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Serotonin

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161. Impact of free Nε-carboxymethyllysine, its precursor glyoxal and AGE-modified BSA on serotonin release from human parietal cells in culture Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of free Nε-carboxymethyllysine, its precursor glyoxal and AGE-modified BSA on serotonin release from human parietal cells in culture Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are frequently encountered in a western diet, in addition to their formation in vivo. N-Epsilon-carboxymethyllysine (CML), one of the chemically diverse compounds formed in the reaction between reducing carbohydrates and amines, is often used as a marker of advanced glycation, and has been shown to stimulate serotonin (...) release from cells representing the central (SH-SY5Y cells) and the peripheral (Caco-2 cells) serotonin system in vitro. Here, we investigated the effect of glyoxal, free CML, and protein-linked AGE-BSA on serotonin release from human gastric tumour cells, which originate from an adenocarcinoma of the stomach and have recently been shown to be capable of serotonin synthesis and release. Microarray experiments showed both CML and glyoxal to alter genes associated with serotonin receptors. Furthermore

2018 Food & function

162. Vaccinium bracteatum Leaf Extract Reverses Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behavior in Mice: Regulation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Serotonin Turnover Systems, and ERK/Akt Phosphorylation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vaccinium bracteatum Leaf Extract Reverses Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behavior in Mice: Regulation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Serotonin Turnover Systems, and ERK/Akt Phosphorylation The leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. are a source of traditional herbal medicines found in East Asia. The present study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like effects of water extract of V. bracteatum Thunb. leaves (VBLW) in a mouse model (...) of chronic restraint stress (CRS) and to identify the possible molecular in vitro mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects. The CRS-exposed mice were orally administered VBLW (100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for 21 days consecutively. The behavioral effects of VBLW were assessed through the forced swim test (FST) and the open field test (OFT). The levels of serum corticosterone (CORT), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), brain monoamines, such as serotonin, dopamine

2018 Frontiers in pharmacology

163. Gastrointestinal bleeding risk of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by level of kidney function: A population‐based cohort study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gastrointestinal bleeding risk of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by level of kidney function: A population‐based cohort study To estimate the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding associated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) by level of kidney function.We conducted a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics. We identified patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml min-1  1.73

2018 British journal of clinical pharmacology

164. Serotonin Syndrome in the Perioperative Setting Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin Syndrome in the Perioperative Setting BACKGROUND Serotonin syndrome is a life-threatening condition that can lead to neurologic complications and is associated with the use of serotonergic medications. As the use of antidepressant medications has increased, the incidence of perioperative serotonin syndrome has transitioned from a rare diagnosis to one that should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any patient displaying signs of neuroexcitation. CASE REPORT A 70-year-old (...) and given ketamine and fentanyl boluses throughout the procedure. During emergence, the patient exhibited myoclonic jerks in the upper and lower extremities. He was given intravenous meperidine for postoperative shivering; minutes after administration, the myoclonic jerks and rigidity worsened. The anesthesia team raised concern about serotonin syndrome. Intravenous midazolam improved the patient's myoclonic jerks and rigidity. CONCLUSIONS Patients with a history of rigidity/movement disorders during

2018 The American journal of case reports

165. Therapeutic Antidepressant Potential of NONHSAG045500 in Regulating Serotonin Transporter in Major Depressive Disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Therapeutic Antidepressant Potential of NONHSAG045500 in Regulating Serotonin Transporter in Major Depressive Disorder BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic, life-threatening, highly disabling disease. Standardized treatment with fewer adverse effects, quick onset, and long-term maintenance of the effects of brief treatment for MDD is always being pursued. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are highly expressed in the central nervous system and are involved in the occurrence (...) and development of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether the overexpression and interference of 3 differentially down-regulated lncRNAs (NONHSAT142707, NONHSAG045500, and ENST00000517573) in MDD can affect the expression of central neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) transporter (SERT) in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS First, we synthesized and validated the effect of 3 lncRNA plasmids and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs); next, we transfected

2018 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

166. Maternal Cerebrospinal Fluid Glutamate in Response to Variable Foraging Demand: Relationship to Cerebrospinal Fluid Serotonin Metabolites in Grown Offspring Full Text available with Trip Pro

