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Serum Glucose

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161. Sitagliptin decreases visceral fat and blood glucoses in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sitagliptin decreases visceral fat and blood glucoses in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have decreased growth hormone (GH), which can increase visceral adiposity (VAT) and impair vascular function. GH releasing hormone, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) substrate, stimulates GH secretion.We tested the hypothesis that DPP4 inhibition increases GH and improves glucose levels and vascular function in women with PCOS.Eighteen women with PCOS (...) the maximal glucose response to OGTT and VAT. Sitagliptin did not increase overnight GH but increased GH half-life and the interpulse interval.Sitagliptin decreases visceral fat and blood glucoses following oral glucose load in women with PCOS. Sitagliptin potentiated GH half-life but did not increase overnight GH levels.© Endocrine Society 2019. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

2019 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

162. Vitamin D supplementation improves waist-to-hip ratio and fasting blood glucose in vitamin D deficient, overweight or obese Asians: A pilot secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. (Abstract)

Vitamin D supplementation improves waist-to-hip ratio and fasting blood glucose in vitamin D deficient, overweight or obese Asians: A pilot secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Recent trials do not support a role for vitamin D supplementation in prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although effects may differ in Asian populations. In this pilot secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled randomised trial of overweight or obese individuals with low 25 (...) in insulin sensitivity (M-value) assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Secondary outcomes were changes in 25(OH)D (chemiluminescent immunoassay), fasting blood glucose (YSI Stat 2300), and body composition including waist-hip ratio and total body fat percentage (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Questionnaires assessed sun-exposure habits, physical activity, and diet. After the 16-week intervention, 25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly in the vitamin D group with no change in placebo

2019 The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

163. Contribution of structured self-monitoring of blood glucose to self-efficacy in poorly controlled diabetes patients in China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Contribution of structured self-monitoring of blood glucose to self-efficacy in poorly controlled diabetes patients in China. To investigate the association between structured self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and diabetes self-efficacy in Chinese patients.This study was a single-centre, open-label, prospective, randomized controlled trial. A total of 250 type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients were recruited and randomly assigned to the structured SMBG group and the control group in a 1:1

2019 Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews Controlled trial quality: uncertain

164. Neither repetition duration nor number of muscle actions affect strength increases, body composition, muscle size, or fasted blood glucose in trained males and females. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neither repetition duration nor number of muscle actions affect strength increases, body composition, muscle size, or fasted blood glucose in trained males and females. A key variable within resistance training (RT) is that of repetition duration: the time (seconds) taken to perform the concentric and eccentric muscle actions of a repetition. Research has produced equivocal results with regard to strength and muscle mass increases; many studies have created parity in the number of repetitions (...) days/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes were 10 repetitions maximum (RM) and predicted 1RM for chest press, leg press, and pulldown exercises, as well as body composition, upper arm and thigh muscle mass, and fasted blood glucose. Analyses revealed significant increases in strength for all exercises but no between-group differences and no statistically significant time course changes for the other variables. Repetition duration does not affect the increases in strength in trained participants when

2019 Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme Controlled trial quality: uncertain

165. Effects of Meal Timing on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism and Blood Metabolites in Healthy Adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Meal Timing on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism and Blood Metabolites in Healthy Adults. We examined the effects of meal timing on postprandial glucose metabolism, including the incretin response and metabolites in healthy adults. Nineteen healthy young men completed two trials involving blood collection in a fasting state and at 30, 60 and 120 min after meal provision in a random order: (1) morning (~0900 h) and (2) evening (~1700 h). The blood metabolome of eight participants (...) was analyzed using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Postprandial glucose concentrations at 120 min (p = 0.030) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations (p = 0.005) at 60 min in the evening trials were higher than those in the morning trials. The incremental area under the curve values of five glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and nucleotide-related metabolites and 18 amino acid-related metabolites were higher in the morning trials than those in the evening trials (p

2019 Nutrients Controlled trial quality: uncertain

166. Advancing diabetes management in adolescents: Comparative effectiveness of mobile self-monitoring blood glucose technology and family-centered goal setting. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Advancing diabetes management in adolescents: Comparative effectiveness of mobile self-monitoring blood glucose technology and family-centered goal setting. As adolescents gain autonomy, it remains important for parents to be involved with diabetes management to avoid deterioration in glycemic control. Technologies for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) allow for remote monitoring in real-time by parents. This research compared 3 strategies for improving SMBG and diabetes self-care (...) in the short-term. These strategies were: (1) health information technology (HIT)-enhanced blood glucose meter that shared blood glucose data among patients, their parent, and care providers, and allowed for text messaging; (2) family-centered goal setting; and (3) a combination of (1) and (2).One hundred twenty-eight participants enrolled; 97 adolescent-parent pairs attended clinic at 3-month intervals during the 6-month intervention. Differences between treatment groups were evaluated using analysis

