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Serotonin

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21181. Effect of antidepressants and their relative affinity for the serotonin transporter on the risk of myocardial infarction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of antidepressants and their relative affinity for the serotonin transporter on the risk of myocardial infarction. Antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), attenuate platelet activation by depleting serotonin storage and may decrease risk of myocardial infarction (MI). These drugs differ in their affinity for the platelet serotonin transporter and therefore may vary in their effects on MI protection.A case-control study of first MI in patients aged (...) 40 through 75 years was conducted among 36 hospitals in a 5-county area during a 3-year period. Case subjects were patients hospitalized with a first MI, and control subjects were randomly selected from the same geographic area. Detailed information regarding medication use and other clinical and demographic data were obtained by telephone interview. Among the 1080 cases and 4256 controls who participated, there were 223 users of antidepressants with high serotonin transporter affinity, all

2003 Circulation

21182. Hypotension caused by extracorporeal circulation: serotonin from pump-activated platelets triggers nitric oxide release. (Abstract)

Hypotension caused by extracorporeal circulation: serotonin from pump-activated platelets triggers nitric oxide release. Cardiopulmonary bypass and hemodialysis often cause hypotension. We investigated a possible role of pump-induced platelet activation with consequent serotonin release.In rats, a heparin-coated extracorporeal shunt was placed between the proximal part of a carotid artery and the distal part of a femoral artery. Autoperfusion did not affect platelets or hemodynamics. Pump (...) perfusion, however, immediately elicited strong platelet aggregation, whereas aortic pressure rapidly fell to 60+/-12% (mean+/-SD) of its prepump value, partially recovered, and then progressively decreased to 70+/-12% at 2 hours. Femoral resistance doubled and then decreased to 59+/-11%. The initial changes in aortic pressure and femoral resistance were proportional to the amount of platelet aggregation, were accompanied by a rise (6-fold) in plasma serotonin levels downstream of the pump

2002 Circulation

21183. Pharmacological characterization of a serotonin receptor (5-HT7) stimulating cAMP production in human corneal epithelial cells. (Abstract)

Pharmacological characterization of a serotonin receptor (5-HT7) stimulating cAMP production in human corneal epithelial cells. To study the mRNA and pharmacology of a serotonin (5-HT) receptor positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase in normal, primary (P-CEPI), and immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (CEPI-17-CL4), by using numerous 5-HT agonists and antagonists. To determine and compare cloned human 5-HT7 receptor binding affinities of compounds with their functional potency data.RT

2003 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

21184. Is there an association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and family history of depression? (Abstract)

Is there an association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and family history of depression? To date, research examining the relationship between the serotonin transporter gene and depression has yielded both positive and negative results. This study will attempt to add further evidence to that body of literature by examining the relationship between the serotonin transporter gene and a family history of depression while controlling for a family history of completed suicide.Forty

2003 Journal of Affective Disorders

21185. Kinetic compartment modeling of [11C]-5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan for positron emission tomography assessment of serotonin synthesis in human brain. (Abstract)

Kinetic compartment modeling of [11C]-5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan for positron emission tomography assessment of serotonin synthesis in human brain. The substrate for the second enzymatic step in serotonin synthesis, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, labeled in the beta-position ([11C]-HTP), was used for positron emission tomography (PET) measurements in six healthy human participants, examined on two occasions. One- and two-tissue kinetic compartment modeling of time-radioactivity curves was performed, using (...) arterial, metabolite-corrected [11C]-HTP values as input function. The availability of unchanged tracer in arterial blood plasma was > or = 80% up to 60 minutes after injection, while [11C]-hydroxyindole acetic acid and [11C]-serotonin accounted for the remaining radioactivity, amounting to < or = 16% and < or = 4%, respectively. Compartment modeling was performed for brain stem, putamen, caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate, white matter, and superior occipital, occipitotemporal, and temporal cortices

2002 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

21186. Comparative evaluation in nonhuman primates of five PET radiotracers for imaging the serotonin transporters: [11C]McN 5652, [11C]ADAM, [11C]DASB, [11C]DAPA, and [11C]AFM. (Abstract)

