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Serum Glucose

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25861. Biochanin-A attenuates neuropathic pain in diabetic rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

and allodynia.Treatment of biochanin-A at three different levels of 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/kg had not significantly altered serum glucose levels throughout the treatment period. In hyperalgesia study, acute treatment with higher dose exhibited 51.1% reversal of paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) while with chronic treatment, efficacy declined to 22.5% reversal of PWT. In allodynia study, acute treatment reversed PWT by 79.4% while with chronic treatment, efficacy was raised to 88.2% reversal of PWT.Biochanin-A demonstrated

2016 Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine

25862. Fixed-Dose Combination of Canagliflozin and Metformin for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fixed-Dose Combination of Canagliflozin and Metformin for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview Metformin is recommended as a first-line therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, many patients do not achieve glycemic goals with metformin monotherapy and require subsequent combination therapy with other antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs). For newly diagnosed patients with high blood glucose, initial combination therapy may be required to achieve glycemic control (...) . The American Association for Clinical Endocrinologists algorithm for the treatment of T2DM recommends metformin plus a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor as the first oral combination in patients who present with HbA1c ≥7.5%. Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, lowers the renal threshold for glucose and increases urinary glucose excretion leading to a mild osmotic diuresis and a net caloric loss. The effect of canagliflozin is insulin-independent and complementary to other AHAs, including

2016 Advances in therapy

25863. Celastrol ameliorates liver metabolic damage caused by a high-fat diet through Sirt1 Full Text available with Trip Pro

liver and primary hepatocytes.When WT mice receiving a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with Celastrol, reductions in body weight, subcutaneous and visceral fat content, and liver lipid droplet formation were observed, along with reduced hepatic intracellular triglyceride and serum triglyceride, free fatty acid, and ALT concentrations. Furthermore, Celastrol decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (Srebp-1c) expression, enhanced the phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-activated (...) protein kinase α (AMPKα), and increased the expression of hepatic serine-threonine liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Additionally, Celastrol treatment improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in WT mice fed the HFD. Celastrol administration also improved the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative status by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activity and the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increasing mitochondrial DNA copy number and anti-oxidative stress genes expression in WT mice

2016 Molecular metabolism

25864. Adefovir dipivoxil-induced Fanconi syndrome and its predictive factors: A study of 28 cases Full Text available with Trip Pro

hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were collected pre-and post-administration for analysis. Patients presented with fatigue, progressive systemic pain in multiple bones and joints, as well as difficulty in walking and pathological fractures in a number of severe cases. Laboratory examinations revealed hypophosphatemia, elevated serum cystatin C (Cys-C), elevated serum creatinine (SCr), reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), positive urinary protein, erythrocytes and glucose, as well as osteoporosis (...) . In consequence, adefovir dipivoxil administration was stopped, and patients received concentrated divitamins, sodium phosphate syrup and calcitriol. Symptoms and abnormalities in laboratory examinations were significantly improved in all patients after 2-6 months. Therefore, serum phosphate, SCr, routine urine parameters, Cys-C and GFR should be monitored regularly in chronic HBV patients treated with adefovir dipivoxil. The following factors were identified as predictive of kidney damage and Fanconi

2016 Oncology letters

25865. Comparison of Experimental Diabetic Periodontitis Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

(TH) mice and periodontitis with type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin induced diabetes C57BL/6J (STZ-C57) mice by oral infection of periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis W50. We demonstrated that periodontal infected mice with high blood glucose levels showed dramatically more alveolar bone loss than their counterparts, in which infected db/db mice exhibited the most bone defects. No contrary impact could be observed between this periodontal infection and onset and severity of diabetes (...) . The expressions of PTPN2 were inhibited whereas the expression of JAK1, STAT1, and STAT3 increased dramatically in gingival epithelia and the serum TNF-α also significantly increased in the mice with diabetic periodontitis. Our results indicated that the variations of inflammation-related protein expressions in gingival epithelia might lead to the phenotype differences in the mice with diabetic periodontitis.

