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Serum Ferritin

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1. Investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin Full Text available with Trip Pro

or treatment (e.g. blood transfusion or iron infusion) that lead to a genuine increase in RES iron stores. Upper limit of the normal range for serum ferritin Most UK laboratories simply report 300–400 μg/l as the upper limit of normal for SF in adult males and 150–200 μg/l as the upper limit of normal for adult females (Association for Clinical Biochemistry, ; Worwood et al , ). There is however considerable variation in SF values in response to age, ethnic origin and sex. Mean SF values in neonates (...) , are outside the scope of this guideline, and readers are directed to the recently updated management guideline for this condition (Fitzsimons et al , ). Table 1. Causes of raised serum ferritin Increased ferritin synthesis due to iron accumulation Increase in ferritin synthesis not associated with significant iron accumulation Increased ferritin as a result of cellular damage Hereditary (genetic) haemochromatosis Hereditary acaeruloplasminaemia Secondary iron overload from blood transfusion or excessive

2018 British Committee for Standards in Haematology

2. The association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with elevated serum ferritin levels in normal weight, overweight and obese Canadians. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with elevated serum ferritin levels in normal weight, overweight and obese Canadians. In light of the growing body of literature suggesting a beneficial effect of vitamin D on inflammatory response, we hypothesized that vitamin D affects serum ferritin (SF), a biomarker of inflammation. The objective of the present study is to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with elevated SF concentrations indicative (...) = 0.06, 0.89; p = 0.034). We did not observe this association for overweight and obese Canadians. Canadians of older age, non-white ethnicity, males, those with income above $100,000, those who consumed alcohol, and those with high total cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressures were more likely to have elevated SF concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L is likely to provoke anti-inflammatory benefits, but intervention studies that achieve high 25(OH)D concentrations and with long

2019 PLoS ONE

3. Expanded feasibility of ferritin testing: stability of ferritin stored as whole blood and validation of plastic tubes. (Abstract)

Expanded feasibility of ferritin testing: stability of ferritin stored as whole blood and validation of plastic tubes. Ferritin testing is a recommended strategy to mitigate iron depletion in blood donors. A barrier for some testing platforms is a requirement to complete sample management and testing within a temporal window incompatible with the logistics of many blood collectors. The ability to delay separation of plasma/serum from red cells and subsequent testing would enhance (...) the feasibility of ferritin testing on a broader scale.Thirty blood donors provided a research donation of 12, 4-mL sample tubes of whole blood. Six pairs of serum and K2 -EDTA-plasma tubes were centrifuged and samples tested in triplicate on day of collection and on each of the next 5 days following storage at 4°C. Comparison of ferritin values for serum versus K2 -EDTA-plasma at baseline was performed to validate plastic EDTA-containing tubes. Variation of ferritin values during storage was assessed

2019 Transfusion

4. Automated exchange compared to manual and simple blood transfusion attenuates rise in ferritin level after 1 year of regular blood transfusion therapy in chronically transfused children with sickle cell disease. (Abstract)

Automated exchange compared to manual and simple blood transfusion attenuates rise in ferritin level after 1 year of regular blood transfusion therapy in chronically transfused children with sickle cell disease. Optimal strategies for regular blood transfusion therapy are not well defined in sickle cell disease (SCD). This analysis tested the hypothesis that in the first of year of regular transfusions, when chelation therapy use is minimal, automated exchange transfusion would be the superior (...) method for attenuating the rise in ferritin levels compared to simple and manual exchange transfusions.The Silent Cerebral Infarct Multi-Center Clinical Trial randomly allocated children with SCD and silent cerebral infarcts to receive standard care or regular transfusions with a target pre-transfusion HbS concentration ≤ 30% and minimum hemoglobin level > 9.0 g/dL. Participants with at least nine transfusions and sufficient ferritin testing in the first year of the trial were included in a planned

2020 Transfusion

5. Serum ferritin level and red blood cell parameters in healthy controls and chronic periodontitis patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serum ferritin level and red blood cell parameters in healthy controls and chronic periodontitis patients Periodontitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease causes reduction in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin. It is found to be caused by specific pathogenic subgingival plaque bacteria. Periodontitis is host mediated through release of pro inflammatory cytokines by local tissues and immune cells in response to bacterial flora and its products, especially lipopolysacharides (...) . Periodontitis is found to have systemic effect and the cytokines produced inhibit proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes leading to anaemia. This study evaluate level of hemoglobin erythrocytes, hematocrit and serum ferritin levels in healthy subjects and periodontitis patient.

