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Six Item Cognitive Impairment Test

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181. Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain

to develop a guideline of this size and breadth, some explanation is needed as to the why or why not certain items can be found in the con- tent. ? Although opioids are addressed, it is in a limited fashion. The opioid crisis as we know it today was a phenomenon that reached crisis proportions af- ter the guideline was already in development. In the future, more substantial attention to this is- sue will be merited. ? This is the largest clinical guideline NASS has ever undertaken and four years (...) are written utilizing a standard language that indicates the strength of the recommendation. “A” recommendations indicate a test or intervention is “recommended”; “B” recom- mendations “suggest” a test or intervention and “C” recommendations indicate a test or intervention “may be considered” or “is an option.” “I” or “Insufficient Evidence” statements clearly indicate that “there is insufficient evidence to make a recommendation for or against” a test or intervention. Work group con- sensus statements

2020 North American Spine Society

182. Treatment for Insomnia and Disrupted Sleep Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

1 2 ABC: Aberrant Behavior Checklist 3 ASD: autism spectrum disorder 4 ADHD: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 5 AEs: adverse events 6 BR: bedtime resistance 7 CAM: complementary and alternative medicine 8 CBT: cognitive behavioral therapy 9 CSHQ: Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire 10 CSHQ-BR: Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Bed Resistance 11 CSHQ-SOD: Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Onset Delay 12 DBC: Developmental Behavior Checklist 13 FDA: Food and Drug (...) and quality of life. 4 Poor sleep quality and insufficient 10 nighttime sleep can exacerbate core and associated ASD features, contributing to negative effects 11 on mood and emotional regulation, behavior, and cognitive functioning. Children and 12 adolescents with intellectual disabilities and severe symptoms associated with ASD are at 13 especially high risk for sleep problems. 5-7 Sleep disturbances are associated with communication 14 deficits and restrictive and repetitive behaviors in ASD. 8, 9

2020 American Academy of Neurology

183. Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery

Glaucoma is a condition that causes progressive damage to the optic nerve, which can lead to visual impairment and irreversible blindness. There is a spectrum of current treatments for glaucoma that aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), including pharmacotherapy (eye drops), laser therapy, and the more invasive option of filtration surgery. A new class of treatments called minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) may reduce IOP and offer a better safety profile than more invasive procedures. We (...) that causes progressive damage to the optic nerve that can lead to visual impairment and potentially to irreversible blindness. 2-4 Risk factors include elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), increasing age, family history of glaucoma, race, and comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. 4-6 An IOP higher than normal can damage the optic nerve. 2,7 IOP is the most important and the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma. 4,8 With every 1 mm Hg increase in IOP, there is a 10% higher

2019 Health Quality Ontario

184. Flash Glucose Monitoring System for People with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

rate of 15%, to $38.6 million ($7.7 million for type 1 diabetes and $30.9 million for type 2 diabetes) in year 5, at an uptake rate of 35%. In this analysis, we assumed that people with type 1 diabetes who self-monitor their blood glucose levels would perform six blood glucose tests daily and that people with type 2 diabetes would perform four blood glucose tests daily. For people switching from self-monitoring of blood glucose using the maximum number of blood glucose test strips for reimbursement (...) , such as cardiovascular and kidney disease, than people without diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes and people with type 2 diabetes that requires insulin therapy (daily injections of insulin or a continuous infusion of insulin under the skin) must test their blood glucose levels regularly. The standard way to do this is to prick a finger to obtain a drop of blood, apply the drop of blood to a blood glucose test strip, and insert the strip into a device called a blood glucose meter. This is called self- monitoring

2019 Health Quality Ontario

185. Evidence Map - Art Therapy

/dementia, 47-53 of which 1 was an RCT. 53 In addition, there were 3 impact evaluations related to Alzheimer’s/dementia that combined art therapy with music, horticulture activity, memory training, and cognitive stimulation activities. 54 with music, 55 and with choral singing 56 of which 1 was an RCT. 56 There were 2 systematic reviews related to Alzheimer’s/dementia that included a mixture of art therapy and other treatment modality. Both were rated low confidence. 57,58 Schizophrenia/Psychosis (...) trial. Art Therapy. 2007;24(2):71-75. 44. Rawtaer I, Mahendran R, Yu J, Fam J, Feng L, Kua EH. Psychosocial interventions with art, music, Tai Chi and mindfulness for subsyndromal depression and anxiety in older adults: A naturalistic study in Singapore. Asia-Pacific psychiatry : official journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists. 2015;7(1758-5872 (Electronic)):240-250. 45. Im ML, Lee JI. Effects of art and music therapy on depression and cognitive function of the elderly. Technology

