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Serum Ketone

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1. Intra- and Inter-Subject Variability for Increases in Serum Ketone Bodies in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With the Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor Canagliflozin. (PubMed)

Intra- and Inter-Subject Variability for Increases in Serum Ketone Bodies in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With the Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor Canagliflozin. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been associated with increased serum ketone body levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present analysis we evaluated serum ketone body levels and variability in 1278 Japanese patients with T2DM treated with canagliflozin 100 or 200 mg (...) . Similar mean increases in ketone body concentrations of ~2-fold were seen with both canagliflozin doses. The median (interquartile range) percent change from baseline was 62% (0;180) for acetoacetate and 78% (2;236) for β-hydroxybutyrate. Approximately two-thirds of the variability in each ketone measure was attributed to intra-subject variability. Intra-subject variability was higher for serum ketones than other metabolites. Patients in the lowest response tertile exhibited no increase in ketones

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2018 obesity & metabolism

2. β hydroxybutyrate levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid under ketone body metabolism in rats (PubMed)

β hydroxybutyrate levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid under ketone body metabolism in rats A high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (KD) or calorie restriction in the form of every-other-day fasting (EODF) results in ketone body metabolism with an increasing β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) level. Previous studies have supported that a KD and EODF have a neuroprotective effect. However, the βOHB levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resulting from a KD and EODF remain unknown. The aim of this study (...) , and EODKD resulted in a significant increase in βOHB levels in both the serum and CSF. The βOHB levels in the EODKD group were the highest. The CSF βOHB level was, on average, 69% of the serum βOHB level. There was a positive correlation between the overall βOHB levels in serum and that in cerebrospinal fluid. This study demonstrated that the KD, EODF, and EODKD resulted in ketone body metabolism, as the βOHB levels increased significantly compared with those resulting from the standard diet. Our

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2017 Experimental Animals

3. Neuroprotective role of ketones following cerebral ischemia: a systematic review

Neuroprotective role of ketones following cerebral ischemia: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email (...) ). ">Data to be extracted: animal model Example: Dose, timing of administration, frequency of administration, route of administration, vehicle. ">Data to be extracted: intervention of interest Example: Serum creatinine; continuous; umol/L (may be recalculated from mg/dL). ">Data to be extracted: primary outcome(s) Example: Blood urea nitrogen; continuous; mmol/L (may be recalculated from mg/dL); Renal histological damage as assessed by Jablonski scale; continuous; Jablonski score. ">Data to be extracted

2019 PROSPERO

4. Efficacy and safety of exogenous ketone bodies for preventive treatment of migraine: A study protocol for a single-centred, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. (PubMed)

Efficacy and safety of exogenous ketone bodies for preventive treatment of migraine: A study protocol for a single-centred, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Currently available prophylactic migraine treatment options are limited and are associated with many, often intolerable, side-effects. Various lines of research suggest that abnormalities in energy metabolism are likely to be part of migraine pathophysiology. Previously, a ketogenic diet (KD) has been reported (...) analysis) genetic profiling and expression analysis, oxidative and nitrosative stress, as well as serum cytokine analysis, and blood βHB and glucose analysis (pharmacokinetics).A crossover design was chosen as it greatly improves statistical power and participation rates, without increasing costs. To our knowledge this is the first RCT using βHB salts worldwide. If proven effective and safe, βHB might not only offer a new prophylactic treatment option for migraine patients, but might additionally pave

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2019 Trials

5. Effects of Ketone Bodies on Cognition in Type 2 Diabetes

Effects of Ketone Bodies on Cognition in Type 2 Diabetes Effects of Ketone Bodies on Cognition in Type 2 Diabetes - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effects of Ketone Bodies on Cognition (...) by (Responsible Party): Nicole Jacqueline Jensen, Bispebjerg Hospital Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Diabetes negatively affects cognition and increases the risk of developing overt dementia. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism may be contributing to this effect, thus providing a glucose substitute using ketone bodies might improve neuronal function. In this study the investigators propose to provide quantitative results on cognitive performance during acute hyperketonemia in patients

