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Serum Glucose

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321. Similar Intrapatient Blood Glucose Variability with LY2963016 and Lantus® Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 1 (T1D) or Type 2 Diabetes, Including a Japanese T1D Subpopulation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Similar Intrapatient Blood Glucose Variability with LY2963016 and Lantus® Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 1 (T1D) or Type 2 Diabetes, Including a Japanese T1D Subpopulation LY2963016 insulin glargine (LY IGlar) and Lantus® (IGlar), both with identical primary amino acid sequences, were compared in two phase 3 studies for intrapatient blood glucose variability.ELEMENT-1 was a 52-week study in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), which included Japanese patients, and ELEMENT-2 was a 24 (...) -week study in non-Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In ELEMENT-1, 535 patients with T1D were evaluable (268 LY IGlar and 267 IGlar). Of these, 100 were Japanese patients (49 LY IGlar and 51 IGlar). In ELEMENT-2, 756 patients with T2D were evaluable (376 LY IGlar and 380 IGlar). We evaluated and compared intrapatient blood glucose variability of LY IGlar and IGlar in these studies from three different perspectives: intrapatient between-day fasting blood glucose variability, intrapatient

2018 Diabetes Therapy

322. Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring Reveals Enormous Circadian Variations in Pregnant Diabetic Rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring Reveals Enormous Circadian Variations in Pregnant Diabetic Rats Diabetes in pregnancy is a major burden with acute and long-term consequences. Its treatment requires adequate diagnosis and monitoring of therapy. Many experimental research on diabetes during pregnancy has been performed in rats. Recently, continuous blood glucose monitoring of non-pregnant diabetic rats revealed an increased circadian variability of blood glucose that made a single blood (...) glucose measurement per day inappropriate to reflect glycemic status. Continuous blood glucose measurement has never been performed in pregnant rats. We wanted to perform continuous blood glucose monitoring in pregnant rats to decipher the influence of pregnancy on blood glucose in diabetic and normoglycemic status.We used the transgenic Tet29 diabetes rat model with an inducible knock down of the insulin receptor via RNA interference upon application of doxycycline (DOX) leading to insulin resistant

2018 Frontiers in endocrinology

323. Relative Contribution of Fasting and Postprandial Blood Glucose in Overall Glycemic Control: Post Hoc Analysis of a Phase IV Randomized Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relative Contribution of Fasting and Postprandial Blood Glucose in Overall Glycemic Control: Post Hoc Analysis of a Phase IV Randomized Trial Few prospective clinical trials have investigated the role of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and/or postprandial glucose (PPG) in assessing overall glycemic control by using different insulin regimens. In the present post hoc analysis, we assessed the contribution of FBG and/or PPG in overall glycemic control in Chinese patients under insulin (...) treatment.CLASSIFY is a phase IV, randomized, open-label, 26-week, parallel-arm, treat-to-target, multinational, controlled study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to compare the efficacy and safety of insulin lispro mix 25 (LM25) and insulin lispro mix 50 (LM50) as starter insulins. Insulin was titrated with an aim to target pre-meal blood glucose (BG) levels at > 3.9 and ≤ 6.1 mmol/L before breakfast and dinner. The primary outcome assessed was the change in HbA1c from baseline.Chinese patients

2018 Diabetes Therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

324. Relationships Between Early Nutrition and Blood Glucose Concentrations in Very Preterm Infants. (Abstract)

Relationships Between Early Nutrition and Blood Glucose Concentrations in Very Preterm Infants. The aim of the study was to determine whether changes to early nutrition are associated with levels of glycemia in very preterm infants.A retrospective, observational study of infants <1500 g or <30 weeks' gestation admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care, National Women's Hospital, New Zealand, before (Old Protocol) and after (New Protocol) a change in nutritional protocol. Nutritional intakes were (...) calculated and averaged by day for postnatal days 1 to 7 (week 1) and 1 to 28 (month 1). Relationships between glycemia measures, macronutrient intakes, and achievement of 10% enteral feeds (≥10% total intake) were explored using logistic regression.Old Protocol (n = 190) and New Protocol (n = 267) groups had similar baseline characteristics. In week 1, New Protocol infants received more protein, less fat, and carbohydrate, had lower mean blood glucose concentrations (BGCs) (mean ± SD 4.9 ± 1.2 vs 5.6

