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Serotonin

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261. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation. Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve (...) d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended

2017 PLoS ONE

262. Anatomy and behavioral function of serotonin receptors in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anatomy and behavioral function of serotonin receptors in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity

2017 PLoS ONE

263. No evidence for a role of the serotonin 4 receptor in five-factor personality traits: A positron emission tomography brain study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

No evidence for a role of the serotonin 4 receptor in five-factor personality traits: A positron emission tomography brain study. Serotonin (5-HT) brain architecture appears to be implicated in normal personality traits as supported by genetic associations and studies using molecular brain imaging. However, so far, no studies have addressed potential contributions to variation in normal personality traits from in vivo serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) brain availability, which has recently become

2017 PLoS ONE

264. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine in pregnancy: Changes in drug disposition. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine in pregnancy: Changes in drug disposition. Pregnancy may cause changes in drug disposition. The clinical consequences may be profound and even counterintuitive; in some cases pregnant women may need more than twice their usual drug dose in order to maintain therapeutic drug levels. For antidepressants, evidence on drug disposition in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy on serum levels (...) of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and venlafaxine in a large and naturalistic patient material, in order to provide tentative dose recommendations for pregnant women.Using patient data from two routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) services in Norway with linkage to the national birth registry, dose-adjusted serum drug concentrations of SSRIs and venlafaxine during pregnancy were compared to the women's own baseline (non-pregnant) values, using a linear mixed model.Overall, the TDM

2017 PLoS ONE

265. The Protective Action Encoding of Serotonin Transients in the Human Brain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Protective Action Encoding of Serotonin Transients in the Human Brain. The role of serotonin in human brain function remains elusive due, at least in part, to our inability to measure rapidly the local concentration of this neurotransmitter. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to infer serotonergic signaling from the striatum of 14 brains of human patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we report these novel measurements and show that they correlate with outcomes and decisions (...) in a sequential investment game. We find that serotonergic concentrations transiently increase as a whole following negative reward prediction errors, while reversing when counterfactual losses predominate. This provides initial evidence that the serotonergic system acts as an opponent to dopamine signaling, as anticipated by theoretical models. Serotonin transients on one trial were also associated with actions on the next trial in a manner that correlated with decreased exposure to poor outcomes. Thus

2018 Neuropsychopharmacology

266. Platelet-Activating Antibodies are Detectable at the Earliest Onset of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia, with Implications for the Operating Characteristics of the Serotonin-Release Assay. (Abstract)

Platelet-Activating Antibodies are Detectable at the Earliest Onset of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia, with Implications for the Operating Characteristics of the Serotonin-Release Assay. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic drug reaction caused by platelet-activating antibodies that recognize platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. It is unknown whether platelet-activating antibodies are detectable at the onset of the HIT-related platelet count fall.Available blood (...) samples from 18 patients obtained at onset of HIT were tested using the serotonin-release assay (SRA), a test for platelet-activating antibodies, and a PF4-dependent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patient samples showing a delay of > 2 days between ELISA and SRA seroconversion were tested for subthreshold levels of platelet-activating antibodies using two modifications of the SRA that amplify detection of HIT antibodies. We also estimated SRA sensitivity and specificity in two

2018 Chest

267. Regulatory mechanism of CCN2 production by serotonin (5-HT) via 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in chondrocytes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Regulatory mechanism of CCN2 production by serotonin (5-HT) via 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in chondrocytes. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) is recognized as a neurotransmitter in the central nerve system and as a regulator of systemic blood pressure in the peripheral tissues. Recently, it was reported that 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) were expressed in cartilage tissues lacking both vessels and neurons, suggesting possible novel functions of 5-HT during cartilage development

2017 PLoS ONE

268. Psychological stress in aged female mice causes acute hypophagia independent of central serotonin 2C receptor activation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Psychological stress in aged female mice causes acute hypophagia independent of central serotonin 2C receptor activation. Sex differences exist in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis following exposure to stress, and the stress response is further affected by aging. This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of hypophagia in aged female mice exposed to stress. Immediately after a stress load, aged female mice exhibited acute hypophagia and a rise in plasma (...) corticosterone levels. The administration of a serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) antagonist suppressed plasma corticosterone but did not affect the reduction in food intake. In contrast, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, rikkunshito (RKT), significantly inhibited the reduction in food intake. An increase in peripheral acylated ghrelin levels during fasting, which occurs in young mice, was not observed in aged female mice. Moreover, in these mice, significantly increased levels of ghrelin and gastric

