and antihistamines on mortality, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits in elderly patients: a nationwide retrospective cohort study. High-risk medication exposure in the elderly is common and associated with increased mortality, hospitalizations, and emergency department (ED) visits. Skeletal muscle relaxants and antihistamines are high-risk medications commonly prescribed in elderly patients. The objective of this study was to determine (...) the association between skeletal muscle relaxants or antihistamines and mortality, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits.This study used a new-user, retrospective cohort design using national Veteran Affairs (VA) data from 128 hospitals. Veterans ≥65 years of age on October 1, 2005 who received VA inpatient/outpatient care at least once in each of fiscal year (FY) 2005 and FY 2006 were included. Exposure to skeletal muscle relaxants and antihistamines was defined by the National Committee

2015 BMC Geriatrics

13. NO-sGC Pathway Modulates Ca2+ Release and Muscle Contraction in Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle Full Text available with Trip Pro

NO-sGC Pathway Modulates Ca2+ Release and Muscle Contraction in Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle Vertebrate skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation is a complex process that depends on Ca2+ ions to promote the interaction of actin and myosin. This process can be modulated by nitric oxide (NO), a gas molecule synthesized endogenously by (nitric oxide synthase) NOS isoforms. At nanomolar concentrations NO activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which in turn activates protein kinase G via (...) conversion of GTP into cyclic GMP. Alternatively, NO post-translationally modifies proteins via S-nitrosylation of the thiol group of cysteine. However, the mechanisms of action of NO on Ca2+ homeostasis during muscle contraction are not fully understood and we hypothesize that NO exerts its effects on Ca2+ homeostasis in skeletal muscles mainly through negative modulation of Ca2+ release and Ca2+ uptake via the NO-sGC-PKG pathway. To address this, we used 5-7 days-post fecundation-larvae of zebrafish

2017 Frontiers in physiology

14. Validation of Blood Volume Fraction Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Porcine Skeletal Muscle. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Validation of Blood Volume Fraction Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Porcine Skeletal Muscle. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of fractional blood volume (vb) estimates in low-perfused and low-vascularized tissue using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The results of different MRI methods were compared with histology to evaluate the accuracy of these methods under clinical conditions (...) . vb was estimated by DCE-MRI using a 3D gradient echo sequence with k-space undersampling in five muscle groups in the hind leg of 9 female pigs. Two gadolinium-based contrast agents (CA) were used: a rapidly extravasating, extracellular, gadolinium-based, low-molecular-weight contrast agent (LMCA, gadoterate meglumine) and an extracellular, gadolinium-based, albumin-binding, slowly extravasating blood pool contrast agent (BPCA, gadofosveset trisodium). LMCA data were evaluated using the extended

2017 PLoS ONE

15. A Mixed Periodic Paralysis & Myotonia Mutant, P1158S, Imparts pH-Sensitivity in Skeletal Muscle Voltage-gated Sodium Channels Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Mixed Periodic Paralysis & Myotonia Mutant, P1158S, Imparts pH-Sensitivity in Skeletal Muscle Voltage-gated Sodium Channels Skeletal muscle channelopathies, many of which are inherited as autosomal dominant mutations, include myotonia and periodic paralysis. Myotonia is defined by a delayed relaxation after muscular contraction, whereas periodic paralysis is defined by episodic attacks of weakness. One sub-type of periodic paralysis, known as hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP (...) ), is associated with low potassium levels. Interestingly, the P1158S missense mutant, located in the third domain S4-S5 linker of the "skeletal muscle", Nav1.4, has been implicated in causing both myotonia and hypoPP. A common trigger for these conditions is physical activity. We previously reported that Nav1.4 is relatively insensitive to changes in extracellular pH compared to Nav1.2 and Nav1.5. Given that intense exercise is often accompanied by blood acidosis, we decided to test whether changes in pH