2019 Veterans Affairs Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports

186. Iron Deficiency – Diagnosis and Management

ages: tiredness, restless legs, inattention, poor school performance, irritability/depression, growth retardation, unexplained cognitive and intellectual impairment, breath-holding spells, developmental delay, pica/pagophagia Infants: poor feeding, lethargy, failure to thrive, cardiomegaly, tachypnea Adolescents: presyncope, syncope, headache, irritability, fatigue, exercise intolerance, restless legs Diagnosis Serum ferritin is the diagnostic test of choice for iron deficiency. The ferritin cut (...) intolerance Headaches Restless leg syndrome Irritability/depression Angular cheilitis Pica/pagophagia (ice craving) Decreased aerobic work performance Hair loss Adverse pregnancy outcome Impaired immune function * Iron therapy may improve restless legs syndrome severity and restlessness. Iron supplementation is recommended if serum ferritin is ≤ 75 ug/L. , Testing Initial investigational tests The recommended initial tests for iron deficiency and for IDA, in otherwise well patients, should usually

2019 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

187. Early Support

evidence 15 III-2 A comparative study with concurrent controls (i.e. non- randomised experimental trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, interrupted time series studies with a control group) 1 III-3 A comparative study without concurrent controls (i.e. historical control study, two or more single arm studies, interrupted time series studies without a parallel control group) 3 IV Case series with either post-test or pre-test/post-test outcomes 8 See Appendix 2 for explanation of NHMRC levels (...) participation in classroom activities. (24) One PD program, the Freedom Writers Institute (FWI), found that students taught by educators who had received the training reported higher levels of school engagement than those with educators in the control group. (25) In the FWI program, school engagement was defined as more than academic engagement, and included the provision of ongoing support around the young person’s cognitive, behavioural and emotional interactions in the classroom and school settings

2019 Sax Institute Evidence Check

188. Guidelines for enhanced recovery after lung surgery: recommendations of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Full Text available with Trip Pro

of these recommendations was endorsed by the Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Society and the European Society for Thoracic Surgery. Recommendations were developed for a total of 45 enhanced recovery items covering topics related to preadmission, admission, intraoperative care and postoperative care. Most are based on good-quality studies. In some instances, good-quality data were not available, and subsequent recommendations are generic or based on data extrapolated from other specialties. In other cases (...) was based on the ERAS ® Society guidelines for colorectal surgery [ ] and gynaecological surgery [ ]. After the topics were agreed upon, they were allocated among the group according to expertise. The literature search (1966–2017) used Embase and PubMed to search medical subject headings including ‘thoracic surgery’, ‘lung cancer surgery’ and all perioperative ERAS items (Table ). Reference lists of all eligible articles were crosschecked for other relevant studies. Table 1: Guidelines for enhanced

2020 ERAS Society

189. Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Spine Care: Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain

by the physician and patient in light of all circumstances presented by the patient and the needs and resources particular to the locality or institution. Due to the time needed to develop a guideline of this size and breadth, some explanation is needed as to the why or why not certain items can be found in the con- tent. ? Although opioids are addressed, it is in a limited fashion. The opioid crisis as we know it today was a phenomenon that reached crisis proportions af- ter the guideline was already (...) levels of evidence inform the grades of recommendation and the standard nomenclature used within the recom- mendations see Appendix C. Guideline recommendations are written utilizing a standard language that indicates the strength of the recommendation. “A” recommendations indicate a test or intervention is “recommended”; “B” recom- mendations “suggest” a test or intervention and “C” recommendations indicate a test or intervention “may be considered” or “is an option.” “I” or “Insufficient Evidence

2020 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

190. Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia

in Rating the Strength of the Guideline Statement 155 Review of Available Guidelines from Other Organizations 155 Quality Measurement Considerations 155 Psychosocial Interventions 156 Statement 15: Coordinated Specialty Care Programs 156 Implementation 156 Balancing of Potential Benefits and Harms in Rating the Strength of the Guideline Statement 157 Review of Available Guidelines from Other Organizations 157 Quality Measurement Considerations 157 Statement 16: Cognitive-behavioral Therapy 158 (...) of Potential Benefits and Harms in Rating the Strength of the Guideline Statement3 Review of Available Guidelines from Other Organizations 3 Quality Measurement Considerations 3 Statement 21: Self-management Skills and Recovery-focused Interventions 4 Implementation 4 Balancing of Potential Benefits and Harms in Rating the Strength of the Guideline Statement2 Review of Available Guidelines from Other Organizations 2 Quality Measurement Considerations 2 Statement 22: Cognitive Remediation 3 Implementation 3