2017 PLoS ONE

269. Augmented capacity for peripheral serotonin release in human obesity. (Abstract)

Augmented capacity for peripheral serotonin release in human obesity. Evidence from animal studies highlights an important role for serotonin (5-HT), derived from gut enterochromaffin (EC) cells, in regulating hepatic glucose production, lipolysis and thermogenesis, and promoting obesity and dysglycemia. Evidence in humans is limited, although elevated plasma 5-HT concentrations are linked to obesity.We assessed (i) plasma 5-HT concentrations before and during intraduodenal glucose infusion (4

2018 International Journal of Obesity

270. Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on the prognosis of patients with medication overuse headache. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on the prognosis of patients with medication overuse headache. Medication overuse headache is a disabling headache disorder. Withdraw treatment plus preventive medication may lead to a better outcome. However, the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on the treatment of medication overuse headache is still unknown.In this study, we followed up medication overuse headache patients diagnosed at the West China Hospital (...) therapy. Among responders, there are 5 (8.6%) relapse patients. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment can increase the effect of withdrawal therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.016, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.003, 0.091, P < .001) and it was an important predictor of patients' outcome (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.255, 95%CI: 0.09-0.724).Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor can increase the therapeutic effect in medication overuse headache withdrawal therapy and can reduce the risk of relapse.

2018 Medicine

271. Chronic Intake of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Fluoxetine Enhances Atherosclerosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chronic Intake of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Fluoxetine Enhances Atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular diseases and depression are the leading causes of disability in Western countries. Clinical data on potential cardiovascular effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the most commonly used antidepressant drugs, are controversial. In addition to blocking serotonin reuptake transporter in the brain, SSRIs deplete the major peripheral serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT (...) ]) storage by inhibiting serotonin reuptake transporter-mediated uptake in platelets. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of chronic SSRI intake on the development of atherosclerosis.Treatment of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with the SSRI fluoxetine for 2, 4, or 16 weeks increased atherosclerotic lesion formation, with most pronounced effect during early plaque development. Intravital microscopy of carotid arteries revealed enhanced myeloid cell adhesion on fluoxetine treatment

2018 Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

272. Activation in Children and Adolescents Treated With Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: A Weighty Reason? (Abstract)

Activation in Children and Adolescents Treated With Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: A Weighty Reason? Activation is a behavioral adverse event related to the use of psychotropic medication. Its high incidence in pediatrics and in childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders suggests it may be linked to neurodevelopment. However, previous studies have scarcely examined the role that factors relevant to developmental pharmacokinetics, such as body weight, may play in the onset (...) of activation in children and adolescents.We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalized patients to identify the risk factors for activation in children and adolescents treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Our focus was on factors related to development, including body weight, to explore the relationship between activation and neurodevelopmental processes.Among the 139 participants (mean age, 14 ± 2.3 years), activation appeared in 29 (20.9%). Age 12 years or younger and comorbid

2018 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

273. The Impact of Prolonged, Selective, Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment on Serum Lipid and Glucose Levels in Children and Adolescents: A Preliminary Prospective Study. (Abstract)

The Impact of Prolonged, Selective, Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment on Serum Lipid and Glucose Levels in Children and Adolescents: A Preliminary Prospective Study. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common and is considered safe and effective in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in pediatric populations. SSRI administration, however, is associated with adverse metabolic effects. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the possible

2018 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

274. Serum serotonin levels in patients with epileptic seizures. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serum serotonin levels in patients with epileptic seizures. Profound cardiovascular and/or respiratory dysfunction is part of the terminal cascade in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Central control of ventilation is mediated by brainstem rhythm generators, which are influenced by a variety of inputs, many of which use the modulatory neurotransmitter serotonin to mediate important inputs for breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate epileptic seizure-induced changes (...) in serum serotonin levels and whether there are potential implications for SUDEP. Forty-one epileptic patients were pooled into 2 groups based on seizure type as (1) generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) of genetic generalized epilepsy and focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS; n = 19) and (2) focal seizures (n = 26) based on clinical signs using surface video-electroencephalography. Postictal serotonin levels were statistically significantly higher after GTCS and FBTCS compared