2018 Clinical Trials

6. SGLT2 inhibitor regulates ketone body metabolism via inter-organ crosstalk. (PubMed)

SGLT2 inhibitor regulates ketone body metabolism via inter-organ crosstalk. To investigate sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i)-induced changes in ketogenic enzymes and transporters in normal and diabetic mice models.Normal mice were randomly assigned to receive either vehicle or SGLT2i (25 mg/kg/d by oral gavage) for 7 days. Diabetic mice were treated with vehicle, insulin (4.5 units/kg/d by subcutaneous injection) or SGLT2i (25 mg/kg/d by intra-peritoneal injection) for 5 weeks (...) . Serum and tissues of ketogenic organs were analysed.In both normal and diabetic mice, SGLT2i increased beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) content in liver, kidney and colon tissue, as well as in serum and urine. In these organs, SGLT2i upregulated mRNA expression of ketogenic enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase. Similar patterns were observed in the kidney, ileum and colon for mRNA and protein expression of sodium-dependent

2018 obesity & metabolism

7. Ketones Supplementation and Postprandial Lipemia

This arm receives 25 g ketone salt. Dietary Supplement: Ketone Salt This arm receives 25 g ketone salt. Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Change from baseline plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 at 240 minutes [ Time Frame: 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes post-supplement consumption ] Plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 in pg/L Change from baseline serum triglycerides at 240 minutes [ Time Frame: 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes post-supplement consumption ] Serum levels (...) Ketones Supplementation and Postprandial Lipemia Ketones Supplementation and Postprandial Lipemia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Ketones Supplementation and Postprandial Lipemia The safety

2018 Clinical Trials

8. Study to Compare the Pharmacokinetics of AC 1202 and Two Doses of AC-SD-01 on Ketone Body Production

, 2017 Sponsor: Accera, Inc. Collaborator: Celerion Information provided by (Responsible Party): Accera, Inc. Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: To compare serum ketone body (i.e., total ketones, β hydroxybutyrate, and estimate of acetoacetate) levels after single dose administration of AC-1202 and 2 doses of AC-SD-01. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Healthy Drug: AC-1202 Drug: AC-SD-01 (50 g) Drug: AC-SD-01 (75 g) Phase 1 Study Design Go to Layout table for study (...) -inf is calculated as the sum of AUC0-t plus the ratio of the last measurable serum concentration to the elimination rate constant. total ketones AUC%extap [ Time Frame: 0-24 hrs ] Percent of AUC0-inf extrapolated, represented as (1 - AUC0-t/AUC0-inf)*100 total ketones Cmax [ Time Frame: 0-24 hrs ] Maximum observed concentration total ketones Kel [ Time Frame: 0-24 hrs ] Apparent first-order terminal elimination rate constant calculated from a semi-log plot of the serum concentration versus time

2017 Clinical Trials

9. Feasibility and Safety of Delivering a Ketone Drink to Comatose Survivors of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest

laboratory results (full blood count and coagulation profile as per study protocol) [ Time Frame: 48 hours ] Time from arrival of participant to ketone drink administration (hh:mm) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ] Number of participants receiving full course of ketone drink [ Time Frame: 48 hours ] As defined in study protocol: 25ml bolus followed after 1 hour by 47 hour infusion at 6 ml per hour Change from baseline serum troponin (ng/ml) [ Time Frame: 12 hours ] Change from baseline serum neuron specific (...) Feasibility and Safety of Delivering a Ketone Drink to Comatose Survivors of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest Feasibility and Safety of Delivering a Ketone Drink to Comatose Survivors of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies

2017 Clinical Trials

10. The 1-Week and 8-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet or Ketone Salt Supplementation on Multi-Organ Markers of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Rats (PubMed)

antioxidant capacity trended higher in short-term KD- and SC + KS-fed versus SC-fed rats, and short-term KD-fed rats exhibited significantly greater serum ketones compared to SC + KS-fed rats indicating that the diet (not KS supplementation) induced ketonemia. In long term-fed rats: (a) serum ketones were significantly greater in KD- versus SC- and SC + KS-fed rats; (b) liver antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase protein was significantly greater in KD- versus SC-fed rats, respectively, while (...) The 1-Week and 8-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet or Ketone Salt Supplementation on Multi-Organ Markers of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Rats We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term

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2017 Nutrients

11. Association Between Circulating Ketone Bodies and Worse Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients (PubMed)

Association Between Circulating Ketone Bodies and Worse Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving hemodialysis. Systemic metabolic perturbation is one of the hallmark abnormalities in patients at high cardiovascular risk. We sought to determine the relationship between circulating ketone body and clinical outcomes in patients with prevalent hemodialysis.We retrospectively assessed the relationship between serum (...) β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), the most abundant ketone body in the circulation, and prognosis in 405 stable hemodialysis patients. During a mean follow-up of 3.2±0.9 years, there were 54 major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and hospitalization attributed to heart failure) and 67 all-cause deaths. Major adverse cardiovascular events rates increased from 11.1 per 1000 person-years in the lowest βOHB quintile (<89 μmol/L