2019 Pediatric diabetes Controlled trial quality: uncertain

167. Investigation  of  dose-dependent  effects  of  fat  on  blood glucose,  serum  insulin,  and  appetite  sensation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Investigation  of  dose-dependent  effects  of  fat  on  blood glucose,  serum  insulin,  and  appetite  sensation. Humans have a high preference for fat, and its excessive intake leads to obesity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dose-dependent fat intake on biological responses and postprandial appetite sensation in healthy adult subjects. Age and body mass index were 29 ± 1 years and 21.1 ± 0.4 kg/m2, respectively. We conducted a randomized, crossover trial (...) and measured laboratory data and appetite sensation via the visual analog scale. Each participant was provided with four different test meals. They consisted of common, basic foods and contained 75 g liquid glucose and 4 slices of crackers to which 0 g butter (control), 10 g butter (B10), 20 g butter (B20), and 40 g butter (B40) were added, respectively. The results indicated that single ingestion of butter did not influence laboratory values of glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic

2019 The journal of medical investigation : JMI Controlled trial quality: uncertain

168. Gender difference in the effects of cacao polyphenols on blood pressure and glucose/lipid metabolism in prediabetic subjects: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. (Abstract)

Gender difference in the effects of cacao polyphenols on blood pressure and glucose/lipid metabolism in prediabetic subjects: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

2019 Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

169. The efficacy of metformin compared with insulin in regulating blood glucose levels during gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized clinical trial. (Abstract)

The efficacy of metformin compared with insulin in regulating blood glucose levels during gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized clinical trial. Insulin has been a conventional medication in the treatment of female patients suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the need for a large number of insulin injections in these patients causes them a lot of discomforts. Recently, an alternative medication, metformin, has received considerable attention in the treatment of GDM (...) . The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of metformin and insulin in regulating blood glucose levels and fetal outcomes in GDM.This randomized clinical trial included 286 pregnant women diagnosed with positive GDM at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 143 patients, with one group receiving insulin and the other undergoing a treatment plan using metformin. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hr plasma glucose (PG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were

2019 Journal of cellular physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

170. Effect of structured self-monitoring of blood glucose, with and without additional TeleCare support, on overall glycaemic control in non-insulin treated Type 2 diabetes: the SMBG Study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of structured self-monitoring of blood glucose, with and without additional TeleCare support, on overall glycaemic control in non-insulin treated Type 2 diabetes: the SMBG Study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial. To examine the impact of structured self-monitoring of blood glucose, with or without TeleCare support, on glycaemic control in people with sub-optimally controlled Type 2 diabetes.We conducted a 12-month, multicentre, randomized controlled trial in people with established (...) (>1 year) Type 2 diabetes not on insulin therapy, with sub-optimal glycaemic control [HbA1c ≥58 to ≤119 mmol/mol (≥7.5% to ≤13%)]. A total of 446 participants were randomized to a control group (n =151) receiving usual diabetes care, a group using structured self-monitoring of blood glucose alone (n =147) or a group using structured self-monitoring of blood glucose with additional monthly 'TeleCare' support (n =148). The primary outcome was HbA1c at 12 months.A total of 323 participants (72

2019 Diabetic Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

171. How tightly controlled do fluctuations in blood glucose levels need to be to reduce the risk of developing complications in people with Type 1 diabetes? Full Text available with Trip Pro

How tightly controlled do fluctuations in blood glucose levels need to be to reduce the risk of developing complications in people with Type 1 diabetes? In 2011, the James Lind Alliance published a 'top 10' list of priorities for Type 1 diabetes research based on a structured consultation process. Whether reducing fluctuations in blood glucose can prevent long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications was one of these. In this narrative review, 8 years on, we have assessed the updated (...) evidence for the assertion that increased glucose variability plays an independent and clinically important role in the complications of Type 1 diabetes, over and above mean blood glucose and the effects of hypoglycaemia: the 'glucose variability hypothesis'. Although studies in cultured cells and ex vivo vessels have been suggestive, most studies in Type 1 diabetes have been small and/or cross-sectional, and based on 'finger-prick' glucose measurements that capture glucose variability only in waking