2018 Epilepsia

275. Serotonin - a new potential risk factor for falls, low BMD and fracture. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin - a new potential risk factor for falls, low BMD and fracture. 30075050 2018 08 31 1523-4681 33 9 2018 Sep Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research J. Bone Miner. Res. Serotonin: A New Potential Risk Factor for Falls, Low BMD, and Fracture. 1558-1559 10.1002/jbmr.3560 Vestergaard Peter P Steno Diabetes Center North Jutland, Aalborg, Denmark. Department of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg

2018 Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

276. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Reduce Longitudinal Growth in Risperidone-Treated Boys. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Reduce Longitudinal Growth in Risperidone-Treated Boys. To examine whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) inhibit longitudinal growth in children and adolescents, particularly in the early stages of puberty, using a sample of convenience comprising risperidone-treated boys.Data from four clinic-based studies in risperidone-treated 5- to 17-year-old boys with no general medical conditions were combined for this analysis. Anthropometric

2018 Journal of Pediatrics

277. Implications of Off-Target Serotoninergic Drug Activity - An Analysis of Serotonin Syndrome Reports using a Systematic Bioinformatics Approach. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Implications of Off-Target Serotoninergic Drug Activity - An Analysis of Serotonin Syndrome Reports using a Systematic Bioinformatics Approach. Serotonergic adverse drug events (ADEs) are caused by enhanced intrasynaptic concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). No systematic process currently exists for evaluating cumulative 5-HT and off-target toxicity of serotonergic drugs. The primary study aim was to create a Serotonergic Expanded Bioactivity Matrix (SEBM) by using a molecular (...) bioinformatics, polypharmacologic approach for assessment of the participation of individual 5-HT drugs in serotonin syndrome (SS) reports.Publicly available databases including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), ChEMBL, DrugBank, PubChem, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were queried for computational and pharmacologic data.An in-house bioinformatics TargetSearch program ( http://dxulab.org/software) was used to characterize 71 serotonergic

2018 Pharmacotherapy

278. CSF miR-16 expression and its association with miR-16 and serotonin transporter in the raphe of a rat model of depression. (Abstract)

CSF miR-16 expression and its association with miR-16 and serotonin transporter in the raphe of a rat model of depression. Depression is a common mental disorder with unknown mechanism. Emerging evidence shows that miRNAs play a critical role in the process of depression. Here we reported the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) miR-16 expression and its association with miR-16 and serotonin transporter (SERT) in the raphe of a rat model of depression.20 rats were randomized to the control or CUMS

2018 Journal of Affective Disorders

279. LP533401 restores bone health in 5/6 nephrectomized rats by a decrease of gut-derived serotonin and regulation of serum phosphate through the inhibition of phosphate co-transporters expression in the kidneys. (Abstract)

LP533401 restores bone health in 5/6 nephrectomized rats by a decrease of gut-derived serotonin and regulation of serum phosphate through the inhibition of phosphate co-transporters expression in the kidneys. LP533401 is an orally bioavailable small molecule that inhibits tryptophan hydroxylase-1, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of gut-derived serotonin (GDS). Recently, we showed that increased GDS in rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) affected bone strength and metabolism. We (...) tested the hypothesis that treatment with LP533401 could reverse CKD-induced bone loss in uremia. Sixteen weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, rats were randomized into untreated (CKD), treated with vehicle (VEH) and LP533401 at a dose of 30 or 100 mg/kg daily for 8 weeks. Treatment with LP533401 decreased serotonin turnover and restored bone mineral status, microarchitecture, and strength in CKD rats to the values observed in the controls. In parallel with the reduction of serotonin, serum phosphate levels

2018 Bone

280. High Serum Serotonin Predicts Increased Risk for Hip Fracture and Nonvertebral Osteoporotic Fractures: The MrOS Sweden Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High Serum Serotonin Predicts Increased Risk for Hip Fracture and Nonvertebral Osteoporotic Fractures: The MrOS Sweden Study. Because several studies have implicated serotonin as a regulator of bone mass, we here explore its potential association on fracture risk and falls, as on bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength, in humans. Serum levels of serotonin were analyzed in 950 men (aged 69 to 81 years), participating in the Gothenburg part of the population-based study MrOS Sweden. Men (...) taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) had a mean value of 31.2 μg/L compared with 159.4 μg/L in those not taking SSRIs. SSRI users were excluded from further analysis. During 10-year follow-up, 224 men exhibited fractures, including 97 nonvertebral osteoporotic fractures (57 hip fractures), and 86 vertebral fractures. Serotonin was associated with hip fracture in linear analysis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.58) and to all fractures in a nonlinear

2018 Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

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