Maternal Cerebrospinal Fluid Glutamate in Response to Variable Foraging Demand: Relationship to Cerebrospinal Fluid Serotonin Metabolites in Grown Offspring Maternal response to allostatic overload during infant rearing may alter neurobiological measures in grown offspring, potentially increasing susceptibility to mood and anxiety disorders. We examined maternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamate response during exposure to variable foraging demand (VFD), a bonnet macaque model of allostatic (...) during the final phases of VFD exposure. Maternal glutamatergic response to VFD exposure was used as a predictor variable for young adolescent offspring CSF metabolites of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.Following VFD exposure, maternal CSF glutamate concentrations correlated positively with maternal CSF CRF concentrations. Activation relative to baseline of maternal CSF glutamate concentrations following VFD exposure correlated directly with a) increased maternal-infant proximity during

2018 Chronic stress (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)

167. Serotonin and Adenosine G-protein Coupled Receptor Signaling for Ventilatory Acclimatization to Sustained Hypoxia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin and Adenosine G-protein Coupled Receptor Signaling for Ventilatory Acclimatization to Sustained Hypoxia Different patterns of hypoxia evoke different forms of plasticity in the neural control of ventilation. For example, acute intermittent hypoxia produces long term facilitation (LTF) of ventilation, while chronic sustained hypoxia (CH) causes ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH). In both LTF and VAH, ventilation in normoxia is greater than normal after the hypoxic stimulus (...) is removed and the acute hypoxic ventilatory response can increase. However, the mechanisms of LTF and VAH are thought to be different based on previous results showing serotonin 5HT2 receptors, which are G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) that activate GQ signaling, contribute to LTF but not VAH. Newer results show that a different GPCR, namely adenosine A2A receptors and the GS signaling pathway, cause LTF with more severe intermittent hypoxia, i.e., PaO2 = 25-30 Torr for GS versus 35-45 Torr for LTF

2018 Frontiers in physiology

168. Attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder is associated with allergic symptoms and low levels of hemoglobin and serotonin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder is associated with allergic symptoms and low levels of hemoglobin and serotonin This study investigated whether common comorbidities or biochemical factors, such as allergic disease, anemia, inflammation, and neurotransmitters, are singly or additively associated with an increased risk of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We recruited 216 children diagnosed with ADHD and 216 age-, sex-, height-, weight-, and class-matched controls from (...) 31 elementary schools in Taipei, Taiwan. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to measure allergic symptoms. Fasting venous blood was collected and analyzed for complete blood count, white blood cell differential count, immunoglobulin (Ig) E level, and serotonin (5-HT) level. The results showed that symptoms of both rhinitis (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.42-3.05) and eczema (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.02-2.88) were significantly associated with increased risk

2018 Scientific reports

169. Mechanisms Responsible for Serotonin Vascular Reactivity Sex Differences in the Internal Mammary Artery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mechanisms Responsible for Serotonin Vascular Reactivity Sex Differences in the Internal Mammary Artery The increased adverse cardiac events in women undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are multifactorial and may include clinical, psychosocial, and biological factors. Potential contributing biological factors could include vascular hyperreactivity of the internal mammary artery (IMA) to endogenous vasoconstrictors in women, resulting in a predilection to myocardial ischemia. This study (...) evaluated sex differences in serotonin and thromboxane A2 dependent vasoconstriction in human isolated IMA, with the mechanistic role of (1) the endothelium, (2) nitric oxide (NO), (3) prostaglandins, and (4) receptor activity investigated for any observed sex difference.Viable isolated human IMA segments were obtained from 116 patients (44 women [mean age, 66.8±12.2 years] and 72 men [mean age, 66.6±10.4 years]) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Cumulative concentration-response curves

2018 Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease

170. Analysis of neuroanatomical differences in mice with genetically modified serotonin transporters assessed by structural magnetic resonance imaging Full Text available with Trip Pro