2018 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

325. Cyclocarya paliurus extract activates insulin signaling via Sirtuin1 in C2C12 myotubes and decreases blood glucose level in mice with impaired insulin secretion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cyclocarya paliurus extract activates insulin signaling via Sirtuin1 in C2C12 myotubes and decreases blood glucose level in mice with impaired insulin secretion. Diabetes is caused by the lack of release or action of insulin. Some foods and supplements can compensate for this deficiency; thus, they can aid in the prevention or treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cyclocarya paliurus extract (CPE) on insulin signaling and its capacity to correct (...) hyperglycemia in the absence of insulin. To investigate the hypoglycemic effects of CPE, C2C12 cells were exposed to CPE (50 and 100 μg/mL). CPE promoted 2-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)Amino)-2-Deoxyglucose (2NBDG) uptake into the cells via translocation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane. In addition, CPE enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate and activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) via sirtuin1 in C2C12 cells. Moreover

2017 PLoS ONE

326. The effects of green cardamom supplementation on blood glucose, lipids profile, oxidative stress, sirtuin-1 and irisin in type 2 diabetic patients: a study protocol for a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

glucose, lipids and oxidative stress status in type 2 diabetic patients.Eighty overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected. They will be randomly assigned to receive 3 g/d green cardamom or placebo for 10 weeks. The socio demographic, physical activity and 24-h food recall questionnaires will be collected for each subject. Weight, height and waist circumference will be measured. Determination of blood glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress biomarkers including serum levels (...) The effects of green cardamom supplementation on blood glucose, lipids profile, oxidative stress, sirtuin-1 and irisin in type 2 diabetic patients: a study protocol for a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. It has been suggested that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activities of cardamom may improve diabetes. However, the effect of this spice has not been investigated in diabetic subjects. This study was planned to determine the effects of green cardamom on blood

2018 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

327. Longitudinal fasting blood glucose patterns and arterial stiffness risk in a population without diabetes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Longitudinal fasting blood glucose patterns and arterial stiffness risk in a population without diabetes. To identify long-term fasting blood glucose trajectories and to assess the association between the trajectories and the risk of arterial stiffness in individuals without diabetes.We enrolled 16,454 non-diabetic participants from Kailuan cohort. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010 survey. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities were measured during 2011 (...) to 2016. Multivariate regression model was used to estimate the difference of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of arterial stiffness risk, according to the fasting blood glucose trajectories.We identified five distinct fasting blood glucose trajectories and each of the trajectories was labeled according to its range and change over 2006-2010 survey: elevated-stable pattern (5.0

2017 PLoS ONE

328. Glucose transporter 2 mediates the hypoglycemia-induced increase in cerebral blood flow. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Glucose transporter 2 mediates the hypoglycemia-induced increase in cerebral blood flow. Glucose transporter 2 ( Glut2)-positive cells are sparsely distributed in brain and play an important role in the stimulation of glucagon secretion in response to hypoglycemia. We aimed to determine if Glut2-positive cells can influence another response to hypoglycemia, i.e. increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF of adult male mice devoid of Glut2, either globally ( ripglut1:glut2-/-) or in the nervous (...) than in their respective controls and not further activated by hypoglycemia, as measured in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and whole brain. Conversely, optogenetic activation of Glut2-positive cells in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus induced a local increase in CBF similar to that induced by hypoglycemia. Thus, Glut2 expression in the nervous system is required for the control of CBF in response to changes in blood glucose concentrations.

2018 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

329. Fasting blood glucose, glycaemic control and prostate cancer risk in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fasting blood glucose, glycaemic control and prostate cancer risk in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Diabetic men have lowered overall risk of prostate cancer (PCa), but the role of hyperglycaemia is unclear. In this cohort study, we estimated PCa risk among men with diabetic fasting blood glucose level.Participants of the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (FinRSPC) were linked to laboratory database for information on glucose measurements (...) since 1978. The data were available for 17,860 men. Based on the average yearly level, the men were categorised as normoglycaemic, prediabetic, or diabetic. Median follow-up was 14.7 years. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and separately by Gleason grade and metastatic stage.In total 1,663 PCa cases were diagnosed. Compared to normoglycaemic men, those men with diabetic blood glucose

2018 British Journal of Cancer Controlled trial quality: uncertain

330. Assessing the Impact of an Order Panel Utilizing Weight-Based Insulin and Standardized Monitoring of Blood Glucose for Patients With Hyperkalemia. (Abstract)

, the authors retrospectively compared potassium and blood glucose lowering in patients treated with the weight-based (0.1 units/kg) insulin order panel (n = 195) with those given insulin based on provider judgment (n = 69). Serum potassium lowering did not differ between groups and there was no relationship between dose of insulin and amount of potassium lowering. There was a difference in hypoglycemia rates between groups ( P = .049), with fewer severe hypoglycemic events in the panel (2.56%) than (...) Assessing the Impact of an Order Panel Utilizing Weight-Based Insulin and Standardized Monitoring of Blood Glucose for Patients With Hyperkalemia. Intravenous insulin with glucose is used in urgent treatment for hyperkalemia but has a significant risk of hypoglycemia. The authors developed an order panel within the electronic health record system that utilizes weight-based insulin dosing and standardized blood glucose monitoring to reduce hypoglycemia. As initial evaluation of this protocol