2018 Scientific reports

16. Comparison Thigh Skeletal Muscles between Snowboarding Halfpipe Athletes and Healthy Volunteers Using Quantitative Multi-Parameter Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Rest Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison Thigh Skeletal Muscles between Snowboarding Halfpipe Athletes and Healthy Volunteers Using Quantitative Multi-Parameter Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Rest Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides a unique, noninvasive diagnostic platform to quantify the physiological and biochemical variables of skeletal muscle at rest. This study was to investigate the difference in thigh skeletal muscles between snowboarding halfpipe athletes and healthy volunteers via multiparametric MR imaging.A (...) comparative study was conducted between 12 healthy volunteers and 14 snowboarding halfpipe athletes. MR scanning targeted the left leg at the level of the proximal thigh on a 3.0T MR system. The measured parameters compared between the two groups included T1, T2, T2* relaxation times, fat fraction (FF), and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris and the hamstring muscles. Statistical analysis was carried out using independent sample t-test. Interrater reliability was also assessed

2018 Chinese medical journal

17. Evaluation of skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion of lower extremities by cardiovascular magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling, blood oxygenation level-dependent, and intravoxel incoherent motion techniques. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion of lower extremities by cardiovascular magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling, blood oxygenation level-dependent, and intravoxel incoherent motion techniques. Noninvasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques including arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD), and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), are capable of measuring tissue perfusion-related parameters. We sought to evaluate and compare (...) these three CMR techniques in characterizing skeletal muscle perfusion in lower extremities and to investigate their abilities to diagnose and assess the severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).Fifteen healthy young subjects, 14 patients with PAD, and 10 age-matched healthy old subjects underwent ASL, BOLD, and IVIM CMR perfusion imaging. Healthy young and healthy old participants were subjected to a cuff-induced ischemia experiment with pressures of 20 mmHg and 40 mmHg above systolic pressure

2018 Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

18. Redox Regulation of Satellite Cells and Skeletal Muscle Healing

Redox Regulation of Satellite Cells and Skeletal Muscle Healing Redox Regulation of Satellite Cells and Skeletal Muscle Healing - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Redox Regulation of Satellite (...) Cells and Skeletal Muscle Healing The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03711838 Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting First Posted : October 19, 2018 Last Update Posted : October 29, 2018 See Sponsor

2018 Clinical Trials

19. Myosin Head Configurations in Resting and Contracting Murine Skeletal Muscle Full Text available with Trip Pro

Myosin Head Configurations in Resting and Contracting Murine Skeletal Muscle Transgenic mouse models have been important tools for studying the relationship of genotype to phenotype for human diseases, including those of skeletal muscle. We show that mouse skeletal muscle can produce high quality X-ray diffraction patterns establishing the mouse intact skeletal muscle X-ray preparation as a potentially powerful tool to test structural hypotheses in health and disease. A notable feature (...) of the mouse model system is the presence of residual myosin layer line intensities in contracting mouse muscle patterns. This provides an additional tool, along with the I1,1/I1,0 intensity ratio, for estimating the proportions of active versus relaxed myosin heads under a given set of conditions that can be used to characterize a given physiological condition or mutant muscle type. We also show that analysis of the myosin layer line intensity distribution, including derivation of the myosin head radius

2018 International journal of molecular sciences

20. With the greatest care, stromal interaction molecule (STIM) proteins verify what skeletal muscle is doing Full Text available with Trip Pro

With the greatest care, stromal interaction molecule (STIM) proteins verify what skeletal muscle is doing Skeletal muscle contracts or relaxes to maintain the body position and locomotion. For the contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle, Ca2+ in the cytosol of skeletal muscle fibers acts as a switch to turn on and off a series of contractile proteins. The cytosolic Ca2+ level in skeletal muscle fibers is governed mainly by movements of Ca2+ between the cytosol and the sarcoplasmic (...) reticulum (SR). Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), a Ca2+ entryway from the extracellular space to the cytosol, has gained a significant amount of attention from muscle physiologists. Orai1 and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) are the main protein identities of SOCE. This mini-review focuses on the roles of STIM proteins and SOCE in the physiological and pathophysiological functions of skeletal muscle and in their correlations with recently identified proteins, as well as historical proteins

2018 BMB reports

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