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Serum Ferritin

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1. Investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin (Full text)

or treatment (e.g. blood transfusion or iron infusion) that lead to a genuine increase in RES iron stores. Upper limit of the normal range for serum ferritin Most UK laboratories simply report 300–400 μg/l as the upper limit of normal for SF in adult males and 150–200 μg/l as the upper limit of normal for adult females (Association for Clinical Biochemistry, ; Worwood et al , ). There is however considerable variation in SF values in response to age, ethnic origin and sex. Mean SF values in neonates (...) , are outside the scope of this guideline, and readers are directed to the recently updated management guideline for this condition (Fitzsimons et al , ). Table 1. Causes of raised serum ferritin Increased ferritin synthesis due to iron accumulation Increase in ferritin synthesis not associated with significant iron accumulation Increased ferritin as a result of cellular damage Hereditary (genetic) haemochromatosis Hereditary acaeruloplasminaemia Secondary iron overload from blood transfusion or excessive

2018 British Committee for Standards in Haematology PubMed abstract

2. The association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with elevated serum ferritin levels in normal weight, overweight and obese Canadians. (Full text)

The association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with elevated serum ferritin levels in normal weight, overweight and obese Canadians. In light of the growing body of literature suggesting a beneficial effect of vitamin D on inflammatory response, we hypothesized that vitamin D affects serum ferritin (SF), a biomarker of inflammation. The objective of the present study is to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with elevated SF concentrations indicative (...) = 0.06, 0.89; p = 0.034). We did not observe this association for overweight and obese Canadians. Canadians of older age, non-white ethnicity, males, those with income above $100,000, those who consumed alcohol, and those with high total cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressures were more likely to have elevated SF concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L is likely to provoke anti-inflammatory benefits, but intervention studies that achieve high 25(OH)D concentrations and with long

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

3. Expanded feasibility of ferritin testing: stability of ferritin stored as whole blood and validation of plastic tubes. (Abstract)

Expanded feasibility of ferritin testing: stability of ferritin stored as whole blood and validation of plastic tubes. Ferritin testing is a recommended strategy to mitigate iron depletion in blood donors. A barrier for some testing platforms is a requirement to complete sample management and testing within a temporal window incompatible with the logistics of many blood collectors. The ability to delay separation of plasma/serum from red cells and subsequent testing would enhance (...) the feasibility of ferritin testing on a broader scale.Thirty blood donors provided a research donation of 12, 4-mL sample tubes of whole blood. Six pairs of serum and K2 -EDTA-plasma tubes were centrifuged and samples tested in triplicate on day of collection and on each of the next 5 days following storage at 4°C. Comparison of ferritin values for serum versus K2 -EDTA-plasma at baseline was performed to validate plastic EDTA-containing tubes. Variation of ferritin values during storage was assessed

2019 Transfusion

4. Serum ferritin level and red blood cell parameters in healthy controls and chronic periodontitis patients (Full text)

Serum ferritin level and red blood cell parameters in healthy controls and chronic periodontitis patients Periodontitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease causes reduction in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin. It is found to be caused by specific pathogenic subgingival plaque bacteria. Periodontitis is host mediated through release of pro inflammatory cytokines by local tissues and immune cells in response to bacterial flora and its products, especially lipopolysacharides (...) . Periodontitis is found to have systemic effect and the cytokines produced inhibit proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes leading to anaemia. This study evaluate level of hemoglobin erythrocytes, hematocrit and serum ferritin levels in healthy subjects and periodontitis patient.

2015 Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences PubMed abstract

5. Limitations of Serum Ferritin in Diagnosing Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Conditions (Full text)

Limitations of Serum Ferritin in Diagnosing Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Conditions Patients with inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic heart failure (CHF), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high rates of iron deficiency with adverse clinical consequences. Under normal circumstances, serum ferritin levels are a sensitive marker for iron status but ferritin is an acute-phase reactant that becomes elevated in response to inflammation, complicating (...) the diagnosis. Proinflammatory cytokines also trigger an increase in hepcidin, which restricts uptake of dietary iron and promotes sequestration of iron by ferritin within storage sites. Patients with inflammatory conditions may thus have restricted availability of iron for erythropoiesis and other cell functions due to increased hepcidin expression, despite normal or high levels of serum ferritin. The standard threshold for iron deficiency (<30 μg/L) therefore does not apply and transferrin saturation

2018 International journal of chronic diseases PubMed abstract

6. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis (Full text)

Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as measures of iron status and ferritin and C (...) median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668-1522) versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5-1252.0), p < 0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19-37) versus 28% (20-38), p = 0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2 = 0.11, p < 0.001), no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p < 0.001), and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (p < 0.001), urea reduction ratio (p = 0.001), and gender (p < 0.001) after

2017 International journal of nephrology PubMed abstract

7. Bivariate mixture models for the joint distribution of repeated serum ferritin and transferrin saturation measured 12 years apart in a cohort of healthy middle-aged Australians. (Full text)

Bivariate mixture models for the joint distribution of repeated serum ferritin and transferrin saturation measured 12 years apart in a cohort of healthy middle-aged Australians. Homozygosity for the p.C282Y substitution in the HFE protein encoded by the hemochromatosis gene on chromosome 6p (HFE) is a common genetic trait that increases susceptibility to iron overload. McLaren et al. used bivariate mixture modeling to analyze the joint population distribution of transferrin saturation (TS (...) ) and serum ferritin concentration (SF) measured for participants in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study. They identified four components (C1, C2, C3, and C4) with successively increasing means for TS and SF. They demonstrated that bivariate mixture modeling in TS and SF reflect the genetic locus of HFE and may isolate p.C282Y homozygotes from the general population. In the current study we used data from the another large cohort, the Australian HealthIron study of genetic

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

8. The Quansys multiplex immunoassay for serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, and α-1-acid glycoprotein showed good comparability with reference-type assays but not for soluble transferrin receptor and retinol-binding protein. (Full text)

The Quansys multiplex immunoassay for serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, and α-1-acid glycoprotein showed good comparability with reference-type assays but not for soluble transferrin receptor and retinol-binding protein. The Quansys multiplex (Q-Plex) measures ferritin (Fer), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), C-reactive protein (CRP), α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and retinol-binding protein (RBP). We compared Q-Plex results with reference-type assays and evaluated Q-Plex performance (...) -Plex sTfR concentrations compared to serum. Analyte stability was good for ≤5 freeze-thaw cycles. After adjusting Q-Plex data to the reference assays, sensitivity and specificity were >85% for Fer and CRP; specificity was >85% for sTfR, AGP, and RBP. Using performance criteria derived from biologic variation, Fer, CRP, and AGP met the minimum allowable imprecision (<10.7%, <31.7%, and <8.5%, respectively) and difference from the reference assay (<±7.7%, <±32.7%, and <±10.3%, respectively), while

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

9. Decreased serum ferritin may be associated with increased restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease (PD): a meta-analysis for the diagnosis of RLS in PD patients. (Abstract)

Decreased serum ferritin may be associated with increased restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease (PD): a meta-analysis for the diagnosis of RLS in PD patients. Objective: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis in a PD background is unclear. Abnormal iron metabolism may be involved, in which case it may be a marker of RLS risk. Here, the literature was systematically searched and meta-analyzed to compare (...) iron metabolism markers between PD patients with or without RLS. Method: The databases PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, Web of Science, and SinoMed were searched for case-control and observational studies examining RLS-related changes in iron metabolism in PD, in terms of serum iron, serum ferritin and hemoglobin. Eligible studies were meta-analyzed using Stata 12.0. Results: Meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies showed that serum ferritin concentration

2020 The International journal of neuroscience

10. Serum hepcidin, the hepcidin/ferritin ratio and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Serum hepcidin, the hepcidin/ferritin ratio and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. To perform a meta-analysis on the relationship type 2 diabetes has with serum hepcidin and the hepcidin/ferritin ratio.The following databases were searched using all relevant keywords: Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Embase and Google Scholar. All studies that examined the relationship type 2 diabetes has with serum hepcidin or the hepcidin/ferritin ratio were included (...) /ferritin ratio was examined across five studies (n cases=229; n controls=1426) and was found to be negatively associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (SMD: -0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.85 to -0.19). There was no publication bias found for the associations serum hepcidin (Egger´s test: P =0.97) or the hepcidin/ferritin ratio (Egger´s test: P =0.75) had with type 2 diabetes.Although hepcidin has been proposed as a risk marker for type 2 diabetes, our meta-analysis found that the hepcidin

2020 Current Medicinal Chemistry

11. Serum cytokines, adipokines and ferritin for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease: a systematic review. (Abstract)