2018 American Journal of Medical Quality

331. Lithium reduces blood glucose levels, but aggravates albuminuria in BTBR-ob/ob mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lithium reduces blood glucose levels, but aggravates albuminuria in BTBR-ob/ob mice. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) plays an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus and renal injury. GSK3 inhibition increases glucose uptake in insulin-insensitive muscle and adipose tissue, while it reduces albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis in acute kidney injury. The effect of chronic GSK3 inhibition in diabetic nephropathy is not known. We tested the effect of lithium, the only clinical GSK3 (...) inhibitor, on the development of diabetes mellitus and kidney injury in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy. Twelve-week old female BTBR-ob/ob mice were treated for 12 weeks with 0, 10 and 40 mmol LiCl/kg after which the development of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy were analysed. In comparison to BTBR-WT mice, ob/ob mice demonstrated elevated bodyweight, increased blood glucose/insulin levels, urinary albumin and immunoglobulin G levels, glomerulosclerosis, reduced nephrin abundance and a damaged

2017 PLoS ONE

332. Personalized blood glucose prediction: A hybrid approach using grammatical evolution and physiological models. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Personalized blood glucose prediction: A hybrid approach using grammatical evolution and physiological models. The large patient variability in human physiology and the effects of variables such as exercise or meals challenge current prediction modeling techniques. Physiological models are very precise but they are typically complex and specific physiological knowledge is required. In contrast, data-based models allow the incorporation of additional inputs and accurately capture (...) the relationship between these inputs and the outcome, but at the cost of losing the physiological meaning of the model. In this work, we designed a hybrid approach comprising physiological models for insulin and grammatical evolution, taking into account the clinical harm caused by deviations from the target blood glucose by using a penalizing fitness function based on the Clarke error grid. The prediction models were built using data obtained over 14 days for 100 virtual patients generated by the UVA/Padova

2017 PLoS ONE

333. Impact of Variation of Corticosteroid Dose, Injection Site, and Multiple Injections on Blood Glucose Measurement in Diabetic Patients. (Abstract)

Impact of Variation of Corticosteroid Dose, Injection Site, and Multiple Injections on Blood Glucose Measurement in Diabetic Patients. This study examined how corticosteroid dose, injection site location, and patient demographics affect blood glucose level after corticosteroid injection in diabetic patients.We prospectively enrolled 70 patients with diabetes mellitus requiring upper- and/or lower-extremity corticosteroid injections. Patients measured fasting and postprandial blood glucose (...) for 14 days after the injection. Blood glucose from days 1 through 7 was compared with the average of days 10 through 14, acting as control. Changes in blood glucose were compared by corticosteroid dose, injection location, patient demographics, and insulin use.Patients who underwent shoulder, wrist, or hand injections and patients who received multiple injections had no significant elevations in fasting or postprandial blood glucose, whereas those with knee injections had a significant increase

2018 Journal of Hand Surgery - American

334. Effect of physical activity on fasting blood glucose and lipid profile among low income housewives in the MyBFF@home study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of physical activity on fasting blood glucose and lipid profile among low income housewives in the MyBFF@home study. Regular physical activity has always been strongly recommended for good cardiovascular health. This study aimed to determine the effect of physical activity on fasting blood glucose and lipid profile among low income housewives in Klang Valley.Data of 328 eligible housewives who participated in the MyBFF@Home study was used. Intervention group of 169 subjects were provided (...) with an intervention package which includes physical activity (brisk walking, dumbbell exercise, physical activity diary, group exercise) and 159 subjects in control group received various health seminars. Physical activity level was assessed using short-International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The physical activity level was then re-categorized into 4 categories (active intervention, inactive intervention, active control and inactive control). Physical activity, blood glucose and lipid profile were measured