2015 Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences

6. Limitations of Serum Ferritin in Diagnosing Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Conditions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Limitations of Serum Ferritin in Diagnosing Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Conditions Patients with inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic heart failure (CHF), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high rates of iron deficiency with adverse clinical consequences. Under normal circumstances, serum ferritin levels are a sensitive marker for iron status but ferritin is an acute-phase reactant that becomes elevated in response to inflammation, complicating (...) the diagnosis. Proinflammatory cytokines also trigger an increase in hepcidin, which restricts uptake of dietary iron and promotes sequestration of iron by ferritin within storage sites. Patients with inflammatory conditions may thus have restricted availability of iron for erythropoiesis and other cell functions due to increased hepcidin expression, despite normal or high levels of serum ferritin. The standard threshold for iron deficiency (<30 μg/L) therefore does not apply and transferrin saturation

2018 International journal of chronic diseases

7. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as measures of iron status and ferritin and C (...) median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668-1522) versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5-1252.0), p < 0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19-37) versus 28% (20-38), p = 0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2 = 0.11, p < 0.001), no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p < 0.001), and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (p < 0.001), urea reduction ratio (p = 0.001), and gender (p < 0.001) after

2017 International journal of nephrology

8. Association between Serum Ferritin and Cognitive Function in Early Childhood. (Abstract)

Association between Serum Ferritin and Cognitive Function in Early Childhood. In infants 1-3 years of age, we found higher serum ferritin values associated with higher cognitive function, as measured by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (P = .02 for the nonlinear relationship). A serum ferritin of 17 μg/L corresponded to the maximum level of cognition, beyond which there was no meaningful improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01481766 and NCT01869530.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier

2020 Journal of Pediatrics

9. Bivariate mixture models for the joint distribution of repeated serum ferritin and transferrin saturation measured 12 years apart in a cohort of healthy middle-aged Australians. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bivariate mixture models for the joint distribution of repeated serum ferritin and transferrin saturation measured 12 years apart in a cohort of healthy middle-aged Australians. Homozygosity for the p.C282Y substitution in the HFE protein encoded by the hemochromatosis gene on chromosome 6p (HFE) is a common genetic trait that increases susceptibility to iron overload. McLaren et al. used bivariate mixture modeling to analyze the joint population distribution of transferrin saturation (TS (...) ) and serum ferritin concentration (SF) measured for participants in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study. They identified four components (C1, C2, C3, and C4) with successively increasing means for TS and SF. They demonstrated that bivariate mixture modeling in TS and SF reflect the genetic locus of HFE and may isolate p.C282Y homozygotes from the general population. In the current study we used data from the another large cohort, the Australian HealthIron study of genetic

2019 PLoS ONE

10. The Quansys multiplex immunoassay for serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, and α-1-acid glycoprotein showed good comparability with reference-type assays but not for soluble transferrin receptor and retinol-binding protein. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Quansys multiplex immunoassay for serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, and α-1-acid glycoprotein showed good comparability with reference-type assays but not for soluble transferrin receptor and retinol-binding protein. The Quansys multiplex (Q-Plex) measures ferritin (Fer), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), C-reactive protein (CRP), α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and retinol-binding protein (RBP). We compared Q-Plex results with reference-type assays and evaluated Q-Plex performance (...) -Plex sTfR concentrations compared to serum. Analyte stability was good for ≤5 freeze-thaw cycles. After adjusting Q-Plex data to the reference assays, sensitivity and specificity were >85% for Fer and CRP; specificity was >85% for sTfR, AGP, and RBP. Using performance criteria derived from biologic variation, Fer, CRP, and AGP met the minimum allowable imprecision (<10.7%, <31.7%, and <8.5%, respectively) and difference from the reference assay (<±7.7%, <±32.7%, and <±10.3%, respectively), while

2019 PLoS ONE

11. Serum ferritin level is inversely related to number of previous pregnancy losses in women with recurrent pregnancy loss. (Abstract)

