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Serotonin

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221. Evidence for Sprouting of Dopamine and Serotonin Axons in the Pallidum of Parkinsonian Monkeys Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence for Sprouting of Dopamine and Serotonin Axons in the Pallidum of Parkinsonian Monkeys This light and electron microscopie immunohistochemical quantitative study aimed at determining the state of the dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) innervations of the internal (GPi) and external (GPe) segments of the pallidum in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) rendered parkinsonian by systemic injections of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In contrast to the prominent DA

2018 Frontiers in neuroanatomy

222. Inter-individual differences in serotonin and glutamate co-transmission reflect differentiation in context-induced conditioned 50-kHz USVs response after morphine withdrawal Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inter-individual differences in serotonin and glutamate co-transmission reflect differentiation in context-induced conditioned 50-kHz USVs response after morphine withdrawal A growing body of research provides compelling evidence that in rats 50-kHz USVs are a form of expression of positive emotions. Context-induced 50-kHz USVs emission is variable among rats, indicating individual differences in contextual response bound up with pharmacological reward. The aims of this study were to: extract (...) the most important neurotransmitters related to context-induced conditioned 50-kHz USVs response; find biological basis of existing inter-individual differences in context-induced conditioned 50-kHz USVs response; create a model of all-to-all neurotransmitters correlations. The data collected here confirms that re-exposure to the context of morphine administration after the withdrawal period increases the level of 50-kHz USVs and this contextual response is associated with elevated serotonin

2018 Brain structure & function

223. Association of serotonin receptor 2a haplotypes with obsessive–compulsive disorder and its treatment response in Iranian patients: a genetic and pharmacogenetic study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of serotonin receptor 2a haplotypes with obsessive–compulsive disorder and its treatment response in Iranian patients: a genetic and pharmacogenetic study Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder causing intrusive thoughts or repetitive behaviors. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used for OCD treatment, but 40%-60% of patients do not respond to them adequately. In this study, the associations of serotonin receptor 2a polymorphisms rs6311

2018 Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment

224. Brain Aromatase Modulates Serotonergic Neuron by Regulating Serotonin Levels in Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brain Aromatase Modulates Serotonergic Neuron by Regulating Serotonin Levels in Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae Teleost fish are known to express two isoforms of P450 aromatase, a key enzyme for estrogen synthesis. One of the isoforms, brain aromatase (AroB), cyp19a1b, is highly expressed during early development of zebrafish, thereby suggesting its role in brain development. On the other hand, early development of serotonergic neuron, one of the major monoamine neurons, is considered to play (...) an important role in neurogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of AroB in development of serotonergic neuron by testing the effects of (1) estradiol (E2) exposure and (2) morpholino (MO)-mediated AroB knockdown. When embryos were exposed to E2, the effects were biphasic. The low dose of E2 (0.005 µM) significantly increased serotonin (5-HT) positive area at 48 hour post-fertilization (hpf) detected by immunohistochemistry and relative mRNA levels of tryptophan hydroxylase isoforms

2018 Frontiers in endocrinology

225. The serotonin hypothesis in pulmonary hypertension revisited: targets for novel therapies (2017 Grover Conference Series) Full Text available with Trip Pro

The serotonin hypothesis in pulmonary hypertension revisited: targets for novel therapies (2017 Grover Conference Series) Increased synthesis of serotonin and/or activity of serotonin in pulmonary arteries has been implicated in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The incidence of PAH associated with diet pills such as aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine initially led to the "serotonin hypothesis of pulmonary hypertension." Over the last couple of decades (...) there has been an accumulation of convincing evidence that targeting serotonin synthesis or signaling is a novel and promising approach to the development of novel therapies for PAH. Pulmonary endothelial serotonin synthesis via tryptophan hydroxlase 1 (TPH1) is increased in patients with PAH and serotonin can act in a paracrine fashion on underlying pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), In humans, serotonin can enter PASMCs via the serotonin transporter (SERT) or activate the 5-HT1B receptor

2018 Pulmonary circulation

226. Effects of the new generation α-pyrrolidinophenones on spontaneous locomotor activities in mice, and on extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the mouse striatum Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of the new generation α-pyrrolidinophenones on spontaneous locomotor activities in mice, and on extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the mouse striatum Pyrovalerone derivatives (α-pyrrolidinophenones) form a distinct branch of synthetic cathinones, a popular group of novel psychoactive substances, and exert strong psychostimulatory effects resulting from their high potency to inhibit dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine transporters, with negligible activity at the serotonin (5

2018 Forensic Toxicology

227. Use of methylene blue in hepatic arterial infusion pump resulting in serotonin syndrome. A case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of methylene blue in hepatic arterial infusion pump resulting in serotonin syndrome. A case report We report a case of a 35 year old woman with colon cancer metastatic to liver and lung who presented for exploratory laparotomy and/placement of hepatic arterial infusion pump for chemotherapy. Surgical course was notable for aberrant hepatic artery anatomy requiring extended dissection time, vascular surgery consultation, and use of substantial methylene blue to aid in visualization. Of note (...) , patient's history was also significant for anxiety and depression, for which she was being treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) duloxetine (Cymbalta). The patient subsequently developed serotonin syndrome in the postoperative period but fully recovered. Our case highlights the need for close attention to methylene dosing recommendations and improved communication between perioperative care providers (surgery, anesthesia, nursing, and pharmacy) to prevent such occurrences.