2018 BMC Women's Health

335. Safety of Blood Glucose Response Following Exercise Training After Bariatric Surgery. (Abstract)

Safety of Blood Glucose Response Following Exercise Training After Bariatric Surgery. Safety of exercise training in relationship with the risk of hypoglycemia post-bariatric surgery is unknown.To evaluate the safety and magnitude of changes in blood glucose levels during exercise training following bariatric surgery.Twenty-nine severely obese patients undergoing either sleeve gastrectomy (SG) (n = 16) or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) (n = 13) were prospectively (...) enrolled. Three months after surgery, patients participated in a 12-week supervised exercise training program, (35-min aerobic training with a 25-min resistance exercises) three times a week. Capillary blood glucose (CBG) levels were measured immediately before and after each exercise session.Seven patients (24%) had type 2 diabetes before surgery (mean duration: 10 years); four patients still have type 2 diabetes 3 months post-bariatric surgery. A total of 577 exercise training sessions with CBG

2018 Obesity Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

336. Angiotensin Receptor and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Activation Contribute to Glucose Intolerance Independent of Systolic Blood Pressure in Obese Rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Angiotensin Receptor and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Activation Contribute to Glucose Intolerance Independent of Systolic Blood Pressure in Obese Rats. Pathological activation of the renin-angiotensin system and inflammation are associated with hypertension and the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The contributions of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) activation, independent of blood pressure, and inflammation to glucose intolerance and renal damage are not well defined. Using a rat model (...) of MetS, we hypothesized that the onset of glucose intolerance is primarily mediated by AT1 activation and inflammation independent of elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP). To address this hypothesis, we measured changes in SBP, adiposity, plasma glucose and triglyceride levels, and glucose tolerance in six groups of rats: 1) lean, strain control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; n = 5), 2) obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; n = 8), 3) OLETF + angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB; 10 mg

2018 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

337. Effects of High Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular Disease Events Among Chinese Adults With Different Glucose Metabolism. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of High Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular Disease Events Among Chinese Adults With Different Glucose Metabolism. To investigate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks caused by blood pressure (BP) of 130-139/80-89 mmHg among Chinese adults with different glucose metabolism.A prospective population-based cohort of 2,132 adults in Shanghai was established in 2002, and CVD information was collected during 10.9 years of follow-up. After assessing the association between BP categories (...) and incident CVD, we analyzed the risk for CVD by blood glucose categories and BP categories combined by using multiple Cox regression analysis among 1,419 participants at follow-up.The corresponding incidence of CVD per 1,000 person-years for the BP <130/80 mmHg, 130-139/80-89 mmHg, and ≥140/90 mmHg or treated groups were 3.0, 6.0, and 13.9, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and other factors, BP ≥140/90 mmHg was significantly associated with a higher CVD risk in general (hazard ratio 2.68 [95

2018 Diabetes Care

338. Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia (walnut) leaves on blood glucose and major cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

divided into two groups: treatment group (receive the capsules containing 100 mg J. regia leaf extract) and control group (receive the capsules containing placebo, microcrystallin cellulose). Baseline participant data were matched between the two arms of the study. We administered the prepared capsules to the patients twice daily for 8 weeks. Blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body weight, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile, serum insulin, and insulin resistance (...) Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia (walnut) leaves on blood glucose and major cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves on blood glucose level and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients.In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group (2 arms) clinical trial, 50 diabetic patients were

2018 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

339. Blood Glucose and Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation Immediately after Birth-An Observational Study. (Abstract)

Blood Glucose and Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation Immediately after Birth-An Observational Study. To assess a possible association of blood glucose concentration with cerebral regional oxygen saturation (crSO2) and cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE) in neonates born at term and preterm 15 minutes after birth.A post-hoc analysis of secondary outcome measures of 2 prospective observational studies was performed. Neonates born at term and preterm via cesarean delivery were included (...) if cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed during the immediate transition after birth and blood glucose concentrations were measured at 15-20 minutes after birth. Arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured with pulse oximetry. cFTOE was calculated from arterial oxygen saturation and crSO2 values. crSO2 and cFTOE 15 minutes after birth were correlated with blood glucose concentrations.Seventy-five infants were included. In 50 neonates born at term, crSO2 and cFTOE 15

2018 Journal of Pediatrics

340. Cognitive function in early and later life is associated with blood glucose in older individuals: analysis of the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cognitive function in early and later life is associated with blood glucose in older individuals: analysis of the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936. The aim of this study was to examine whether cognitive function in early and later life, and decline in cognitive function from age 70 to 79 years, are associated with high blood glucose, as measured by HbA1c, at baseline (age 70), and changes in blood glucose from age 70 to 79.Participants (n = 1091) in the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936 were examined (...) testing.Our results show that, among older individuals, high blood glucose is consistently predicted by lower cognitive function. Clinical care that examines and tracks cognitive function, while also taking the positive effects of maintaining cognitive function and emulating healthy behaviours associated with higher cognitive function into account, may be one approach for protecting at-risk individuals from elevated blood glucose and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus.

2018 Diabetologia

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