2020 American Psychiatric Association

191. Clinical practice guideline for evaluation of psychosocial factors influencing recovery from adult orthopaedic trauma

self-efficacy, less effective coping strategies) Strength of Recommendation: Moderate Description: Evidence from two or more “Moderate” quality studies with consistent findings recommending for or against the intervention, prognostic factor, or diagnostic test. 7 View background material via the PRF CPG eAppendix DEVELOPMENT GROUP ROSTER Voting Members Steve Wegener, MA, PhD Non-Military Co-Chair Benjamin Keizer, PhD Military Co-Chair Erik Ensrud, MD American Academy of Physical Medicine (...) and early referral for treatment. There appears to be low risk of harm in evaluating psychosocial risk factors. Support for how best to screen/evaluate for these factors and their effects is limited and requires further study. Barriers to psychosocial evaluation include, but are not limited to, lack of resources to properly assess the risk factor and impediments to patient response (e.g. cognitive deficits and patient refusal to participate). Future Research Current evidence regarding mental and social

2020 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

192. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for chronic major depressive episodes

regional cerebral blood flow to multiple brain areas. VNS settings are adjusted using a magnetic wand placed on the skin surface overlying the pulse generator. The estimated battery life is 10 years. MSAC noted that the applicant had agreed to amend the item descriptor to ‘four or more classes of antidepressants’, but also considered that it was unclear what defined an ‘adequate’ response. MSAC also considered that, of the six proposed MBS items for VNS implantation, it was unclear who would (...) and Victoria. This may create issues around equity of access if adopted. 6. Proposal for public funding There are six proposed MBS items for VNS implantation, relating to the placement of the generator, repositioning or removal of the generator, placement of the lead, repositioning or removal of the lead, device programming and replacement of the battery. These items mirror the same items that were approved for VNS in the treatment of refractory epilepsy. The proposed MBS item descriptors are presented

2019 Medical Services Advisory Committee

193. Heart Failure - Systolic Dysfunction

, tadalafil, and vardenafil. Ivabradine Initiation: For patients with persistent symptoms and HR > 70 despite maximally tolerated or target dose beta blocker Contraindication: Atrial fibrillation Diuretics "Background" therapy. Though not specifically tested in clinical trials, diuretics should still be used as needed for volume overload. Diuretics were consistently part of background therapy in all published placebo controlled mortality trials of symptomatic patients in which ACE inhibitors, beta (...) blockers, and aldosterone antagonists were tested. Combining Drugs Starting other drugs. The therapy described in Table 2 is the desired endpoint for patients with the indicated symptoms and history. No data are available to indicate how best to introduce all of these medications. All of the major trials added beta blockers or spironolactone to background therapy of ACE inhibitors, diuretics, and sometimes digoxin. Electrolytes and renal function. Many of the medications appropriate for HF (ACE, ARB

2020 University of Michigan Health System

194. Istradefylline (Nourianz) - Parkinson's disease

database: 23 8.3. Adequacy of Applicant’s Clinical Safety Assessments 23 8.3.1. Issues Regarding Data Integrity and Submission Quality 24 8.3.2. Categorization of Adverse Events 24 8.3.3. Routine Clinical Tests 25 8.4. Safety Results 26 8.4.1. Deaths 26 8.4.2. Serious Adverse Events 29 8.4.3. Dropouts and/or Discontinuations Due to Adverse Effects 35 8.4.4. Significant Adverse Events 37 8.4.5. Treatment Emergent Adverse Events and Adverse Reactions 39 8.4.1. Laboratory Findings 49 8.4.2. Vital Signs 56 (...) of TEAEs. The duration of follow up of TEAEs appeared acceptable given that the terminal half-life of istradefylline (82.7 hours). 8.3.3. Routine Clinical Tests The schedule of assessments for clinical laboratory tests (chemistry, hematology, and urine analysis) were as per the individual study protocols. Seven out of eight studies in Pool 1 had clinical laboratory assessments at baseline (Study Day -1), and then Week 2, 4, 8, and 12. Study 6002-014 had clinical laboratory assessments on Study Days 1

2019 FDA - Drug Approval Package

195. Cardiac arrhythmias in coronary heart disease

and is applicable to guidance produced using the processes described in SIGN 50: a guideline developer’s handbook, 2015 edition (www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/50/ index.html). More information on accreditation can be viewed at www.nice.org.uk/ accreditation Healthcare Improvement Scotland (HIS) is committed to equality and diversity and assesses all its publications for likely impact on the six equality groups defined by age, disability, gender, race, religion/belief and sexual orientation. SIGN guidelines (...) assessment of LV function for risk stratification at least six weeks following the acute event. 2.3 ARRHYTHMIAS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC CORONARY HEART DISEASE/LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION R Rate control is the recommended strategy for management of patients with well-tolerated atrial fibrillation. R In patients with permanent AF or persistent AF following a rate-control strategy and a resting heart rate >110 bpm, appropriate rate-control therapy should be instituted with an initial target of resting