2018 Anesthesiology case reports

228. Repeated Clozapine Increases the Level of Serotonin 5-HT1AR Heterodimerization with 5-HT2A or Dopamine D2 Receptors in the Mouse Cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Repeated Clozapine Increases the Level of Serotonin 5-HT1AR Heterodimerization with 5-HT2A or Dopamine D2 Receptors in the Mouse Cortex G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heterodimers are new targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. Dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors play an important role in neurotransmission and have been implicated in many human psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether antipsychotic drugs

2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

229. Dorsal Raphe Serotonin Neurons Mediate CO2-Induced Arousal from Sleep Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dorsal Raphe Serotonin Neurons Mediate CO2-Induced Arousal from Sleep Arousal from sleep in response to CO2 is a critical protective phenomenon. Dysregulation of CO2-induced arousal contributes to morbidity and mortality from prevalent diseases, such as obstructive sleep apnea and sudden infant death syndrome. Despite the critical nature of this protective reflex, the precise mechanism for CO2-induced arousal is unknown. Because CO2 is a major regulator of breathing, prevailing theories suggest (...) that activation of respiratory chemo- and mechano-sensors is required for CO2-induced arousal. However, populations of neurons that are not involved in the regulation of breathing are also chemosensitive. Among these are serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) that comprise a component of the ascending arousal system. We hypothesized that direct stimulation of these neurons with CO2 could cause arousal from sleep independently of enhancing breathing. Dialysis of CO2-rich acidified solution

2018 The Journal of Neuroscience

230. Serotonin Disinhibits a Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory Neuron by Suppressing Ca2+-Dependent Negative Feedback Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin Disinhibits a Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory Neuron by Suppressing Ca2+-Dependent Negative Feedback Neuromodulators, such as serotonin (5-HT), alter neuronal excitability and synaptic strengths, and define different behavioral states. Neuromodulator-dependent changes in neuronal activity patterns are frequently measured using calcium reporters because calcium imaging can easily be performed on intact functioning nervous systems. With only 302 neurons, the nematode Caenorhabditis

2018 The Journal of Neuroscience

231. Vortioxetine Treatment Reverses Subchronic PCP Treatment-Induced Cognitive Impairments: A Potential Role for Serotonin Receptor-Mediated Regulation of GABA Neurotransmission Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vortioxetine Treatment Reverses Subchronic PCP Treatment-Induced Cognitive Impairments: A Potential Role for Serotonin Receptor-Mediated Regulation of GABA Neurotransmission Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive impairments that may contribute to poor functional outcomes. Clinical data suggests that the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine attenuates some cognitive impairments in MDD patients, but the mechanistic basis for these improvements is unclear. One theory

2018 Frontiers in pharmacology

232. Association of the Polygenic Scores for Personality Traits and Response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of the Polygenic Scores for Personality Traits and Response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Studies reported a strong genetic correlation between the Big Five personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, personality traits are thought to be associated with response to antidepressants treatment that might partly be mediated by genetic factors. In this study, we examined whether polygenic scores (PGSs) derived (...) from the Big Five personality traits predict treatment response and remission in patients with MDD who were prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In addition, we performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on these traits to identify genetic variants underpinning the cross-trait polygenic association. The PGS analysis was performed using data from two cohorts: the Pharmacogenomics Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomic Study (PGRN

2018 Frontiers in Psychiatry

233. The Effects of Housing Density on Social Interactions and Their Correlations with Serotonin in Rodents and Primates Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Effects of Housing Density on Social Interactions and Their Correlations with Serotonin in Rodents and Primates Population density has been suggested to affect social interactions of individuals, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. In contrast, neurotransmission of monoamines such as serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) has been demonstrated to play important roles in social behaviors. Here, we investigated whether housing density affected social interactions of rodents

2018 Scientific reports

234. Serotonin Receptor Binding Characteristics of Geissoschizine Methyl Ether, an Indole Alkaloid in Uncaria Hook Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin Receptor Binding Characteristics of Geissoschizine Methyl Ether, an Indole Alkaloid in Uncaria Hook Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM) is one of the indole alkaloids in Uncaria hook, and an active ingredient of yokukansan (YKS) that improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with several types of dementia. The pharmacological action of GM has been related to various serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes.The aim of this article is to review the binding

2018 Current Medicinal Chemistry

235. Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Causing Cardiac and Thoracic Spinal Cord Electrophysiological Abnormalities May Be Associated with Increased Cardiac Expression of Serotonin and Growth-Associated Protein-43 in Rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Causing Cardiac and Thoracic Spinal Cord Electrophysiological Abnormalities May Be Associated with Increased Cardiac Expression of Serotonin and Growth-Associated Protein-43 in Rats The aim of this study was to investigate the potential mechanisms by which chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) might induce cardiovascular disease.Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 180-250 g) were divided into the CMS group (CMS for 3 weeks) and control group (n = 10 (...) /group). Sucrose solution consumption, sucrose solution preference rate, and the open field test (horizontal and vertical movements) were used to confirm the establishment of the CMS model. Heart rate was determined in Langendorff-perfused hearts, and field action potential duration (FAPD) was measured in cardiac atrial tissue, cardiac ventricular tissue, and thoracic spinal cord segments 1-5. The expressions of serotonin (5-HT) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in cardiac ventricular tissue