Serum cytokines, adipokines and ferritin for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease: a systematic review. Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a major health problem worldwide. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are the most common etiologies of CLD. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis, however, it is an invasive method. This review attempts (...) to evaluate the usefulness of serum adiponectin, serum leptin, serum ferritin, serum transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and serum platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as non-invasive markers in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. A systematic search in MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and local databases was performed to identify articles published in English or Persian as of November 2017. Studies conducted among CLD patients, with biopsy proven fibrosis/cirrhosis, and providing

2020 Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine

12. Association between serum ferritin and acute coronary heart disease: A population-based cohort study. (Abstract)

Association between serum ferritin and acute coronary heart disease: A population-based cohort study. Several studies aiming to determine the association between iron stores and coronary heart disease (CHD) have reported conflicting results. None of them has been performed in a Mediterranean region. Our aim is to assess the association between the level of serum ferritin and the incidence of CHD in a Mediterranean region.We performed a cohort study using a primary health care population (...) database. Primary outcome was incidence of CHD. Subjects aged between 35 and 74 years with serum ferritin (SF) measurements at baseline (January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008) were included. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95%CIs for the associtation between SF and time until CHD outcome.We include 242,084 subjects with SF levels at baseline. Participants were observed for a median of 8.4 years. During follow-up, 1106 incident cases of CHD were identified. Persons

2020 Atherosclerosis

13. The alteration of ferritin and transferrin saturation under body mass index and blood pressure in first-time and regular male blood donors in Taiwan. (Full text)

The alteration of ferritin and transferrin saturation under body mass index and blood pressure in first-time and regular male blood donors in Taiwan. Iron status, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) are all important health indicators. In this study, ferritin and transferrin saturation levels and their correlations with BMI and BP were investigated in first-time and regular male blood donors in Taiwan. Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation values represented iron status of blood (...) donors. Serum ferritin, serum iron, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay sandwich method, timed-endpoint method, and turbidimetric method, respectively. Transferrin saturation was calculated as 100× serum iron/TIBC. Statistical analyses included 2-sample t test, chi-square test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression. Comparisons of ferritin and transferrin saturation mean values with BMI, age, systolic blood pressure (SBP

2019 Medicine PubMed abstract

14. Serum levels of ferritin do not affect the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radiofrequency ablation. (Full text)

Serum levels of ferritin do not affect the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radiofrequency ablation. Hepatic iron accumulation can accelerate liver injury in patients with various chronic liver diseases and lead to hepatocarcinogenesis. We elucidated the impact of serum levels of ferritin on the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in a large cohort.We retrospectively analyzed 578 treatment-naïve HCC patients who underwent (...) RFA. We divided our cohort into four groups by the quartile points of serum ferritin level: G1 (≤55 ng/mL, n = 148), G2 (56-130 ng/mL, n = 142), G3 (131-243 ng/mL, n = 144) and G4 (≥244 ng/mL, n = 144). We analyzed the recurrence and survival of patients using the Kaplan-Meier method. We also evaluated pathological iron deposition among patients with a solitary tumor smaller than 2 cm.The cumulative rates of overall recurrence and survival at 5 years were 81.6% and 66.3%, respectively. The serum

2018 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

15. Performance and comparability of laboratory methods for measuring ferritin concentrations in human serum or plasma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (Full text)

Performance and comparability of laboratory methods for measuring ferritin concentrations in human serum or plasma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Different laboratory methods are used to quantify ferritin concentrations as a marker of iron status. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the accuracy and comparability of the most used methods for ferritin detection.National and regional databases were searched for prospective, retrospective, sectional, longitudinal and case-control (...) studies containing the characteristics and performance of at least one method for serum/plasma ferritin determinations in humans published to date. The analysis included the comparison between at least 2 methods detailing: sensitivity, precision, accuracy, predictive values, inter-methods adjustment, and use of international reference materials. Pooled method performance was analyzed for each method and across methods.Search strategy identified 11893 records. After de-duplication and screening 252

2018 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

16. WHO guideline on use of ferritin concentrations to assess iron status in individuals and populations

for all age groups and settings; and • the comparability of ferritin concentrations among sample matrices: venous blood collection versus pooled capillary samples or dried serum spot samples. Plans for updating the guideline The WHO Secretariat will continue to follow research developments on iron deficiency, particularly on biomarkers to detect it, with emphasis on ferritin determination and cut-off values to define iron deficiency and iron overload in different settings and age groups (...) /statisticians with regard to “adjusting” data for inflammation. Acceptability There was discussion on the number of samples needed. If the same blood sample taken for the assessment of ferritin is used to assess infection/inflammation, that would increase acceptability from patients and from health workers. Considerations about the use of either capillary or venous blood were also discussed. Is the use of dried serum spot samples possible? Resource implications Resource implications include the cost of each

