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Serotonin

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20961. Tryptophan depletion and serotonin loss in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-treated depression: an [(18)F] MPPF positron emission tomography study. (Abstract)

Tryptophan depletion and serotonin loss in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-treated depression: an [(18)F] MPPF positron emission tomography study. Recurrence of depressive symptoms after tryptophan depletion (TD) in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-treated depression is an important, unexplained phenomenon. With [(18)F] MPPF positron emission tomography (PET), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 1A receptor binding potential (5-HT(1A)BP) was measured after TD in various

2004 Biological psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20962. Validation of [(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT to assess serotonin transporters in vivo in humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Validation of [(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT to assess serotonin transporters in vivo in humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Disturbances in the serotonin (5-HT) system are associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders. The 5-HT system can be studied in vivo by measuring 5-HT transporter (SERT) densities using (123)iodine-labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([(123)I]beta-CIT) and single photon

2005 Neuropsychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20963. Increased levels of serotonin(2A) receptors and serotonin transporter in the CNS of neuregulin 1 hypomorphic/mutant mice. (Abstract)

Increased levels of serotonin(2A) receptors and serotonin transporter in the CNS of neuregulin 1 hypomorphic/mutant mice. Changes in neuregulin 1 expression have been reported in the CNS from subjects with schizophrenia. As neuregulin 1 is important in cortical development we postulated that changes in neuregulin 1 expression may contribute towards changes in cholinergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic markers that are well documented in the CNS of subjects with that disorder. To begin to test (...) this hypothesis, we used in situ radioligand binding to measure levels of muscarinic M1/M4 receptors, the kainate receptor, the NMDA receptor, the serotonin 2A receptor, the serotonin 1A receptor and the serotonin transporter in the CNS from heterozygous transmembrane domain neuregulin 1 mutant mice. The major outcomes from these studies was the demonstration of an overall increase in levels of the serotonin 2A receptor (F=11.3, d.f.=3,1,72, p=0.0012) and serotonin transporter (F=5.00, d.f.=1,3,72, p<0.05

2007 Schizophrenia Research

20964. Expression of serotonin receptors and role of serotonin in human prostate cancer tissue and cell lines. (Abstract)

Expression of serotonin receptors and role of serotonin in human prostate cancer tissue and cell lines. Increase in the number of serotonin (5-HT) releasing neuroendocrine (NE) cells has been shown to be correlated with tumor progression, loss of androgen dependence, and poor prognosis. Serotonin is a well-known mitogen which mediates a wide variety of physiological effects via multiple receptors, of which receptor subtype 1 (5-HTR1) has been identified in prostate cancer (PC) cell lines

2004 Prostate

20965. Effect of a triallelic functional polymorphism of the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region on expression of serotonin transporter in the human brain. (Abstract)

Effect of a triallelic functional polymorphism of the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region on expression of serotonin transporter in the human brain. The authors examined effects of a triallelic functional polymorphism of the human serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) on in vivo expression of serotonin transporter in the brain in healthy volunteers and subjects with major depressive disorder.Twenty-five medication-free subjects with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (...) during a major depressive episode and 42 healthy volunteers were clinically evaluated and genotyped. Serotonin transporter binding potential (f(1)B(max)/K(d)) was determined by using positron emission tomography with the radiotracer [(11)C]McN 5652 and metabolite-corrected arterial input functions.There was no difference in serotonin transporter binding potential by genotype in healthy volunteers or in subjects with major depressive disorder. Allelic frequencies did not differ between subjects

2006 American Journal of Psychiatry

20966. Central serotonin transporter availability measured with [123I]beta-CIT SPECT in relation to serotonin transporter genotype. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Central serotonin transporter availability measured with [123I]beta-CIT SPECT in relation to serotonin transporter genotype. A functional polymorphism has been described in the promoter region of the gene (SLC6A4) coding for the serotonin transporter protein (SERT). This polymorphism has two common alleles, designated as long and short. Each allele has been linked with a number of human clinical phenotypes, including neuropsychiatric diseases associated with dysregulation of serotonin

