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Serotonin

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241. Neuronal differentiation induces SNORD115 expression and is accompanied by post-transcriptional changes of serotonin receptor 2c mRNA Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuronal differentiation induces SNORD115 expression and is accompanied by post-transcriptional changes of serotonin receptor 2c mRNA The serotonin neurotransmitter system is widespread in the brain and implicated in modulation of neuronal responses to other neurotransmitters. Among 14 serotonin receptor subtypes, 5-HT2cR plays a pivotal role in controlling neuronal network excitability. Serotonergic activity conveyed through receptor 5-HT2cR is regulated post-transcriptionally via two

2018 Scientific reports

242. Dimer Interface of the Human Serotonin Transporter and Effect of the Membrane Composition Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dimer Interface of the Human Serotonin Transporter and Effect of the Membrane Composition The oligomeric state of membrane proteins has recently emerged in many cases as having an effect on their function. However, the intrinsic dynamics of their spatial organization in cells and model systems makes it challenging to characterize. Here we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at multiple resolutions to determine the dimer conformation of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT). From self

2018 Scientific reports

243. The Effect of Obesity on the Availabilities of Dopamine and Serotonin Transporters Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Effect of Obesity on the Availabilities of Dopamine and Serotonin Transporters The authors investigated relations between obesity, age, and sex and the availabilities of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and extrastriatal serotonin transporter (SERT) by 123I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography. The study population consisted of 192 healthy controls with screening 123I-FP-CIT scans. Specific bindings of 123I-FP-CIT to DAT and SERT were calculated using regions of interest

2018 Scientific reports

244. Interaction of Human Enterochromaffin Cells with Human Enteric Adenovirus 41 Leads to Serotonin Release and Subsequent Activation of Enteric Glia Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interaction of Human Enterochromaffin Cells with Human Enteric Adenovirus 41 Leads to Serotonin Release and Subsequent Activation of Enteric Glia Cells Human adenovirus 41 (HAdV-41) causes acute gastroenteritis in young children. The main characteristics of HAdV-41 infection are diarrhea and vomiting. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of HAdV-41-induced diarrhea is unknown, as a suitable small-animal model has not been described. In this study, we used the human midgut carcinoid cell line (...) GOT1 to investigate the effect of HAdV-41 infection and the individual HAdV-41 capsid proteins on serotonin release by enterochromaffin cells and on enteric glia cell (EGC) activation. We first determined that HAdV-41 could infect the enterochromaffin cells. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the cells expressed HAdV-41-specific coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR); flow cytometry analysis supported these findings. HAdV-41 infection of the enterochromaffin cells induced serotonin

2018 Journal of virology

245. Modulation of Tryptophan and Serotonin Metabolism as a Biochemical Basis of the Behavioral Effects of Use and Withdrawal of Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids and Other Image- and Performance-Enhancing Agents Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modulation of Tryptophan and Serotonin Metabolism as a Biochemical Basis of the Behavioral Effects of Use and Withdrawal of Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids and Other Image- and Performance-Enhancing Agents Modulation of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism may underpin the behavioral effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) and associated image and performance enhancers. Euphoria, arousal, and decreased anxiety observed with moderate use and exercise may involve enhanced cerebral serotonin synthesis (...) and function by increased release of albumin-bound Trp and estrogen-mediated liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition and enhancement of serotonin function. Aggression, anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and psychosis, observed on withdrawal of AAS or with use of large doses, can be caused by decreased serotonin synthesis due to TDO induction on withdrawal, excess Trp inhibiting the 2 enzymes of serotonin synthesis, and increased cerebral levels of neuroactive kynurenines. Exercise and excessive

2018 International journal of tryptophan research : IJTR

246. An Interaction between Serotonin Receptor Signaling and Dopamine Enhances Goal-Directed Vigor and Persistence in Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Interaction between Serotonin Receptor Signaling and Dopamine Enhances Goal-Directed Vigor and Persistence in Mice The functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand SB242084 can increase motivation and have rapid onset anti-depressant-like effects. We sought to identify the specific behavioral effects of SB242084 treatment and elucidate the mechanism in female and male mice. Using a quantitative behavioral approach, we determined that SB242084 increases the vigor and persistence of goal (...) that a specific serotonin receptor cross talks to the DA system. Together, this information provides promise for the development of treatments for apathy, a serious clinical condition that can afflict patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motivated behaviors are modulated by reward value, effort demands, and cost-benefit computations. This information drives the decision to act, which action to select, and the intensity with which the selected action is performed. Because

2018 The Journal of Neuroscience

247. The New *G29A and G1222A of HCRTR1, 5-HTTLPR of SLC6A4 Polymorphisms and Hypocretin-1, Serotonin Concentrations in Migraine Patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