Comparative evaluation in nonhuman primates of five PET radiotracers for imaging the serotonin transporters: [11C]McN 5652, [11C]ADAM, [11C]DASB, [11C]DAPA, and [11C]AFM. The recent introduction of a number of new radiotracers suitable for imaging the serotonin transporters (SERT) has radically changed the field of SERT imaging. Whereas, until recently, only one selective SERT radiotracer was available ([11C]McN 5652) for SERT imaging with positron emission tomography (PET), several new C-11

2002 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

21187. Linearized reference tissue parametric imaging methods: application to [11C]DASB positron emission tomography studies of the serotonin transporter in human brain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Linearized reference tissue parametric imaging methods: application to [11C]DASB positron emission tomography studies of the serotonin transporter in human brain. The authors developed and applied two new linearized reference tissue models for parametric images of binding potential (BP) and relative delivery (R1) for [11C]DASB positron emission tomography imaging of serotonin transporters in human brain. The original multilinear reference tissue model (MRTM(O)) was modified (MRTM) and used

2003 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

21188. Serotonin syndrome after concomitant treatment with linezolid and citalopram. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin syndrome after concomitant treatment with linezolid and citalopram. Linezolid, a new synthetic antimicrobial, is an important weapon against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although there are reports of serotonin syndrome developing after concomitant use of linezolid and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxitene, this report concerns a patient receiving citalopram who developed thrombocytopenia, serotonin syndrome, and lactic acidosis and died following

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

21189. The serotonin 5-HT4 receptor and the amyloid precursor protein processing. (Abstract)

The serotonin 5-HT4 receptor and the amyloid precursor protein processing. A large body of evidence supports a major role for the serotonin 5-HT(4) receptor in learning and memory and it is suggested that 5-HT(4) agonists may be beneficial for memory disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 5-HT(4) receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase. In this communication we show that a neuronal isoform of the human 5-HT(4 (...) ) receptor, h5-HT(4(g)) regulates the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP695). This process is observed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably coexpressing the neuronal h5-HT(4(g)) receptor isoform as well as the human APP695. The 5-HT(4) agonists strongly stimulate the release of the non-amyloidogenic soluble amyloid precursor protein sAPPalpha as detected by immunoblot. Prucalopride was more potent than serotonin (5-HT) with regard to enhanced of sAPPalpha secretion. This process

2003 Experimental Gerontology

21190. Exaggerated adrenomedullary response to immobilization in mice with targeted disruption of the serotonin transporter gene. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Exaggerated adrenomedullary response to immobilization in mice with targeted disruption of the serotonin transporter gene. This study examined whether serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene knockout influences adrenomedullary, sympathoneural, or hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal responses to acute immobilization. In conscious, cannulated mice, arterial plasma concentrations of catecholamines, ACTH, and corticosterone were measured at baseline and after 15 min of immobilization. Tissue levels (...) of serotonin (5-HT), catecholamines, and hormones were also measured in pituitary and adrenal glands. At baseline, adrenal and pituitary 5-HT concentrations in knockout (5-HTT(-/-)) mice were markedly lower than those in littermate control (5-HTT(+/+)) mice, whereas the groups did not differ in levels of catecholamines or hormones in plasma or tissue. Immobilization increased plasma levels of catecholamines, ACTH, and corticosterone in all genotypes. 5-HTT(-/-) mice had exaggerated responses of plasma

2002 Endocrinology

21191. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-responsive Cushing's syndrome: the demonstration of LH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in hyperplastic adrenal cells, which respond to chorionic gonadotropin and serotonin agonists in vitro. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Luteinizing hormone (LH)-responsive Cushing's syndrome: the demonstration of LH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in hyperplastic adrenal cells, which respond to chorionic gonadotropin and serotonin agonists in vitro. In a substantial part of adrenal adenomas and hyperplasias from patients with Cushing's syndrome, cortisol production is controlled by the expression of aberrant hormone receptors on adrenocortical cells. We present in vivo and in vitro data of two patients with a LH-responsive (...) (or possibly increased) adrenal LH receptor expression. This variant is further characterized by adrenal responsiveness to 5-HT4 receptor agonists, possibly pointing to an interaction between LH and serotonin in the regulation of cortisol secretion. Despite the regulatory potential of LH and 5-HT4 receptor agonists on cortisol production in our patients, their adrenals seemed to be still sensitive to ACTH, both in vivo and in vitro.