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2017 Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease

12. Ketone Diester Ingestion Impairs Time-Trial Performance in Professional Cyclists (PubMed)

and at regular intervals after the TT. Urine samples were collected pre- and post- warm-up, immediately post TT and 60 min post TT. Pre-exercise ingestion of the diester resulted in a 2 ± 1% impairment in TT performance that was associated with gut discomfort and higher perception of effort. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate, serum acetoacetate, and urine ketone concentrations increased from rest following ketone ingestion and were higher than placebo throughout the trial. Ketone ingestion induces hyperketonemia (...) Ketone Diester Ingestion Impairs Time-Trial Performance in Professional Cyclists We investigated the effect of pre- "race" ingestion of a 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester on blood ketone concentration, substrate metabolism and performance of a cycling time trial (TT) in professional cyclists. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 elite male cyclists completed a ~31 km laboratory-based TT on a cycling ergometer programmed to simulate the 2017 World Road Cycling Championships course. Cyclists

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2017 Frontiers in physiology

13. Evaluation of PK of Caprylic Triglyceride Oil, AC-1202, AC-1204, and Axona on Ketone Body Production

Sponsor: Accera, Inc. Collaborator: Celerion Information provided by (Responsible Party): Accera, Inc. Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: To compare serum ketone body (i.e., total ketones, β hydroxybutyrate, and estimate of acetoacetate) levels after single dose administration of caprylic triglyceride (CT) oil, AC-1202, AC-1204, and Axona®. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Healthy Drug: Caprylic Triglyceride Oil Drug: AC-1202 Drug: Axona Drug: AC-1204 Phase 1 Study (...) is calculated as the sum of AUC0-t plus the ratio of the last measurable serum concentration to the elimination rate constant. total ketones AUC%extap [ Time Frame: 0-24 hours ] Percent of AUCo-inf extrapolated, represented as (1 - AUC0-t/AUC0-inf)*100 total ketones Cmax [ Time Frame: 0-24 hours ] Maximum observed concentration total ketones Kel [ Time Frame: 0-24 hours ] Apparent first-order terminal elimination rate constant calculated from a semi-log plot of the serum concentration versus time curve

2016 Clinical Trials

14. Evaluation of PK of AC-1204 Mixed in Water, AC-1202 Mixed in Water, and AC-1202 Mixed in Ensure® on Ketone Body Production

First Posted : November 9, 2016 Last Update Posted : April 11, 2017 Sponsor: Accera, Inc. Collaborator: Celerion Information provided by (Responsible Party): Accera, Inc. Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: To compare serum ketone body (i.e., total ketones, β hydroxybutyrate, and estimate of acetoacetate) levels after single dose administration of AC-1204 mixed in water, AC-1202 mixed in water and AC-1202 mixed in Ensure®. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Healthy (...) Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : total ketones AUC0-t [ Time Frame: 0-24 hours ] The area under the concentration-time curve, from time 0 to the last observed non-zero concentration, as calculated by the linear trapezoidal method. total ketones AUC0-inf [ Time Frame: 0-24 hours ] The area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity. AUC0-inf is calculated as the sum of AUC0-t plus the ratio of the last measurable serum concentration to the elimination rate constant

2016 Clinical Trials

15. Evaluation of PK of AC1204 v Caprylic Triglyceride Oil Incl Food Effect on Ketone Body Production

Sponsor: Accera, Inc. Collaborator: Celerion Information provided by (Responsible Party): Accera, Inc. Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: To compare serum ketone body (i.e., total ketones and β-hydroxybutyrate) levels after administration of AC-1204 versus caprylic triglyceride (CT) oil, both after a standard breakfast. To evaluate the effect of a high fat diet on serum ketone body levels after administration of CT oil with a high fat breakfast versus a standard breakfast. Condition (...) AUC0-inf [ Time Frame: 0-24 hours ] The area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity. AUC0-inf is calculated as the sum of AUC0-t plus the ratio of the last measurable serum concentration to the elimination rate constant. total ketones AUC%extap [ Time Frame: 0-24 hours ] Percent of AUCo-inf extrapolated, represented as (1 - AUC0-t/AUC0- inf)*100 total ketones Cmax [ Time Frame: 0-24 hours ] Maximum observed concentration total ketones Kel [ Time Frame: 0-24 hours