The New *G29A and G1222A of HCRTR1, 5-HTTLPR of SLC6A4 Polymorphisms and Hypocretin-1, Serotonin Concentrations in Migraine Patients Migraine is one of the most common primary headache disorders that affects 11% of the adult population. The disease is divided into two main clinical subtypes: migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). Both serotonergic and hypocretinergic systems are involved in the migraine pathomechanism. Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 (...) ) and the hypocretin receptor 1 gene (HCRTR1) may be risk factors for migraine development due to their ability to affect serotonin and hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) concentrations. The aim of the study was to analyze, for the first time in the Polish population, the 5-HT transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in SLC6A4, G1222A (rs2271933) and the never before studied *G29A (rs41263963) polymorphisms in the HCRTR1 gene, as well as the 5-HT and hypocretin-1 plasma concentrations in migraine patients (MA, MO

2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

248. Gut microbiota regulates maturation of the adult enteric nervous system via enteric serotonin networks Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gut microbiota regulates maturation of the adult enteric nervous system via enteric serotonin networks The enteric nervous system (ENS) is crucial for essential gastrointestinal physiologic functions such as motility, fluid secretion, and blood flow. The gut is colonized by trillions of bacteria that regulate host production of several signaling molecules including serotonin (5-HT) and other hormones and neurotransmitters. Approximately 90% of 5-HT originates from the intestine, and activation

2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

249. Abnormal Serotonin Levels During Perinatal Development Lead to Behavioral Deficits in Adulthood Full Text available with Trip Pro

Abnormal Serotonin Levels During Perinatal Development Lead to Behavioral Deficits in Adulthood Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the best-studied modulatory neurotransmitters with ubiquitous presynaptic release and postsynaptic reception. 5-HT has been implicated in a wide variety of brain functions, ranging from autonomic regulation, sensory perception, feeding and motor function to emotional regulation and cognition. The role of this neuromodulator in neuropsychiatric diseases is unquestionable (...) with important neuropsychiatric medications, e.g., most antidepressants, targeting this system. Importantly, 5-HT modulates neurodevelopment and changes in its levels during development can have life-long consequences. In this mini-review, we highlight that exposure to both low and high serotonin levels during the perinatal period can lead to behavioral deficits in adulthood. We focus on three exogenous factors that can change 5-HT levels during the critical perinatal period: dietary tryptophan depletion

2018 Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience

250. Linking organismal growth, coping styles, stress reactivity, and metabolism via responses against a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in an insect Full Text available with Trip Pro

Linking organismal growth, coping styles, stress reactivity, and metabolism via responses against a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in an insect Evidence suggests that brain serotonin (5-HT) is one of the central mediators of different types of animal personality. We tested this assumption in field crickets Gryllus integer using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Crickets were selected for slow and rapid development and tested for their coping styles under non-stressful

2018 Scientific reports

251. Perinatal MAO Inhibition Produces Long-Lasting Impairment of Serotonin Function in Offspring Full Text available with Trip Pro

Perinatal MAO Inhibition Produces Long-Lasting Impairment of Serotonin Function in Offspring In addition to transmitter functions, many neuroamines have trophic or ontogenetic regulatory effects important to both normal and disordered brain development. In previous work (Mejia et al., 2002), we showed that pharmacologically inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity during murine gestation increases the prevalence of behaviors thought to reflect impulsivity and aggression. The goal (...) of the present study was to determine the extent to which this treatment influences dopamine and serotonin innervation of murine cortical and subcortical areas, as measured by regional density of dopamine (DAT) and serotonin transporters (SERT). We measured DAT and SERT densities at 3 developmental times (PND 14, 35 and 90) following inhibition of MAO A, or MAO B or both throughout murine gestation and early post-natal development. DAT binding was unaltered within the nigrostriatal pathway, but concurrent

2018 Brain sciences

252. Serotonin Selectively Increases Detectability of Motion Stimuli in the Electrosensory System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin Selectively Increases Detectability of Motion Stimuli in the Electrosensory System Serotonergic innervation of sensory areas is found ubiquitously across the central nervous system of vertebrates. Here, we used a system's level approach to investigate the role of serotonin on processing motion stimuli in the electrosensory system of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus albifrons. We found that exogenous serotonin application increased the firing activity of pyramidal neural responses (...) to both looming and receding motion. Separating spikes belonging to bursts from those that were isolated revealed that this effect was primarily due to increased burst firing. Moreover, when investigating whether firing activity during stimulation could be discriminated from baseline (i.e., in the absence of stimulation), we found that serotonin increased stimulus discriminability only for some stimuli. This is because increased burst firing was most prominent for these. Further, the effects

2018 eNeuro

253. Established amyloid-β pathology is unaffected by chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Established amyloid-β pathology is unaffected by chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been suggested to mitigate amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology in Alzheimer's disease, in addition to an antidepressant mechanism of action.We investigated whether chronic treatment with paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, mitigates Aβ pathology in plaque-bearing double-transgenic amyloid precursor (...) protein (APP)swe/presenilin 1 (PS1)ΔE9 mutants. In addition, we addressed whether serotonin depletion affects Aβ pathology. Treatments were assessed by measurement of serotonin transporter occupancy and high-performance liquid chromatography. The effect of paroxetine on Aβ pathology was evaluated by stereological plaque load estimation and Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Contrary to our hypothesis, paroxetine therapy did not mitigate Aβ pathology, and depletion of brain serotonin

