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Serum Glucose

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25861. Effects of brewer's yeast on glucose tolerance and serum lipids in Chinese adults. (PubMed)

Effects of brewer's yeast on glucose tolerance and serum lipids in Chinese adults. This study was designed to investigate the supplemental effects of brewer's yeast on serum glucose and lipids in Chinese adults. Twenty-two participants (8 males and 14 females) were recruited from Pingtung city. Mean age of the group was 51 yr, and fasting values of total cholesterol and glucose were from 3.21 to 6.90 and 4.3 to 6.2 mmol/L, respectively. Before supplementation, a 75 g oral glucose load (...) was administered after an overnight (9 h) fast. Blood was drawn before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the glucose load. The subjects were randomly assigned into either brewer's yeast or torula yeast group and consumed 10 g yeast powder daily for 12 wk. Brewer's yeast demonstrated a beneficial effect on decreasing serum triacylglycerol values (p < 0.05). The brewer's yeast supplemented group had an increment at 0 min (p < 0.01) and significant decrements at 60 (p < 0.05) and 90 (p < 0.01) min of oral

1994 Biological trace element research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25862. The effect of 25 grams i.v. glucose on serum inorganic phosphate levels. (PubMed)

The effect of 25 grams i.v. glucose on serum inorganic phosphate levels. To determine whether a 25-g IV glucose bolus will result in a fall in serum inorganic phosphate levels.Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial.Thirty-six healthy, nondiabetic, adult volunteers.Random allocation to a control group receiving a 50-mL normal saline bolus followed by a normal saline infusion at 125 mL/hr for three hours; study group 1, receiving a 50-mL bolus of D50W followed by a normal saline infusion (...) at 125 mL/hr for three hours; or study group 2, receiving a 50-mL bolus of D50W followed by an infusion of 2/3:1/3 dextrose:saline solution at 125 mL/hr for three hours.Serum inorganic phosphate levels were measured at time zero (baseline) and at 30-minute intervals for three hours. There was a statistically significant fall in serum inorganic phosphate levels in both groups receiving the glucose bolus. The group receiving the glucose infusion demonstrated a trend toward a further decline in serum

1994 Annals of Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25863. Influence of postexercise glucose ingestion upon serum potassium levels and ECG function. (PubMed)

Influence of postexercise glucose ingestion upon serum potassium levels and ECG function. Thirteen trained runners were studied to determine whether postexercise glucose ingestion contributes to electrocardiogram (ECG) alterations by enhancing decreases in serum potassium (K+) concentrations. For the two randomly ordered trials, subjects ingested a 100 g (25% w/v glucose polymer) drink, either alone or with the addition of 3 g of potassium chloride (KCl), within 15 min following a 90-min run (...) . ECG parameters, serum K+, and glucose concentrations were measured preexercise (Time 0), 2-3 min post-exercise (Time 1), and 25 (Time 2) and 60 (Time 3) min postexercise. The data suggest that postexercise glucose ingestion may cause ECG changes that are not directly related to the return of K+ to muscle, and that these changes, although characteristic of hypokalemia, may be related to serum glucose excursions rather than to absolute levels of serum K+. The addition of KCl may have prevented

1994 International journal of sport nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25864. Postprandial serum glucose, insulin, and lipoprotein responses to high- and low-fiber diets. (PubMed)

Postprandial serum glucose, insulin, and lipoprotein responses to high- and low-fiber diets. The effects of high-fiber (HF) and low-fiber (LF) meals on postprandial serum glucose, insulin, lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations of 10 hypercholesterolemic men were examined using a random-order, cross over design. HF and LF meals provided 15% of energy as protein, 40% as carbohydrate, and 45% as fat, 200 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal, and 25 g fiber/1,000 kcal for HF or 3 g fiber/1,000 (...) kcal for LF. Responses over a 15-hour period after multiple meals (MM) and over a 10-hour period after a single meal (SM) were compared. HF meals were associated with a significant reduction in postprandial serum glucose (P < .0005 after SM) and insulin (P < .0005 after SM). Serum free fatty acid (FFA) levels decreased significantly after MM and SM, but differences between HF and LF meals were insignificant. Although serum triglyceride responses did not differ significantly (ANOVA) between HF

1995 Metabolism: clinical and experimental Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25865. Effects of changes in acid base and calcium concentration on fasting serum insulin, proinsulin, and glucose concentrations. (PubMed)