Analysis of neuroanatomical differences in mice with genetically modified serotonin transporters assessed by structural magnetic resonance imaging The serotonin (5-HT) system has long been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as indicated by elevated whole blood and platelet 5-HT, altered platelet and brain receptor and transporter binding, and genetic linkage and association findings. Based upon work in genetically modified mice, 5-HT is known to influence several aspects of brain (...) development, but systematic neuroimaging studies have not previously been reported. In particular, the 5-HT transporter (serotonin transporter, SERT; 5-HTT) gene, Slc6a4, has been extensively studied.Using a 7-T MRI and deformation-based morphometry, we assessed neuroanatomical differences in an Slc6a4 knockout mouse on a C57BL/6 genetic background, along with an Slc6a4 Ala56 knockin mouse on two different genetic backgrounds (129S and C57BL/6).Individually (same sex, same background, same genotype

2018 Molecular autism

171. Serotonin Exhibits Accelerated Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis through TPH1 Knockout Mouse Experiments Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin Exhibits Accelerated Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis through TPH1 Knockout Mouse Experiments Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive fibrosis interstitial lung disease that is characterized by inflammatory infiltration and fibrotic changes. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important regulatory factor in inflammation, immunomodulation, and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT in bleomycin- (BLM-) induced pulmonary fibrosis through wild-type C57BL

2018 Mediators of inflammation

172. Serotonin is an endogenous regulator of intestinal CYP1A1 via AhR Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin is an endogenous regulator of intestinal CYP1A1 via AhR Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear receptor that controls xenobiotic detoxification via induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and regulates immune responses in the intestine. Metabolites of L-tryptophan activate AhR, which confers protection against intestinal inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that serotonin (5-HT) is an endogenous activator of AhR in intestinal epithelial cells. Treatment of Caco-2 monolayers (...) with 5-HT induced CYP1A1 mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and also stimulated CYP1A1 activity. CYP1A1 induction by 5-HT was dependent upon uptake via serotonin transporter (SERT). Antagonism of AhR and knockdown of AhR and its binding partner aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) attenuated CYP1A1 induction by 5-HT. Activation of AhR was evident by its nuclear translocation after 5-HT treatment and by induction of an AhR-responsive luciferase reporter. In vivo

2018 Scientific reports

173. Effects of cariprazine on extracellular levels of glutamate, GABA, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat phencyclidine model of schizophrenia studied by microdialysis and simultaneous recordings of locomotor acti Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of cariprazine on extracellular levels of glutamate, GABA, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat phencyclidine model of schizophrenia studied by microdialysis and simultaneous recordings of locomotor acti Aberrant glutamatergic, dopaminergic, and GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in schizophrenia. Cariprazine reverses the behavioral effects observed in the rat phencyclidine (PCP)-induced model of schizophrenia; however, little (...) is known about its in vivo neurochemistry.The study aims to compare the effects of cariprazine and aripiprazole on PCP-induced changes in the extracellular levels of glutamate, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, and GABA in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and on locomotor activation.Microdialysis was performed in awake rats with probes placed into the mPFC. Rats (n = 7/group) received vehicle (saline), cariprazine (0.05, 0.2, or 0.8 mg/kg), or aripiprazole (3 or 20 mg/kg) via gavage. After 60

2018 Psychopharmacology

174. Impulsive Internet Game Play Is Associated With Increased Functional Connectivity Between the Default Mode and Salience Networks in Depressed Patients With Short Allele of Serotonin Transporter Gene Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impulsive Internet Game Play Is Associated With Increased Functional Connectivity Between the Default Mode and Salience Networks in Depressed Patients With Short Allele of Serotonin Transporter Gene Problematic Internet game play is often accompanied by major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression seems to be closely related to altered functional connectivity (FC) within (and between) the default mode network (DMN) and salience network. In addition, serotonergic neurotransmission may regulate

2018 Frontiers in Psychiatry

175. Brain serotonin synthesis capacity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brain serotonin synthesis capacity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are both effective treatments for some patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about the neurochemical changes related to these treatment modalities. Here, we used positron emission tomography and the α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan tracer to examine the changes (...) in brain regional serotonin synthesis capacity in OCD patients following treatment with CBT or SSRI treatment. Sixteen medication-free OCD patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of either CBT or sertraline treatment. Pre-to-post treatment changes in the α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan brain trapping constant, K* (ml/g/min), were assessed as a function of symptom response, and correlations with symptom improvement were examined. Responders/partial responders to treatment did not show significant changes