2016 Journal of diabetes research

25866. Effect of Demographic Status and Lifestyle Habits on Glycaemic Levels in Apparently Healthy Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Demographic Status and Lifestyle Habits on Glycaemic Levels in Apparently Healthy Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study Aim. To identify the effects of sociodemographic status, family history, and lifestyle habits on fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting serum insulin (FSI) levels in apparently healthy subjects. Methods. Information was gathered using an interviewer-administered questionnaire from 227 apparently healthy nondiabetic subjects residing in a suburban area in Sri Lanka (...) . Venous blood samples were collected after an overnight fast for FBG and FSI analysis. Correlations and differences were analyzed using SPSS (ver. 17) software. Results. The majority of the subjects were females, having secondary or tertiary education, monthly income ≥Rs. 25,000 (USD 175), and a positive family history of diabetes. Among the subjects, 10.1% were identified as prediabetics and the majority had familial diabetes with monthly income ≥Rs. 25,000 (USD 175). Subjects with high income had

2016 Journal of diabetes research

25867. Incretin effect of Urena lobata leaves extract on structure and function of rats islet β-cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

by decoction methods and administrated orally with doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bw for 4 weeks then incretin effect was evaluated by measuring serum GLP-1, insulin, and blood glucose levels. Histology of islet β-cells was evaluated using photomicroscopy by analyzing size, shape, and number. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test followed by LSD test and p ≤ 0.05 is considered significant. Oral administration of aqueous extract U. lobata leaves at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight were able (...) to prolong GLP-1 bioavailability by 3-fold, 5-fold, and 7-fold respectively when compared to the diabetic group whereas blood glucose level were decreased about 30%, 35%, and 40% respectively (p < 0.05). Extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw also increased insulin level by 4-fold and 8-fold respectively compared to the diabetic group and the islet β-cells were repaired. The active compound in U. lobata leaves extract are suggested to prevent degradation of GLP-1 by inhibition of DPP-4 activity

2016 Journal of traditional and complementary medicine

25868. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels Are Related with Surrogates of Disturbed Lipid Metabolism among Older Men Full Text available with Trip Pro

analytes as well as participated in a 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolomics measurements from serum included BCAAs (isoleucine, leucine, and valine).Out of the 593 participants, 59 had previously known type 2 diabetes, further 67 had screen-detected type 2 diabetes, 127 impaired glucose tolerance, and 125 impaired fasting glucose, while 214 had normal glucose regulation and one had missing glucose tolerance information. There were group differences in all of the BCAA concentrations (p (...) Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels Are Related with Surrogates of Disturbed Lipid Metabolism among Older Men Existing studies suggest that decreased branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism and thus elevated levels in blood are associated with metabolic disturbances. Based on such information, we have developed a hypothesis how BCAA degradation mechanistically connects to tricarboxylic acid cycle, intramyocellular lipid storage, and oxidation, thus allowing more efficient mitochondrial energy

2016 Frontiers in medicine

25869. Effects of Visceral Adiposity on Glycerol Pathways in Gluconeogenesis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Visceral Adiposity on Glycerol Pathways in Gluconeogenesis To determine the feasibility of using oral 13C labeled glycerol to assess effects of visceral adiposity on gluconeogenic pathways in obese humans.Obese (BMI ≥30kg/m2) participants without type 2 diabetes underwent visceral adipose tissue (VAT) assessment and stratification by median VAT into high VAT-fasting (n=3), low VAT-fasting (n=4), and high VAT-refed (n=2) groups. Participants ingested [U-13C3] glycerol and blood (...) samples were subsequently analyzed at multiple time points over 3h by NMR spectroscopy. The fractions of plasma glucose (enrichment) derived from [U-13C3] glycerol via hepatic gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were assessed using 13C NMR analysis of glucose. Mixed linear models were used to compare 13C enrichment in glucose between groups.Mean age, BMI, and baseline glucose were 49years, 40.1kg/m2, and 98mg/dl, respectively. Up to 20% of glycerol