Effects of changes in acid base and calcium concentration on fasting serum insulin, proinsulin, and glucose concentrations. To test the hypothesis that alterations in acid base or calcium concentration may affect proinsulin processing or the insulin secretion mechanism.Changes in proinsulin secretion or cleavage were assessed by measuring serum intact proinsulin and immunoreactive insulin concentrations in three models of acid base and calcium disturbance: (1) subacute changes in acid base (...) , or the proinsulin:insulin molar ratio were found. Serum calcium concentrations increased (2.49 v 2.38 mmol/l; p < 0.05) and parathyroid hormone concentrations decreased (1.1 v 1.9 pmol/l; p < 0.01) two hours after acute calcium loading. There were no significant differences in serum glucose, insulin, or intact proinsulin concentrations. Fasting proinsulin concentrations were significantly lower in the hyperparathyroid group (1.1 v 2.1 pmol/l; p < 0.05) and increased significantly after parathyroidectomy (2.1 v 1.1 pmol

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1994 Journal of clinical pathology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25866. Association between serum lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity during 12 months of celiprolol treatment. (PubMed)

Association between serum lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity during 12 months of celiprolol treatment. The study was undertaken to evaluate the development and association of parameters related to the metabolic syndrome during celiprolol treatment. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and independent oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed on 25 nondiabetic patients with controlled hypertension and dyslipidemia. The tests were carried out during the patients' previous (...) %. In this preliminary, observer-masked trial with a limited control group, celiprolol improved the impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance of dyslipidemic hypertensive patients. A fairly predictive model can be formulated to evaluate the peripheral insulin sensitivity of hypertensive patients with suspected metabolic syndrome using OGTT with serum insulin determinations.

1995 Cardiovascular drugs and therapy / sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25867. Lauric and palmitic acid-enriched diets have minimal impact on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and glucose metabolism in healthy young women. (PubMed)

Lauric and palmitic acid-enriched diets have minimal impact on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and glucose metabolism in healthy young women. Fifteen healthy young women were fed diets enriched to 4% of energy with either palmitic acid (as palm oil) or lauric acid (as coconut oil). A randomized crossover study design was used so that subjects followed the two experimental diets for 4 wk, both preceded by consumption of a baseline diet for 2 wk. The experimental diets differed only (...) +/- SEM, P = 0.01] and plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity [78 +/- 5 vs. 88 +/- 6 mumol/(h.L), P = 0.007) were greater at the end of the lauric acid diet period than at the end of the preceding baseline diet period. No differences were found in glucose effectiveness, insulin sensitivity index or insulin secretion measured by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (Minimal Model method). In conclusion, in terms of serum lipids, lipoproteins, and glucose metabolism, palmitic acid

1995 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25868. Antihypertensive treatment with candesartan cilexetil does not affect glucose homeostasis or serum lipid profile in patients with mild hypertension and type II diabetes. (PubMed)

Antihypertensive treatment with candesartan cilexetil does not affect glucose homeostasis or serum lipid profile in patients with mild hypertension and type II diabetes. This multicentre, randomized, controlled clinical trial assessed the effects of candesartan cilexetil (cand.cil.), a novel angiotensin II antagonist selective for the AT1 receptor with long-lasting antihypertensive activity, compared to placebo on glucose homeostasis and serum lipid profile in mild hypertensives with type II (...) and the serum lipid profile (including total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) were assessed. The statistical analysis of the differences between treatments was based on changes from randomization to the end of the study. Cand.cil. had no significant effect on HbA1c, blood glucose and serum lipids compared to placebo. The median HbA1c both at baseline and after 12 weeks was 7.1% in patients on cand.cil., and 7.2% and 7.1% in patients on placebo. The 95% confidence interval for the median

1998 Blood pressure Controlled trial quality: predicted high

25869. Effects of psyllium on glucose and serum lipid responses in men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. (PubMed)

Effects of psyllium on glucose and serum lipid responses in men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Water-soluble dietary fibers decrease postprandial glucose concentrations and decrease serum cholesterol concentrations. This study examined the effects of administering psyllium to men with type 2 diabetes.The objective was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of psyllium husk fiber used adjunctively to a traditional diet for diabetes in the treatment of men with type 2 diabetes (...) and mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia.After a 2-wk dietary stabilization phase, 34 men with type 2 diabetes and mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to receive 5.1 g psyllium or cellulose placebo twice daily for 8 wk. Serum lipid and glycemic indexes were evaluated biweekly on an outpatient basis and at weeks 0 and 8 in a metabolic ward.In the metabolic ward, the psyllium group showed significant improvements in glucose and lipid values compared with the placebo group. Serum

1999 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25870. Effects of medetomidine on serum insulin and plasma glucose concentrations in clinically normal dogs. (PubMed)