2018 Alzheimer's & dementia : translational research & clinical interventions

254. Reward probability and timing uncertainty alter the effect of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons on patience Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reward probability and timing uncertainty alter the effect of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons on patience Recent experiments have shown that optogenetic activation of serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in mice enhances patience in waiting for future rewards. Here, we show that serotonin effect in promoting waiting is maximized by both high probability and high timing uncertainty of reward. Optogenetic activation of serotonergic neurons prolongs waiting time in no-reward trials (...) in a task with 75% food reward probability, but not with 50 or 25% reward probabilities. Serotonin effect in promoting waiting increases when the timing of reward presentation becomes unpredictable. To coherently explain the experimental data, we propose a Bayesian decision model of waiting that assumes that serotonin neuron activation increases the prior probability or subjective confidence of reward delivery. The present data and modeling point to the possibility of a generalized role of serotonin

2018 Nature communications

255. The scoop on serotonin syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

The scoop on serotonin syndrome 30237838 2018 11 14 1715-1635 151 4 2018 Jul-Aug Canadian pharmacists journal : CPJ = Revue des pharmaciens du Canada : RPC Can Pharm J (Ott) The scoop on serotonin syndrome. 233-239 10.1177/1715163518779096 Foong Ai-Leng AL University of Waterloo School of Pharmacy, Waterloo, Ontario. Patel Tejal T University of Waterloo School of Pharmacy, Waterloo, Ontario. Kellar Jamie J University of Waterloo School of Pharmacy, Waterloo, Ontario. Grindrod Kelly A KA

2018 Canadian Pharmacists Journal : CPJ

256. Association Between Serotonin Syndrome and Second‐Generation Antipsychotics via Pharmacological Target‐Adverse Event Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association Between Serotonin Syndrome and Second‐Generation Antipsychotics via Pharmacological Target‐Adverse Event Analysis Case reports suggest an association between second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and serotonin syndrome (SS). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) was analyzed to generate hypotheses about how SGAs may interact with pharmacological targets associated with SS. FAERS was integrated with additional sources to link

2018 Clinical and translational science

257. Decreased Pretreatment Amygdalae Serotonin Transporter Binding in Unipolar Depression Remitters: A Prospective PET Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Decreased Pretreatment Amygdalae Serotonin Transporter Binding in Unipolar Depression Remitters: A Prospective PET Study Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating condition that affects over 14 million Americans. Remission occurs only in a minority of individuals after first-line antidepressant treatment (∼35%); predictors of treatment outcome are therefore needed. Using PET imaging with a radiotracer specific for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), 11C-McN5652, we found that patients (...) with MDD who did not achieve remission after 12 mo of naturalistic treatment had lower pretreatment midbrain and amygdala binding than healthy volunteers. Here, using a superior 5-HTT tracer, 11C-DASB, we repeated this study with a prospective design with 8 wk of standardized treatment with escitalopram. As this same cohort also underwent 11C-WAY100635 scans (serotonin-1A receptor [5-HT1A]), we examined whether using both pretreatment 5-HTT and 5-HT1A binding could improve prediction of posttreatment

2018 Journal of Nuclear Medicine

258. The Role of Serotonin during Skin Healing in Post-Thermal Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Role of Serotonin during Skin Healing in Post-Thermal Injury Post-burn trauma significantly raises tissue serotonin concentration at the initial stages of injury, which leads us to investigate its possible role in post burn wound healing. Therefore, we planned this study to examine the role of serotonin in wound healing through in vitro and in vivo models of burn injuries. Results from in vitro analysis revealed that serotonin decreased apoptosis and increased cell survival significantly (...) in human fibroblasts and neonatal keratinocytes. Cellular proliferation also increased significantly in both cell types. Moreover, serotonin stimulation significantly accelerated the cell migration, resulting in narrowing of the scratch zone in human neonatal keratinocytes and fibroblasts cultures. Whereas, fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and ketanserin (serotonin receptor 2A inhibitor) reversed these effects. Scald burn mice model (20% total body surface area) showed

2018 International journal of molecular sciences

259. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and breast cancer survival: a population-based cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and breast cancer survival: a population-based cohort study. Nearly 50% of breast cancer patients suffer from depression or anxiety. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the first-line pharmacological treatment for depression, have been implicated in breast cancer development through increased prolactin levels and tamoxifen metabolism inhibition. Previous studies of breast cancer progression have focused on tamoxifen users, or have been

2018 Breast cancer research : BCR

260. Anatomical relationships between serotonin 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors in living human brain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anatomical relationships between serotonin 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors in living human brain. Seven healthy volunteers underwent PET scans with [18F]altanserin and [11C]FLB 457 for 5-HT2A and D2 receptors, respectively. As a measure of receptor density, a binding potential (BP) was calculated from PET data for 76 cerebral cortical regions. A correlation matrix was calculated between the binding potentials of [18F]altanserin and [11C]FLB 457 for those regions. The regional relationships

2017 PLoS ONE

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