2019 Diabetic Medicine

172. Fasting blood glucose is predictive of hypertension in a general Japanese population. (Abstract)

and 85 years in 2004. The cumulative incidences of hypertension over 5 years in each 10 mg/dl of fasting blood glucose levels were calculated. Moreover, we examined risk factors and calculated odds ratios (ORs) for developing hypertension after adjustments for age, sex, BMI, smoking and drinking habits, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, serum uric acid, and fasting blood glucose levels by logistic regression analyses.We analyzed 10 157 participants (age: 48.9 ± 10.7 years; 43.4% men) without (...) diabetes or hypertension in 2004. After multiple adjustments, higher baseline blood glucose level is an independent risk for hypertension (OR: 1.176; 95% CI 1.086-1.275), as well as aging, women, higher BMI, drinking habits, and higher serum uric acid. After stratifying by sex, higher baseline blood glucose level is an independent risk for hypertension both in women (OR: 1.295; 95% CI 1.135-1.478) and men (OR: 1.108; 95% CI 1.001-1.227). When we conducted the same analysis using glycated hemoglobin

2019 Journal of Hypertension

173. Coagulation tests and blood glucose before vaginal delivery in healthy teenage pregnant women compared with healthy adult pregnant women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Coagulation tests and blood glucose before vaginal delivery in healthy teenage pregnant women compared with healthy adult pregnant women. The aim of this study was to compare the coagulation tests and blood glucose levels between healthy teenage pregnant patients and healthy adult pregnant patients just before vaginal deliveryIn a prospective study, 208 consecutive patients, 3rd trimester healthy pregnant women, underwent blood tests to determine their glucose levels the day before vaginal (...) delivery. Of the 208 patients, 103 also underwent blood coagulation testing performed on the same day.The median values of the coagulation tests (APTT, prothrombin time, INR, prothrombin activity) and blood glucose were very similar in the healthy pregnant teenagers (32.6; 12.9; 1.02; 97.1; 81) compared with that in the healthy adult pregnant patients (32.45; 13.1; 1.01; 97.5; 81.2). Only the median value for fibrinogen was significantly different in healthy pregnant teenagers (348.9 mg/dL

2019 Medicine

174. Text-message responsiveness to blood glucose monitoring reminders is associated with HbA<sub>1c</sub> benefit in teenagers with Type 1 diabetes. (Abstract)

Text-message responsiveness to blood glucose monitoring reminders is associated with HbA1c benefit in teenagers with Type 1 diabetes. To evaluate an 18-month text-messaging intervention in teenagers with Type 1 diabetes and to assess factors associated with text responsiveness and glycaemic benefit.Teenagers with diabetes (N = 147), aged 13-17 years, received two-way text reminders at self-selected times to check blood glucose levels and reply with blood glucose results.At baseline (...) , the participants (48% boys, 78% white, 63% pump-treated) had a mean ± sd age of 14.9 ± 1.3 years, diabetes duration of 7.1 ± 3.9 years and HbA1c concentration of 69 ± 12 mmol/mol (8.5 ± 1.1%). The mean proportion of days with ≥1 blood glucose response declined over time (0-6 months, 60 ± 26% of days, 7-12 months, 53 ± 31% of days, 13-18 months, 43 ± 33% of days). Over 18 months, 49% responded with ≥1 blood glucose result on ≥50% of days (high responders). Regression analysis controlling for baseline HbA1c

2019 Diabetic Medicine

175. Longitudinal changes in the blood pressure responses to, and gastric emptying of, an oral glucose load in healthy older subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Longitudinal changes in the blood pressure responses to, and gastric emptying of, an oral glucose load in healthy older subjects. The rate of gastric emptying is a major determinant of the hypotensive response to a meal. Cross-sectional studies suggest that healthy aging is associated with a modest slowing of gastric emptying. We aimed to determine longitudinal changes in the BP response to, and gastric emptying of, glucose in healthy older people. 33 participants (77.0±0.7yr) had baseline (...) and follow-up measurements after 5.8±0.1yr. Participants consumed a 300mL drink containing 75g glucose and 150mg C 13-acetate. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured at 5-min intervals for 120min after the drink. Exhaled breath was collected to calculate the gastric 50% emptying time. The prevalence of postprandial hypotension (PPH) doubled from 9.1% to 18.2%. Gastric emptying was slower at follow-up (P=0.04). The fall in systolic BP (SBP) was related directly to the rate of gastric emptying at both