Effects of medetomidine on serum insulin and plasma glucose concentrations in clinically normal dogs. To determine the effects of medetomidine, administered i.v., on serum insulin and plasma glucose concentrations in clinically normal dogs.6 healthy adult Beagles.Dogs were randomly assigned to each of 3 treatments in a prospective cross-over study design. Serum insulin and plasma glucose concentrations were determined before and 20, 40, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 minutes after (...) i.v. administration of 0.9% NaCl solution (control) or medetomidine (10 or 20 micrograms/kg of body weight).Mean serum insulin concentration decreased after medetomidine administration and was significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower than control values 20, 40, 60, and 120 minutes after drug administration. Mean plasma glucose concentration tended to increase after medetomidine administration, but did not differ significantly from control values.In dogs, i.v. administration of medetomidine at dosages

1997 American journal of veterinary research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25871. Effects of 4 weeks' administration of pramlintide, a human amylin analogue, on glycaemia control in patients with IDDM: effects on plasma glucose profiles and serum fructosamine concentrations. (PubMed)

Effects of 4 weeks' administration of pramlintide, a human amylin analogue, on glycaemia control in patients with IDDM: effects on plasma glucose profiles and serum fructosamine concentrations. The effects of 4 weeks' administration of pramlintide, an analogue of the human hormone amylin, on blood glucose control in 215 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were examined in a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Pramlintide was administered (...) subcutaneously prior to meals in four dosing regimens: 30 microg four times per day (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and evening snack), 30 microg three times per day (breakfast, lunch and dinner [BLD]), 30 microg three times per day (breakfast, dinner and evening snack [BDS]), and 60 microg twice per day (breakfast and dinner). After 4 weeks of pramlintide 30 microg four times per day administration, there was a statistically significant reduction in the mean 24 h plasma glucose concentration when compared

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1997 Diabetologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25872. Relations between fasting serum insulin, glucose, and dihydroepiandrosterone-sulfate concentrations in obese patients with hypertension: short-term effects of antihypertensive drugs. (PubMed)

Relations between fasting serum insulin, glucose, and dihydroepiandrosterone-sulfate concentrations in obese patients with hypertension: short-term effects of antihypertensive drugs. A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 82 obese patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension, to determine the incidence of hyperinsulinemia, the relations between fasting insulin and dihydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) levels, and the short-term effects (...) of antihypertensives on DHEA-S and insulin serum concentrations. Increased insulin/glucose ratios (IGR) suggestive of insulin resistance were found in half of our patients. Hyperinsulinemic and normoinsulinemic obese patients with hypertension had comparable fasting glucose and DHEA-S concentrations and comparable blood pressure (BP) levels. Thus no relations were found between fasting insulin and DHEA-S levels. Fasting hyperinsulinemia was found in only half of the obese subjects with hypertension, suggesting

1997 Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25873. Serum disaccharides and osmolality in CCPD patients using icodextrin or glucose as daytime dwell. (PubMed)

Serum disaccharides and osmolality in CCPD patients using icodextrin or glucose as daytime dwell. To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility of icodextrin- and glucose-containing dialysis fluid during continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), patients were treated for 2 years with either icodextrin- or glucose-containing dialysis fluid for their daytime dwell (14-15 hours). Prior to entry into the study, all patients used a standard glucose solution (Dianeal 1.36%, 2.27 (...) patients entered the study, and 25 (13 glucose, 12 icodextrin) had a follow-up period of 12 months or longer in December 1996.Serum icodextrin metabolites: one to five glucose units (G1-G5), a high molecular weight fraction (G > 10), and total carbohydrate level, as well as a biochemical profile were determined every 3 months in combination with all other study variables.In icodextrin-treated patients, serum disaccharide (maltose) concentrations increased from 0.05 +/- 0.01 (mean +/- SEM) at baseline

1998 Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25874. Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. (PubMed)

Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Obesity in hypertensive patients is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, both of which are improved by weight control. n-3 Fatty acids have diverse effects on mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis, including a decrease in serum triacylglycerols and an increase in HDL(2) cholesterol.The objective was to examine whether dietary fish (...) enhances the effects of weight loss on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin in 69 overweight, treated hypertensive patients.Overweight patients being treated for hypertension were randomly assigned to either a daily fish meal (3.65 g n-3 fatty acids), a weight-loss regimen, the 2 regimens combined, or a control group for 16 wk.Sixty-three subjects completed the study. Weight decreased by a mean (+/-SEM) of 5.6 +/- 0.8 kg with energy restriction. Weight loss decreased fasting insulin (P = 0.003

1999 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25875. Consumption of fructooligosaccharides does not favorably affect blood glucose and serum lipid concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. (PubMed)