2016 Metabolism: clinical and experimental

25870. Accumulation of intestinal tissue 3-deoxyglucosone attenuated GLP-1 secretion and its insulinotropic effect in rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

administration study, in the present study we examined if 3DG is capable of accumulating in intestinal tissue of rats after 2-week administration of 3DG, and the 3DG treatment affects GLP-1 secretion and glucose tolerance.Rats were administered by gastric gavage for 2 weeks. We measured 3DG contents of intestinal tissues (by HPLC), plasma levels of total GLP-1 (by ELISA), insulin and glucagon (both by radioimmunoassay) and blood glucose concentrations. The expressions of the sweet receptor subunits (TAS1R2 (...) , TAS1R3) and its downstream molecule TRPM5 in duodenum and colon tissues of rats were quantified by WB. We examined GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells exposured to 3DG.3DG treatment for 2 weeks increased 3DG content of intestinal tissues, fasting blood glucose concentration, and reduced plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and insulin at fasting and 15 and 180 min after the glucose load and oral glucose tolerance in conjunction with increased plasma glucagon concentrations. The expressions

2016 Diabetology & metabolic syndrome

25871. Quantitative analysis of rat adipose tissue cell recovery, and non-fat cell volume, in primary cell cultures Full Text available with Trip Pro

cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown.Epididymal WAT of four young adult rats was used to isolate adipocytes with collagenase. Careful recording of lipid content of tissue, and all fraction volumes and weights, allowed us to trace the amount of initial WAT fat remaining in the cell preparation. Functionality was estimated by incubation with glucose and measurement of glucose uptake and lactate, glycerol and NEFA excretion rates up to 48 h (...) % and other stromal (nucleated cells) 27% of total WAT cells. However, their overall volumes were 90%, 0.05%, and 0.2% of WAT. Non-fat volume of adipocytes was 1.3% of WAT.The methodology presented here allows for a direct quantitative reference to the original tissue of studies using isolated cells. We have also found that the "live cell mass" of adipose tissue is very small: about 13 µL/g for adipocytes and 2 µL/g stromal, plus about 1 µL/g blood (the rats were killed by exsanguination). These data

2016 PeerJ

25872. A novel herbal treatment reduces depressive-like behaviors and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the brain of type 2 diabetic rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

weeks after the type 2 diabetic model was successfully created. Body weight, random blood glucose (RBG), oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured during the study. Depressive-like behavior was evaluated at the end of the treatment by using the open field test (OFT), the elevated plus-maze test (EPMT), locomotor activity test (LAT), and forced swimming test (FST (...) ). Levels of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex were evaluated by using Western blot.1) CRPHF reduced RBG and improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats; 2) CRPHF reduced TC and TG but did not significantly change HDL-C or LDL-C in diabetic rats; 3) CRPHF reversed the loss in body weights observed in diabetic rats; 4) CRPHF reduced depressive-like behavior as measured by OFT, EPMT, LAT, and FST; 5) BDNF

2016 Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment

25873. The impact of exercise training on basal BDNF in athletic adolescents Full Text available with Trip Pro

hours per week. [Results] The results of this study show the trained group had significantly lower basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels than the control group. Further, platelet levels were significantly higher in the trained group than in the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between the groups in serum nerve growth factor level or physical characteristics (body weight, body mass index, fasting blood glucose). [Conclusion] This study showed that the basal

2016 Journal of physical therapy science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25874. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Usage and Its Determinant Factors Among Diabetic Patients: An Iranian Case Full Text available with Trip Pro

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Usage and Its Determinant Factors Among Diabetic Patients: An Iranian Case Although modern treatments have achieved much progress in blood sugar control in recent decades, evidences indicate that complementary and alternative treatments are very common in diabetic patients. The present study aims to investigate application of complementary and traditional medicines among diabetic patients in Iran in 2016. This was a cross-sectional study done on 294