2019 Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

176. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Frequency of Blood Glucose Monitoring: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Abstract)

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Frequency of Blood Glucose Monitoring: A Randomized Controlled Trial To assess whether testing blood glucose four times daily compared with four times every other day would lead to similar birth weights among patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).This noninferiority randomized controlled trial was conducted at five centers. After receiving a diagnosis of GDM, women tested their blood glucose every day for 7 days. After that period, compliant women (...) without hyperglycemia requiring treatment were randomized to either blood glucose testing four times a day or every other day. Noninferiority would be declared if the mean birth weight in the every-other-day group was no higher than 165 g (5% difference assuming an average birth weight of 3,296 g) compared with the four times a day group. A total sample size of 286 women allowed noninferiority to be tested (one-sided .05 level of significance).From May 2013 to May 2016, of the 293 women with GDM who

2017 EvidenceUpdates

177. A Team-Based Online Game Improves Blood Glucose Control in Veterans With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Team-Based Online Game Improves Blood Glucose Control in Veterans With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Rigorous evidence is lacking whether online games can improve patients' longer-term health outcomes. We investigated whether an online team-based game delivering diabetes self-management education (DSME) to patients via e-mail or mobile application (app) can generate longer-term improvements in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c).Patients (n = 456) on oral diabetes medications with HbA1c

2017 EvidenceUpdates

178. Effect of ertugliflozin on glucose control, body weight, blood pressure and bone density in type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy (VERTIS MET) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of ertugliflozin on glucose control, body weight, blood pressure and bone density in type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy (VERTIS MET) We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ertugliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled (HbA1c, 7.0%-10.5%) with metformin monotherapy (≥1500 mg/d for ≥8 weeks).This was a double-blind, 26-week, multicentre study with ongoing 78-week extension (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (...) : NCT02033889). A total of 621 participants were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, or ertugliflozin 5 or 15 mg/d. The primary endpoint was change from baseline at week 26 in HbA1c. Secondary efficacy endpoints were change from baseline at week 26 in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) and number of participants with HbA1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol). Pre-specified adverse events (AEs) of special interest and percent change from baseline in bone mineral density (BMD

2017 EvidenceUpdates

179. Pre-Exercise Blood Glucose Levels Determine the Amount of Orally Administered Carbohydrates during Physical Exercise in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes-A Randomized Cross-Over Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pre-Exercise Blood Glucose Levels Determine the Amount of Orally Administered Carbohydrates during Physical Exercise in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes-A Randomized Cross-Over Trial. The aim of the study was to assess the amount of orally administered carbohydrates needed to maintain euglycemia during moderate-intensity exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Nine participants with type 1 diabetes (four women, age 32.1 ± 9.0 years, BMI 25.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2, HbA1c 55 ± 7 mmol/mol (7.2 ± 0.6 (...) %)) on insulin Degludec were randomized to cycle for 55 min at moderate intensity (63 ± 7% VO2peak) for five consecutive days on either 75% or 100% of their regular basal insulin dose. The impact of pre-exercise blood glucose concentration on the carbohydrate requirement was analyzed by one-way ANOVA stratified for pre-exercise blood glucose quartiles. The effect of the basal insulin dose on the amount of orally administered carbohydrates was evaluated by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. The amount

2019 Nutrients Controlled trial quality: uncertain

180. Prolonged Prepregnant Maternal High-Fat Feeding Reduces Fetal and Neonatal Blood Glucose Concentrations by Enhancing Fetal β-cell Development in C57BL/6 Mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prolonged Prepregnant Maternal High-Fat Feeding Reduces Fetal and Neonatal Blood Glucose Concentrations by Enhancing Fetal β-cell Development in C57BL/6 Mice. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal obesity on offspring's glucose metabolism during the perinatal period. Maternal obesity was established by feeding C57BL/6 mice with a high-fat (HF) diet before or during pregnancy. Our results showed that prolonged prepregnant HF feeding, but not HF feeding during (...) pregnancy, significantly reduced fetal and neonatal blood glucose concentrations. Remarkably, elevated blood insulin concentrations and increased activation of insulin signaling were observed in fetuses and neonates from prepregnant HF-fed dams. In addition, significantly larger β-cell areas were observed in pancreases of fetuses and neonates from prepregnant HF-fed dams. Although there was no significant change in placental cross-sectional area or glucose transporter 1 expression, prepregnant HF

2019 Diabetes

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