2018 BioMed research international

236. High Throughput NPY-Venus and Serotonin Secretion Assays for Regulated Exocytosis in Neuroendocrine Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

High Throughput NPY-Venus and Serotonin Secretion Assays for Regulated Exocytosis in Neuroendocrine Cells Here we describe two assays to measure dense core vesicle (DCV) exocytosis-mediated cargo secretion in neuroendocrine cells. To conduct siRNA screens for novel genes in regulated DCV exocytosis, we developed a plate reader-based secretion assay using DCV cargo, NPY-Venus, and an orthogonal 3H-serotonin secretion assay. The NPY-Venus secretion assay was successfully used for a high (...) throughput siRNA screen, and the serotonin secretion assay was used to validate hits identified from the screen (Sorensen, 2017; Zhang et al., 2017).

2018 Bio-protocol

237. Opioid‐induced inhibition of the human 5‐HT and noradrenaline transporters in vitro: link to clinical reports of serotonin syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

Opioid‐induced inhibition of the human 5‐HT and noradrenaline transporters in vitro: link to clinical reports of serotonin syndrome Opioids may inhibit the 5-HT transporter (SERT) and the noradrenaline transporter (NET). NET inhibition may contribute to analgesia, and SERT inhibition or interactions with 5-HT receptors may cause serotonergic toxicity. However, the effects of different opioids on the human SERT, NET and 5-HT receptors have not been sufficiently studied.We determined (...) the potencies of different opioids to inhibit the SERT and NET in vitro using human transporter-transfected HEK293 cells. We also tested binding affinities at 5-HT1A , 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Additionally, we assessed clinical cases of the serotonin syndrome associated with each opioid reported by PubMed and a World Health Organization database.Dextromethorphan, l(R)-methadone, racemic methadone, pethidine, tramadol and tapentadol inhibited the SERT at or close to observed drug plasma or estimated

2018 British journal of pharmacology

238. Intense Activity of the Raphe Spinal Pathway Depresses Motor Activity via a Serotonin Dependent Mechanism Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intense Activity of the Raphe Spinal Pathway Depresses Motor Activity via a Serotonin Dependent Mechanism Motor fatigue occurring during prolonged physical activity has both peripheral and central origins. It was previously demonstrated that the excitability of motoneurons was decreased when a spillover of serotonin could activate extrasynaptic 5-HT1A receptors at the axon initial segment (AIS) of motoneurons. Here we investigated the impact of massive synaptic release of serotonin on motor (...) behavior in an integrated preparation of the adult turtle performing fictive scratching behaviors. We found that a prolonged electrical stimulation of the raphe spinal pathway induced a reversible inhibition of the motor behavior that lasted several tens of seconds. The effect disappeared when the spinal cord was perfused with an antagonist for 5-HT1A receptors. By demonstrating a direct impact of serotonin on motor behavior, we suggest a central role of this monoamine behind central fatigue.

2018 Frontiers in neural circuits

239. Gene Expression Profiling and Assessment of Vitamin D and Serotonin Pathway Variations in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gene Expression Profiling and Assessment of Vitamin D and Serotonin Pathway Variations in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifaceted disorder that afflicts millions of individuals worldwide. IBS is currently diagnosed based on the presence/duration of symptoms and systematic exclusion of other conditions. A more direct manner to identify IBS is needed to reduce healthcare costs and the time required for accurate diagnosis. The overarching objective (...) enrichment analysis was performed to investigate gene expression patterns in biochemical pathways. Finally, since vitamin D has been shown to modulate serotonin production in some models, the relationship between serum vitamin D and IBS was investigated via 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) chemiluminescence immunoassay.A total of 858 genetic features were identified with differential expression levels between IBS and asymptomatic populations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed the serotonergic

2018 Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility

240. The Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Agonist 3-Iodothyronamine Induces Biased Signaling at the Serotonin 1b Receptor Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Agonist 3-Iodothyronamine Induces Biased Signaling at the Serotonin 1b Receptor Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) belong to the class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and are evolutionary related to aminergic receptors. TAARs have been identified to mediate effects of trace amines. TAAR1 signaling is mainly mediated via activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase pathway. In addition to classical trace amines, TAAR1 can also be activated by the thyroid (...) hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM). Pharmacological doses of 3-T1AM induced metabolic and anapyrexic effects, which might be centrally mediated in the hypothalamus in rodents. However, the observed anapyrexic effect of 3-T1AM persists in Taar1 knock-out mice which raises the question whether further GPCRs are potential targets for 3-T1AM and mediate the observed physiological effect. Anapyrexia has been observed to be related to action on aminergic receptors such as the serotonin receptor

2018 Frontiers in pharmacology

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