2018 SIGN

196. Management of stable angina

questionnaire using a set of common daily living items. 210 Simple exercise testing may further refine risk assessment. The failure to climb two flights of stairs, which is the equivalent of more than four METs, is a good predictor of mortality associated with thoracic surgery and complications after major non-cardiac surgery. 211 Cardiopulmonary exercise testing has been used to identify high-risk groups for major non-cardiac surgery. The measurement of anaerobic threshold may be a better predictor than (...) in SIGN 50: a guideline developer’s handbook, 2015 edition (www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/50/ index.html). More information on accreditation can be viewed at www.nice.org.uk/ accreditation Healthcare Improvement Scotland (HIS) is committed to equality and diversity and assesses all its publications for likely impact on the six equality groups defined by age, disability, gender, race, religion/belief and sexual orientation. SIGN guidelines are produced using a standard methodology that has been

2018 SIGN

197. Canadian stroke best practice recommendations: secondary prevention of stroke, sixth edition practice guidelines

A]. ii. Echocardiography should be considered in cases where a stroke mechanism has not been identified [Evidence Level C]. 1.3 Functional assessment i. Selected patients with transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke should be assessed for neurological impairments and functional limitations when appropriate (e.g. cognitive evaluation, screening for depression, screening of fitness to drive, need for potential rehabilitation therapy, and assistance with activities of daily living), especially (...) for the Secondary Prevention of Stroke is a collection of current evidence-based recommendations intended for use by clinicians across a wide range of settings. The goal is to provide guidance for the prevention of ischemic stroke recurrence through the identification and management of modifiable vascular risk factors. Recommendations include those related to diagnostic testing, diet and lifestyle, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies, carotid artery disease

2018 CPG Infobase

198. Diagnosis and management of epilepsy in adults

but usually resolve with time. 126 Sedation may be less with AEDs licensed from, for example, 1990 onwards, particularly lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine and levetiracetam. 94 Many patients on long term AED therapy report cognitive adverse effects (see section 4.6.5) but studies to confirm this have been contradictory and confounded by the effects of chronic epilepsy. 142, 143 Polytherapy is probably associated with more cognitive adverse effects than monotherapy. 144 Impaired bone health is associated (...) be viewed at www.evidence.nhs.uk Healthcare Improvement Scotland (HIS) is committed to equality and diversity and assesses all its publications for likely impact on the six equality groups defined by age, disability, gender, race, religion/belief and sexual orientation. SIGN guidelines are produced using a standard methodology that has been equality impact assessed to ensure that these equality aims are addressed in every guideline. This methodology is set out in the current version of SIGN 50, our

2018 SIGN

199. Public health service provision by community pharmacies: a systematic map of evidence

The included studies 88 9.3 Alcohol 88 9.4 Services for people who inject drugs 91 10 Obesity and weight management 98 10.1 Introduction 98 10.2 Included studies 98 11 Other health conditions 103 11.1 Introduction 103 11.2 Bowel disease and gastrointestinal conditions 106 11.3 Early cancer awareness 108 11.4 Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal impairment 112 11.5 Dementia and cognitive impairment 113 11.6 Depression 114 11.7 Low back pain 115 11.8 Migraine and headache 116 Public health service (...) health services via community pharmacies (n=15). The number of studies identified for each of these and other study foci are outlined in Figure 3.5. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 7 9 12 Chronic kidney disorder (CKD) Dementia and cognitive impairment Depression Low back pain Migraine/headache Osteoarthritis Urinary tract infections (UTI) Skin disorders Sleep disorders Streptococcal infections Bowel disorders and GI conditions Cancer Respiratory health Osteoporosis Other health conditions The evidence-base

2019 EPPI Centre

200. What helps to support people affected by Adverse Childhood Experiences? A Review of Evidence

around’ 30 Continuity and Dependability – ‘they just leave you after a while’ 31 Flexibility and Control – ‘They don’t tell you what to do’ 32 4 Overview: Interventions to support people affected by Adverse Childhood Experiences (RoR) 33 4.1 Flow of literature through the review 33 4.2 Quality assessment 34 4.3 Best evidence synthesis 34 4.4 Classification of interventions 36 4.5 Summary and key findings 36 4.6 Findings 36 Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) 37 Psychological therapies other than (...) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) 39 Psychoeducation 42 Treatments aimed predominately at parents 44 Parent / foster carer training 45 Cross-sector support 47 Educational 49 Housing and life skills 50 Foster care / out-of-home care 52 5 Stakeholder workshop 53 5.1 Findings 53 Inflexibility of school system and teachers’ attitudes 53 ACEs impact people in different ways and at different times 53 Ethnic background 54 Recreation and practical skills 54 Counselling and talking therapies 54 Ways to measure

2019 EPPI Centre

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