2018 Translational psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

176. Deep Brain Stimulation Modified Autism-Like Deficits via the Serotonin System in a Valproic Acid-Induced Rat Model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Deep Brain Stimulation Modified Autism-Like Deficits via the Serotonin System in a Valproic Acid-Induced Rat Model Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known to be a promising treatment for resistant depression, which acts via the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILPFC). Previous study revealed that dysfunction of brain 5-HT homeostasis is related to a valproate (VPA)-induced rat autism spectrum disorder (ASD) model. Whether ILPFC DBS rescues

2018 International journal of molecular sciences

177. Analysis of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase & Serotonin Gene Polymorphisms among Atrial Septal Defect Subjects with and without Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Full Text available with Trip Pro

Analysis of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase & Serotonin Gene Polymorphisms among Atrial Septal Defect Subjects with and without Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Genetic polymorphisms are variations in DNA sequences which can influence either disease susceptibility, severity, or prognosis. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the complications that occurs in certain patients who have atrial septal defect (ASD). This study seeks to determine (...) the association of gene polymorphisms with the pathogenesis of PAH in ASD patients. This study was conducted on 30 ASD patients with PAH, and 50 ASD patients who were not diagnosed with PAH. All respondents were Malay. Patients were selected based on stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. Molecular analyses were done to detect the genetic polymorphisms of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE I/D), serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) G894T, and eNOS 4b/4a

2018 Journal of cardiovascular development and disease

178. Modulation of the immune response by helminths: a role for serotonin? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modulation of the immune response by helminths: a role for serotonin? The mammalian gut is a remarkable organ: with a nervous system that rivals the spinal cord, it is the body's largest repository of immune and endocrine cells and houses an immense and complex microbiota. Infection with helminth parasites elicits a conserved program of effector and regulatory immune responses to eradicate the worm, limit tissue damage, and return the gut to homeostasis. Discrete changes in the nervous system (...) , and to a lesser extent the enteroendocrine system, occur following helminth infection but the importance of these adaptations in expelling the worm is poorly understood. Approximately 90% of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is made in enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the gut, indicative of the importance of this amine in intestinal function. Signaling via a plethora of receptor subtypes, substantial evidence illustrates that 5-HT affects immunity. A small number of studies document changes in 5

2018 Bioscience reports

179. Behavioral Mechanisms That Depend on Dopamine and Serotonin in Caenorhabditis elegans Interact With the Antipsychotics Risperidone and Aripiprazole Full Text available with Trip Pro

Behavioral Mechanisms That Depend on Dopamine and Serotonin in Caenorhabditis elegans Interact With the Antipsychotics Risperidone and Aripiprazole The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin participate in specific behavioral neuromuscular mechanisms in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Dopamine is involved in the gentle touch response and serotonin in the pharyngeal pumping rate. In its genome, the worm presents genes encoding dopamine and serotonin receptors orthologous to those of human (...) genes. Risperidone and aripiprazole are a class of drugs known as atypical antipsychotics commonly used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and irritability associated with autism. Risperidone is an antagonist of the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Aripiprazole functions as a partial agonist of the dopamine D2 receptor and as a partial agonist and antagonist of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors, respectively. Our results show that risperidone and aripiprazole alter the touch

2018 Journal of Experimental Neuroscience

180. Endothelin-1, nitric oxide, serotonin and high blood pressure in male adolescents Full Text available with Trip Pro

Endothelin-1, nitric oxide, serotonin and high blood pressure in male adolescents Essential arterial hypertension (EAH) in adolescents represents a social burden. The endothelium is involved in the pathogenesis of EAH. Imbalance of key vasoactive factors - namely nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) - is observed, and serotonin (5-HT) release is also impaired. The relationship between the factors and high blood pressure (BP) has been established mainly in preclinical studies

2018 Vascular health and risk management

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