Consumption of fructooligosaccharides does not favorably affect blood glucose and serum lipid concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Fructooligosaccharides have been claimed to lower fasting glycemia and serum total cholesterol concentrations, possibly via effects of short-chain fatty acids produced during fermentation.We studied the effects of fructooligosaccharides on blood glucose, serum lipids, and serum acetate in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes.In a randomized, single-blind (...) , crossover design, patients consumed either glucose as a placebo (4 g/d) or fructooligosaccharides (15 g/d) for 20 d each. Average daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, and dietary fiber were similar with both treatments.Compliance, expressed as the proportion of supplements not returned, was near 100% during both treatments. Fructooligosaccharides did not significantly affect fasting concentrations (mmol/L) of serum total cholesterol (95% CI: -0.07, 0.48), HDL cholesterol (-0.04, 0.04), LDL

1999 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25876. Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. (PubMed)

Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Regular consumption of n-3 fatty acids of marine origin can improve serum lipids and reduce cardiovascular risk.This study aimed to determine whether eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin in humans.In a double-blind (...) plasma and platelet phospholipid EPA but reduced DHA. DHA supplementation increased DHA and EPA in plasma and platelet phospholipids. Both EPA and DHA increased fasting insulin significantly. EPA, but not DHA, tended to increase fasting glucose, but not significantly so.EPA and DHA had differential effects on lipids, fatty acids, and glucose metabolism in overweight men with mild hyperlipidemia.

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

25877. The effect of abrupt cessation of total parenteral nutrition on serum glucose: a randomized trial. (PubMed)

The effect of abrupt cessation of total parenteral nutrition on serum glucose: a randomized trial. The common clinical practice of gradually tapering total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to prevent hypoglycemia may be unnecessary. This randomized prospective study assessed the blood glucose profiles of patients whose TPN was abruptly discontinued in comparison with those whose TPN was gradually tapered to determine whether abrupt cessation can be performed safely. Patients were randomized (...) into the abrupt cessation or the tapered protocol. A symptomatic hypoglycemic questionnaire was administered at regular intervals. Fingerstick glucose sampling was performed at 30-minute intervals and compared prospectively. From October 1996 through July 1997, 21 patients receiving TPN consented to participate in this study. Inclusion criteria included 1) duration of TPN infusion >24 hours, 2) age >18 years, and 3) establishment of enteral feeding at the time of TPN discontinuation. Patients had a baseline

2000 The American surgeon Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25878. The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast supplementation on glucose tolerance, serum lipids and drug dosage in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (PubMed)

The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast supplementation on glucose tolerance, serum lipids and drug dosage in individuals with type 2 diabetes. To study the effects of supplementation with organic and inorganic chromium on glucose tolerance, serum lipids, and drug dosage in type 2 diabetes patients, in the hope of finding a better and more economical method of control.Seventy eight type 2 diabetes patients were divided randomly into two groups and given Brewer's yeast (23.3ug Cr (...) /day), and CrCl3 (200ug Cr/day) sequentially with placebo in between, in a double blind cross-over design of four stages, each lasting 8 weeks. At the beginning and end of each stage, subjects were weighed, their dietary data and drug dosage recorded, and blood and urine samples were collected for analysis of glucose (fasting and 2 hour post 75g glucose load) fructosamine, triglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol, and serum and urinary chromium.Both supplements caused a significant decrease

2000 Saudi medical journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25879. Acarbose raises serum butyrate in human subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. (PubMed)

Acarbose raises serum butyrate in human subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The fermentation of starch in vitro produces a higher proportion of butyrate than the fermentation of most other substrates. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose increases the amount of starch entering the colon, and has been shown to increase faecal butyrate in humans. It is generally considered that colonic butyrate is quantitatively removed by the colonic mucosa and liver and does not appear in peripheral (...) blood. However, studies in animals suggest that a small proportion of colonic butyrate reaches peripheral blood. Thus, we hypothesised that an increase in colonic butyrate production would result in a rise in serum butyrate in human subjects. To test this, subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly treated in a double-blind fashion with placebo (n 11) or acarbose (n 11) (100 mg three times per day). Serum short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured twelve times over 12 h

2000 The British journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25880. Increasing synthetic serum substitute (SSS) concentrations in P1 glucose/phosphate-free medium improves implantation rate: a comparative study. (PubMed)

Increasing synthetic serum substitute (SSS) concentrations in P1 glucose/phosphate-free medium improves implantation rate: a comparative study. To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation.Patients were randomly assigned to IVF (...) medium (Group 1, cycles n = 172) or P1 supplemented with 10% SSS (Group 2, cycles n = 229) according to the medium scheduled for use on the day of oocyte retrieval. Another 555 IVF consequent cycles (Group 3) were performed using increased SSS concentrations (20%) in P1 medium.In this large series of IVF cycles, we herein demonstrate that significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates were found when embryos were cultured in glucose/phosphate-free medium P1 supplemented with 20% SSS compared

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2001 Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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