2020 World Health Organisation Guidelines

17. Pantoprazole reduces serum ferritin in patients with thalassemia major and intermedia: A randomized, controlled study. (Abstract)

Pantoprazole reduces serum ferritin in patients with thalassemia major and intermedia: A randomized, controlled study. Complications due to iron overload exert a problematic situation in patients with thalassemia. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) like pantoprazole are effective agents to reduce acid gastric acid secretion and perhaps to interrupt iron absorption in conditions with increased iron absorption. Our purpose was to study effects of pantoprazole addition to chelators on iron levels (...) in patients with thalassemia major and intermedia.This randomized, controlled, and single center trial was performed on 60 patients with thalassemia major and intermedia in Amir Kabir hospital, Iran. Patients were randomized 1:1 to pantoprazole group (iron chelator plus pantoprazole) or control group (iron chelator) for 6 months. Serum ferritin was measured by ELISA. Iron content was measured by magnetic resonance imaging; heart T2*, and liver T2*.After 6 months of treatment, a significant reduction

2019 Therapie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

18. Serum ferritin, an early marker of cardiovascular risk: a study in Chinese men of first-degree relatives with family history of type 2 diabetes. (Full text)

Serum ferritin, an early marker of cardiovascular risk: a study in Chinese men of first-degree relatives with family history of type 2 diabetes. Ferritin is one of the key proteins that regulate iron homeostasis and is widely available clinical biomarker of iron status. This study aimed to discuss the influence of serum ferritin (SF) on cardiovascular risk factors in the first-degree relatives with family history of type 2 diabetes (FHD).This cross-sectional study included 232 men (...) . Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were analyzed. The people were divided into four groups according to median SF (102.8 ng/ml) and people with or without FHD. Group A (FHD-and low SF), group B (FHD-and high SF), group C (FHD+ and low SF), and group D (FHD+ and high SF).The subjects in different categories of SF concentrations showed significant differences in BMI (SF main effect: P = 0.010), WC (P = 0.030), SBP (P < 0.001), FPG (P < 0.001), PPG-2 h (P < 0.001), FINS (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P

2019 BMC Cardiovascular Disorders PubMed abstract

19. Regression Correction Equation to Adjust Serum Iron and Ferritin Concentrations Based on C-Reactive Protein and Albumin in Patients Receiving Primary and Secondary Care. (Abstract)

Regression Correction Equation to Adjust Serum Iron and Ferritin Concentrations Based on C-Reactive Protein and Albumin in Patients Receiving Primary and Secondary Care. Systemic inflammation, even at low levels, can greatly interfere with measures of iron status, making diagnosis of iron deficiency difficult. The objective of the present study was to create linear regression correction equations to adjust serum ferritin and iron concentrations based on measurements of the acute-phase proteins (...) C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin.Data from a cohort (1) of patients (n = 7226) in primary and secondary care who had serum ferritin, iron, CRP, and albumin measured at the same time point were examined. Linear regression coefficients were calculated for CRP and albumin with serum iron and ferritin as the outcome variables. Patients with ferritin <15 µg/L or serum iron <10 µmol/L were categorized as iron deficient. The equation was then applied to a cohort (2) of patients with colorectal

2019 Journal of Nutrition

20. Evaluating the association of serum ferritin and hepatic iron with disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (Abstract)

Evaluating the association of serum ferritin and hepatic iron with disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hyperferritinemia, with or without increased hepatic iron, represents a common finding in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it is unclear whether it reflects hepatic inflammation or true iron-overload and, in case the latter is confirmed, whether this influences disease progression. We therefore explored the association between serum ferritin, degree (...) (25%) patients (38% predominantly in hepatocytes, 20% in reticuloendothelial cells and 42% in both). Subjects with stainable hepatic iron, particularly those with a mixed pattern, had higher serum ferritin and transaminases but only a mixed pattern of iron deposition was among the variables significantly associated with presence of NASH. Serum ferritin was not associated with presence of NASH, however it increased with worsening fibrosis stage (F3 compared to F0-F1), and significantly decreased

2019 Liver International

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