2003 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

21192. Convulsive ergotism: epidemics of the serotonin syndrome? (Abstract)

Convulsive ergotism: epidemics of the serotonin syndrome? Between 1085 and 1927, epidemics of "convulsive ergotism" were widespread east of the Rhine in Europe due to consumption of grain contaminated with ergot, which is produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea. West of the Rhine, consumption of ergot-contaminated food caused epidemics of gangrenous ergotism. The clinical features of convulsive ergotism--muscle twitching and spasms, changes in mental state, hallucinations, sweating, and fever (...) lasting for several weeks--suggest serotonergic overstimulation of the CNS (ie, the serotonin syndrome). The ergot alkaloids are serotonin agonists. Dihydroergotamine binds to serotonin receptors in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which is the site of neuropathological changes in convulsive ergotism. Dihydroergotamine given to human beings can cause the serotonin syndrome. Ergots produced by different strains of Claviceps purpurea, and those growing in different soils, may have different ergot

2003 Lancet Neurology

21193. Positron emission tomography of striatal serotonin transporters in Parkinson disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Positron emission tomography of striatal serotonin transporters in Parkinson disease. Little is known about serotonin neurons in Parkinson disease (PD).To study the serotonin system in PD with positron emission tomography, using the serotonin transporter radioligand [11C](+)McN5652.We measured the density of the serotonin transporter and the density of [11C]WIN35,428-labeled dopamine transporters in the striatum of 13 adults with PD and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. To assess the effects (...) potential confounding effects of blood flow, brain atrophy, or partial volume effects. Reductions in serotonin transporter binding correlated with ratings of disease staging.These results suggest that the density of serotonin transporters, like that of dopamine transporters, is reduced in the striatum of patients with PD and that these changes are related to disease stage.

2003 Archives of Neurology

21194. A polymorphism in the serotonin receptor 3A (HTR3A) gene and its association with harm avoidance in women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A polymorphism in the serotonin receptor 3A (HTR3A) gene and its association with harm avoidance in women. The brain neurotransmitter serotonin is known to affect various aspects of human behavior, including personality traits. Serotonin receptor type 3 is a ligand-gated channel encoded by 2 different subunit genes, HTR3A and HTR3B. A polymorphism (C178T) in the 5' region of the HTR3A gene has recently been identified and suggested to be of functional importance.To elucidate the possible

2003 Archives of General Psychiatry

21195. 5HT1A serotonin receptor agonists inhibit Plasmodium falciparum by blocking a membrane channel. Full Text available with Trip Pro

5HT1A serotonin receptor agonists inhibit Plasmodium falciparum by blocking a membrane channel. To identify new leads for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, we screened a panel of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT]) receptor agonists and antagonists and determined their effects on parasite growth. The 5HT1A receptor agonists 8-hydroxy-N-(di-n-propyl)-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenylethylamine inhibited the growth of P (...) . falciparum in vitro (50% inhibitory concentrations, 0.4, 0.7, and 1.5 microM, respectively). In further characterizing the antiparasitic effects of 8-OH-DPAT, we found that this serotonin receptor agonist did not affect the growth of Leishmania infantum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, or Trichostrongylus colubriformis in vitro and did not demonstrate cytotoxicity against the human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5. 8-OH-DPAT had similar levels of growth inhibition against several different P