2016 Clinical Trials

16. Urine Ketone

Dipstick detects acetic acid (acetoacetate) In , Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (primary ketone) is converted to Acetoacetate Confirmatory Test Urine Acetest tablet test Blood (preferred) Beta-hydroxybutyrate Best ketone test Basic chemistry panel Ketoacidosis Low serum bicarbonate Increased Normal or resolving ketoacidosis Normal serum bicarbonate Normal III. Interpretation: Normal Negative IV. Causes: Positive Dehydration Starvation or s (DKA) ic ketoacidosis Isopropanol toxicity Pregnancy V. Causes: False (...) Urine Ketone Urine Ketone Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Urine Ketone Urine Ketone Aka: Urine Ketone II. Mechanism

2018 FP Notebook

17. Comparing Finger-stick β-Hydroxybutyrate with Dipstick Urine Tests in the Detection of Ketone Bodies (PubMed)

ketones in patients whose serum glucose levels were ≥150 mg/dl.In our cross-sectional prospective study, finger-stick blood beta-hydroxybutyrate, arterial blood gas and urine ketone measurements of patients whose serum glucose levels were 150 mg/dL and higher were performed in the emergency department.A total of 265 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 62.4±14.9 years, and 65.7% of them were female. The mean of the capillary blood ketone levels of the patients (...) Comparing Finger-stick β-Hydroxybutyrate with Dipstick Urine Tests in the Detection of Ketone Bodies Blood ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate) measurements are suggested instead of urine ketone (acetoacetate) measurements in the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. Urine ketone examination is difficult and time consuming, and may result in an incorrect interpretation. Studies performed in emergency departments on blood ketones are limited. Our objective is to compare urine ketones and capillary blood

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2016 Turkish journal of emergency medicine

18. Ketone body therapy protects from lipotoxicity and acute liver failure upon Pparα-deficiency. (PubMed)

induced coma and death due to ALF as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, ammonia, and a liver-specific increase of ROS and LPO-derived malondialdehyde. Reconstitution of PPARα specifically in the liver using adeno-associated serotype 8 virus-PPARα in Pparα-deficient mice restored β-oxidation and ketogenesis and protected mice from FO-induced lipotoxicity and death. Interestingly, administration of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate prevented FO-induced ALF (...) Ketone body therapy protects from lipotoxicity and acute liver failure upon Pparα-deficiency. Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe and rapid liver injury, often occurring without any preexisting liver disease, which may precipitate multiorgan failure and death. ALF is often associated with impaired β-oxidation and increased oxidative stress (OS), characterized by elevated levels of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) products. Peroxisome proliferator-activated

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2015 Molecular Endocrinology

19. BLOOD KETONES AND SERUM LIPIDS IN STARVATION AND WATER DEPRIVATION (PubMed)

BLOOD KETONES AND SERUM LIPIDS IN STARVATION AND WATER DEPRIVATION 16695167 2006 05 31 2018 11 13 0021-9738 23 5 1944 Sep The Journal of clinical investigation J. Clin. Invest. BLOOD KETONES AND SERUM LIPIDS IN STARVATION AND WATER DEPRIVATION. 824-35 Kartin B L BL Aero-Medical Laboratory, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. Man E B EB Winkler A W AW Peters J P JP eng Journal Article United States J Clin Invest 7802877 0021-9738 1944 9 1 0 0 1944 9 1 0 1 1944 9 1 0 0 ppublish 16695167 10.1172/JCI101556

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1944 Journal of Clinical Investigation

20. Ketone body production is differentially altered in steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in obese humans. (PubMed)

Ketone body production is differentially altered in steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in obese humans. Levels of ketone bodies have been reported to be both increased and decreased in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We investigated whether the metabolism of ketone bodies is different in simple steatosis and in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).Serum low molecular weight molecules including ketone bodies were measured using high-throughput proton (1H) nuclear (...) magnetic resonance in 116 (76 categorized unequivocally to those with normal liver, simple steatosis or NASH) morbidly obese individuals [age 47.3 ± 8.7 (mean ± SD) years, body mass index 45.1 ± 6.1 kg/m(2) , 39 men and 77 women] with histological assessment of NASH and analysis of gene expression in the liver. Finally, we correlated β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) levels with NASH predicting score in Metabolic Syndrome in Men Study (METSIM) population study (n = 8749 non-diabetic men).Levels of ketone

2014 Liver International

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