Serum ferritin level is inversely related to number of previous pregnancy losses in women with recurrent pregnancy loss. To study whether low serum ferritin (s-ferritin) levels are associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), and whether low s-ferritin predicts the risk of another pregnancy loss or the ability to conceive.Cohort study.Fertility clinic at a university hospital.Eighty-four women referred to the RPL Unit and 153 women of reproductive age with no known fertility problem. s (...) -Ferritin levels were measured in serum samples taken before pregnancy attempt.None.s-Ferritin levels were correlated to pregnancy history, ability to conceive, and time to conception during the first 2 years after sampling. Furthermore, s-ferritin levels were correlated to outcome of the first pregnancy after referral for RPL.Women with RPL had lower s-ferritin than the comparison group, 39.9 μg/L versus 62.2 μg/L, and had a higher prevalence of low iron stores (s-ferritin <30 μg/L), 35.7% versus 13.7

2020 Fertility and Sterility

12. Population-based study of serum ferritin in early pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes. (Abstract)

Population-based study of serum ferritin in early pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes. Chronic placental inflammation is associated with preterm birth (PTB) and perinatal mortality. Ferritin is often elevated in chronic inflammatory conditions, but prior studies of its relation to PTB were restricted to ferritin measurement within pregnancy, were underpowered to detect rarer outcomes, and did not account for pre-existing maternal inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel (...) or rheumatological disease.To evaluate whether an elevated ferritin level prior to pregnancy is associated with major adverse pregnancy outcomes.A population-based cohort study was completed using Ontario, Canada. Included were all Ontarian women with a hospital livebirth or stillbirth at ≥20 weeks' gestation, 2007-2018, and serum haemoglobin and ferritin measured as an outpatient within 120 days before conception. Excluded were women with a diagnosed iron overload disorder or a ferritin concentration <15 µg/L

2020 Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology

13. Association between serum ferritin and acute coronary heart disease: A population-based cohort study. (Abstract)

Association between serum ferritin and acute coronary heart disease: A population-based cohort study. Several studies aiming to determine the association between iron stores and coronary heart disease (CHD) have reported conflicting results. None of them has been performed in a Mediterranean region. Our aim is to assess the association between the level of serum ferritin and the incidence of CHD in a Mediterranean region.We performed a cohort study using a primary health care population (...) database. Primary outcome was incidence of CHD. Subjects aged between 35 and 74 years with serum ferritin (SF) measurements at baseline (January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008) were included. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95%CIs for the associtation between SF and time until CHD outcome.We include 242,084 subjects with SF levels at baseline. Participants were observed for a median of 8.4 years. During follow-up, 1106 incident cases of CHD were identified. Persons

2020 Atherosclerosis

14. Systemic inflammation modulates the ability of serum ferritin to predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Systemic inflammation modulates the ability of serum ferritin to predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. This study aimed to ascertain whether the correlation of high serum ferritin with mortality is affected by systemic inflammation and to investigate the optimal serum ferritin level for predicting death when inflammation is considered in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.We classified 221 patients into four groups according to serum ferritin (...) (10.0%). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test revealed significantly worse survival accumulation among PD patients with higher serum ferritin (≥100 μg/L) under elevated hsCRP levels (> 3 mg/L) (P = 0.022). A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that an increased serum ferritin level was independently associated with a higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in PD patients (HR = 3.114, P = 0.021; and HR = 9.382, P = 0.032) with hsCRP above 3 mg/L after adjusting

2020 BMC Nephrology

15. The alteration of ferritin and transferrin saturation under body mass index and blood pressure in first-time and regular male blood donors in Taiwan. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The alteration of ferritin and transferrin saturation under body mass index and blood pressure in first-time and regular male blood donors in Taiwan. Iron status, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) are all important health indicators. In this study, ferritin and transferrin saturation levels and their correlations with BMI and BP were investigated in first-time and regular male blood donors in Taiwan. Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation values represented iron status of blood (...) donors. Serum ferritin, serum iron, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay sandwich method, timed-endpoint method, and turbidimetric method, respectively. Transferrin saturation was calculated as 100× serum iron/TIBC. Statistical analyses included 2-sample t test, chi-square test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression. Comparisons of ferritin and transferrin saturation mean values with BMI, age, systolic blood pressure (SBP