2016 Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine

25875. Greater efficacy of atorvastatin versus a non-statin lipid-lowering agent against renal injury: potential role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor Full Text available with Trip Pro

of diabetic nephropathy. Streptozotocin-treated male Wistar rats were fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet and gavaged daily with vehicle, AT or EZT. Control rats received normal diet and gavaged vehicle (n = 8-9/group). Diabetes increased blood glucose, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), kidney pathology and HDAC activity, and reduced renal E-cadherin levels. Both AT and EZT reduced circulating cholesterol, attenuated renal pathology, and did not lower blood glucose. However, AT was significantly

2016 Scientific reports

25876. Oxidative stress increases the risk of pancreatic β cell damage in chronic renal hypertensive rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Blood pressure was measured by tail cuff plethysmography. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), immunohistochemistry, and western blotting were performed. In addition, insulin secretion from islet cells was measured. OGTT yielded abnormal results, and the number of islet cells and the size of pancreatic β/α cells were decreased in 2K1C rats. Basal insulin levels were also reduced in the plasma. Insulin secretion from pancreatic islet cells in response to high glucose was also attenuated in 2K1C rats

2016 Physiological reports

25877. Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Circadian Clock Disruption and Metabolic Dysfunction Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Circadian Clock Disruption and Metabolic Dysfunction The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a clustering of three or more risk factors that include abdominal obesity, increased blood pressure, and high levels of glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins, has reached dangerous and costly levels worldwide. Increases in morbidity and mortality result from a combination of factors that promote altered glucose metabolism, insulin resistance

2016 Environmental health insights

25878. Dissociation of Metabolic and Hemodynamic Levodopa Responses in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Rat Model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dissociation of Metabolic and Hemodynamic Levodopa Responses in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Rat Model Dissociation of vasomotor and metabolic responses to levodopa has been observed in human subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) studied with PET and in autoradiograms from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat. In both species, acute levodopa administration was associated with increases in basal ganglia cerebral blood flow (CBF) with concurrent reductions in cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) for glucose

2016 Neurobiology of disease

25879. Metabolic Syndrome Is a Strong Risk Factor for Minor Ischemic Stroke and Subsequent Vascular Events Full Text available with Trip Pro

with abdominal obesity (30.7% v.s 18.0%), hypertension (91.1% v.s 81.6%), increased blood glucose (6.9±2.4 v.s 5.0±0.4), dyslipidemia (78.2% v.s 48.2%), and SVE (50.5% v.s 11.3%) when compared with the controls group. On adjusted analysis, the risk of SVE was also significantly associated with three additional MetS criterion (RR,9.0; 95% CI, 5.677-14.46). Using Cox proportional analysis, risk of SVE in patient with MIS was significantly associated with MetS (RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.799-6.210), older age (RR, 1.0 (...) ; 95% CI, 1.001-1.048), and high blood glucose (RR,1.1; 95%CI, 1.007-1.187).The MetS is a strong risk factor for MIS, and patients presenting with MIS and MetS are at a high risk of SVE. Further studies are required to determine the improvement of Mets prevention in the reduction of MIS and SVE.

2016 PloS one

25880. Clinical performance evaluation of total protein measurement by digital refractometry and characterization of non-protein solute interferences Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical performance evaluation of total protein measurement by digital refractometry and characterization of non-protein solute interferences Refractometric methods to measure total protein (TP) in serum and plasma specimens have been replaced by automated biuret methods in virtually all routine clinical testing. A subset of laboratories, however, still report using refractometry to measure TP in conjunction with serum protein electrophoresis. The objective of this study was therefore (...) recovery was observed using ddH2O dilutions at low TP concentrations. Significant interference was detected at high concentrations of glucose (>267 mg/dL) and triglycerides (>580 mg/dL). Current laboratory reference intervals for TP were verified.Performance characteristics of this digital refractometer were validated in a clinical laboratory setting. Biuret method remains the preferred assay for TP measurement in routine clinical analyses.

2016 Practical Laboratory Medicine

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