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

21196. Biochemical evidence for the presence of serotonin transporters in the rat cochlea. (Abstract)

Biochemical evidence for the presence of serotonin transporters in the rat cochlea. Cochlear serotonergic innervation is constituted by efferent fibers projecting both to the area below the inner and the outer hair cells. Previous detection of serotonin (5-HT) metabolites and 5-HT receptor mRNAs suggests the existence of serotonergic synaptic activity in the cochlea. The present study explores this possibility through the effect of 6-nitroquipazine (6-NQ), a 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitor

2003 Hearing Research

21197. Platelet serotonin transporter in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome both before and after treatment with alosetron. (Abstract)

Platelet serotonin transporter in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome both before and after treatment with alosetron. Serotonin reuptake is mediated by a transporter protein (SERT), and its dysfunctions can alter serotonergic transmission. The present study examines the binding profile of platelet SERT in healthy volunteers as well as in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS), both before and after treatment with the 5-HT(3) receptor (...) ) and K(d) values (0.17 +/- 0.07 nmol/L) did not change.The present results indicate that SERT expressed on platelet membranes of D-IBS patients is characterized by low density and binding affinity and suggest a possible correlation between the reduced capacity of serotonin reuptake and the severity of D-IBS symptoms.

2003 American Journal of Gastroenterology

21198. NO-induced migraine attack: strong increase in plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentration and negative correlation with platelet serotonin release. (Abstract)

NO-induced migraine attack: strong increase in plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentration and negative correlation with platelet serotonin release. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in the plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentration and platelet serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT) content during the immediate headache and the delayed genuine migraine attack provoked by nitroglycerin. Fifteen female migraineurs (without aura) and eight (...) after the cessation of the migraine. In addition, both change and peak, showed significant positive correlations with migraine headache intensity (P<0.001). However, plasma CGRP concentrations failed to change during immediate headache and in the subjects with no migraine attack. Basal CGRP concentration was significantly higher and platelet 5-HT content tended to be lower in subjects who experienced a migraine attack. Platelet serotonin content decreased significantly (P<0.01) after nitroglycerin

2003 Pain

21199. Serotonin and experimental pain in healthy young volunteers. (Abstract)

Serotonin and experimental pain in healthy young volunteers. The role of serotonin in the modulation of nociceptive input has been widely studied, and a link between serum serotonin (S-5HT) and pain thresholds elicited in patients with chronic painful pathologies has been shown. In the light of contradictory concepts on pain message modulation by S-5HT, this study tries to define whether S-5HT displays a nociceptive or antinociceptive role in experimental pain evaluation in healthy (...) volunteers.In 20 healthy young volunteers, 10 men and 10 women (21 +/- 2 years old), blood serotonin measurements were made, pressure pain thresholds was determined, and statistical analysis was performed.This study showed a significant negative correlation of total blood serotonin with experimental pain detection threshold (P < 0.05, r = 0.444), but not with pain tolerance, while sex-related correlations of serotonin and thresholds were not significant. Lower serotonin concentration (P = 0.02), higher pain

2003 Clinical Journal of Pain

21200. Differential effects of thiopental on methacholine- and serotonin-induced bronchoconstriction in dogs. (Abstract)

Differential effects of thiopental on methacholine- and serotonin-induced bronchoconstriction in dogs. Thiopental sometimes causes bronchospasm during induction of anaesthesia. In addition, we have reported previously that thiopental produced transient bronchospasm, which was blocked by atropine pretreatment, and worsened histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in dogs. Previous in vitro reports suggest that synthesis of contractile cyclooxygenase products, such as thromboxane A(2), may (...) be involved in the mechanism of bronchospasm. However, the in vivo spastic effects have not been defined comprehensively.Twenty-seven mongrel dogs were anaesthetized with pentobarbital. Bronchoconstriction was elicited with methacholine (0.5 microg kg(-1)+5.0 microg kg(-1) min(-1); Mch group, n=7) or serotonin (10 microg kg(-1)+1 mg kg(-1) h(-1); 5HT group, n=20), and assessed as percentage changes in bronchial cross-sectional area (BCA, basal=100%) using a bronchoscope. In the 5HT group, dogs were

2003 British Journal of Anaesthesia

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