2019 Medicine

16. Serum levels of ferritin do not affect the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radiofrequency ablation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serum levels of ferritin do not affect the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radiofrequency ablation. Hepatic iron accumulation can accelerate liver injury in patients with various chronic liver diseases and lead to hepatocarcinogenesis. We elucidated the impact of serum levels of ferritin on the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in a large cohort.We retrospectively analyzed 578 treatment-naïve HCC patients who underwent (...) RFA. We divided our cohort into four groups by the quartile points of serum ferritin level: G1 (≤55 ng/mL, n = 148), G2 (56-130 ng/mL, n = 142), G3 (131-243 ng/mL, n = 144) and G4 (≥244 ng/mL, n = 144). We analyzed the recurrence and survival of patients using the Kaplan-Meier method. We also evaluated pathological iron deposition among patients with a solitary tumor smaller than 2 cm.The cumulative rates of overall recurrence and survival at 5 years were 81.6% and 66.3%, respectively. The serum

2018 PLoS ONE

17. WHO guideline on use of ferritin concentrations to assess iron status in individuals and populations

for all age groups and settings; and • the comparability of ferritin concentrations among sample matrices: venous blood collection versus pooled capillary samples or dried serum spot samples. Plans for updating the guideline The WHO Secretariat will continue to follow research developments on iron deficiency, particularly on biomarkers to detect it, with emphasis on ferritin determination and cut-off values to define iron deficiency and iron overload in different settings and age groups (...) /statisticians with regard to “adjusting” data for inflammation. Acceptability There was discussion on the number of samples needed. If the same blood sample taken for the assessment of ferritin is used to assess infection/inflammation, that would increase acceptability from patients and from health workers. Considerations about the use of either capillary or venous blood were also discussed. Is the use of dried serum spot samples possible? Resource implications Resource implications include the cost of each

2020 World Health Organisation Guidelines

18. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and total body iron for the detection of iron deficiency in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study with low use of iron supplements. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and total body iron for the detection of iron deficiency in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study with low use of iron supplements. Which blood-based indicator best reflects the iron status in pregnant women is unclear. Better assessments of iron status in today's multiethnic populations are needed to optimize treatment and clinical recommendations.We aimed to determine the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <11.0 g/dL in first (...) and <10.5 g/dL in second trimester) and iron deficiency (ID) by the iron indicators serum ferritin <15 µg/L, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) >4.4 mg/L, and calculated total body iron <0 mg/kg, and their associations with ethnicity.This was a population-based cross-sectional study from primary antenatal care of 792 healthy women in early pregnancy in Oslo, Norway. We categorized the women into 6 ethnic groups: Western European, South Asian, Middle Eastern, Sub-Saharan African, East Asian

2019 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

19. Umbilical Cord Serum Ferritin Concentration is Inversely Associated with Umbilical Cord Hemoglobin in Neonates Born to Adolescents Carrying Singletons and Women Carrying Multiples. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Umbilical Cord Serum Ferritin Concentration is Inversely Associated with Umbilical Cord Hemoglobin in Neonates Born to Adolescents Carrying Singletons and Women Carrying Multiples. It has been proposed that the fetus prioritizes iron for hemoglobin production over delivery to tissues. However, few studies have evaluated the interrelations between hemoglobin and multiple iron status biomarkers in umbilical cord blood. A full understanding is needed of how these parameters influence each other (...) within cord blood to fully interpret iron and hematologic status at birth.We evaluated the determinants of neonatal hemoglobin and assessed the interrelations between hemoglobin, serum iron status indicators, and serum iron regulatory hormones in healthy neonates.This was an observational study that assessed umbilical cord hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), erythropoietin (EPO), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), serum iron, hepcidin, vitamin B-12, folate, IL-6, and CRP measured in 234 neonates

2019 Journal of Nutrition

20. Cold type autoimmune hemolytic anemia- a rare manifestation of infectious mononucleosis; serum ferritin as an important biomarker. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cold type autoimmune hemolytic anemia- a rare manifestation of infectious mononucleosis; serum ferritin as an important biomarker. Infectious mononucleosis is one of the main manifestations of Epstein - Barr virus, which is characterized by fever, tonsillar-pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy and atypical lymphocytes. Although 60% of patients with IMN develop cold type antibodies, clinically significant hemolytic anemia with a high ferritin level is very rare and validity of serum ferritin (...) as an important biomarker has not been used frequently.18-year-old girl presented with fever, malaise and sore throat with asymptomatic anemia, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and mild hepatitis. Investigations revealed that she had cold type autoimmune hemolysis, significantly elevated serum ferritin, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level with serological evidence of recent Epstein Barr infection. She was managed conservatively and her hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels normalized without

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

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