2004 American Journal of Psychiatry

20967. Serotonin transporter occupancy of five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors at different doses: an [11C]DASB positron emission tomography study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin transporter occupancy of five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors at different doses: an [11C]DASB positron emission tomography study. Minimum therapeutic doses of paroxetine and citalopram produce 80% occupancy for the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT). The authors used [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography to measure occupancies of three other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) at minimum therapeutic doses. The relationship between dose and occupancy was also

2004 American Journal of Psychiatry

20968. Effects of serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms on serotonin function. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms on serotonin function. The serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with vulnerability to stress-induced depressive symptoms and with the speed and rate of response to antidepressant treatment. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the association between the 5-HTTLPR and the functional response of the serotonin system as measured by the neuroendocrine and cerebral metabolic response to intravenous (...) administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram in normal control subjects. Genotyping was performed for 5-HTTLPR insertion/deletion polymorphism long (l) and short (s) variant alleles. The ll genotype was compared with the combined sl+ss and with the ss genotype alone. Citalopram plasma concentrations did not differ significantly between groups. The s allele was associated with a less of an increase in prolactin and cortisol than the ll genotype. The s allele was associated

2004 Neuropsychopharmacology

20969. Regional differences in extracellular dopamine and serotonin assessed by in vivo microdialysis in mice lacking dopamine and/or serotonin transporters. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Regional differences in extracellular dopamine and serotonin assessed by in vivo microdialysis in mice lacking dopamine and/or serotonin transporters. Cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) is intact in dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) mice and enhanced in serotonin transporter (SERT) KO mice. However, cocaine CPP is eliminated in double-KO mice with no DAT and either no or one SERT gene copy. To help determine mechanisms underlying these effects, we now report examination (...) of baselines and drug-induced changes of extracellular dopamine (DAex) and serotonin (5-HT(ex)) levels in microdialysates from nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), and prefrontal cortex (PFc) of wild-type, homozygous DAT- or SERT-KO and heterozygous or homozygous DAT/SERT double-KO mice, which are differentially rewarded by cocaine. Cocaine fails to increase DAex in NAc of DAT-KO mice. By contrast, systemic cocaine enhances DAex in both CPu and PFc of DAT-KO mice though local cocaine fails

2004 Neuropsychopharmacology

20970. Association of serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region and variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene in lichen simplex chronicus patients with psychiatric status. (Abstract)

Association of serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region and variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene in lichen simplex chronicus patients with psychiatric status. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is a key neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and a responsible mediator for the itch. Dysregulation of serotonergic pathways has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many complex neuropsychiatric diseases.The purpose of this study (...) was to evaluate the relationship between lichen simplex chronicus and dysfunction and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism.Thirty-nine patients with lichen simplex chronicus and 61 healthy control subjects were examined.The results for the patients and control subjects were not significantly different (P > 0.05) in long/long (L/L) and long/short (L/S) genotypes of 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (HTTLPR) polymorphism, but short/short S/S genotype was lower in lichen simplex chronicus patients

2008 International Journal of Dermatology

20971. Ontogeny of serotonin and serotonin(2A) receptors in rat auditory cortex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ontogeny of serotonin and serotonin(2A) receptors in rat auditory cortex. Maturation of the mammalian cerebral cortex is, in part, dependent upon multiple coordinated afferent neurotransmitter systems and receptor-mediated cellular linkages during early postnatal development. Given that serotonin (5-HT) is one such system, the present study was designed to specifically evaluate 5-HT tissue content as well as 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels within the developing auditory cortex (AC). Using high

2008 Hearing Research

20972. Platelet serotonin in newborns and infants: ontogeny, heritability, and effect of in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Platelet serotonin in newborns and infants: ontogeny, heritability, and effect of in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Ontogeny of platelet serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) during the first year of life was examined in newborns and infants. The effects of in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, including fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram) were examined by comparing cord blood 5-HT levels in exposed and unexposed newborns (...) ) compared with the 1-49 wk-old infants. The mean cord blood 5-HT concentrations in newborns exposed in utero to SSRI (n = 8) were substantially lower than that seen in unexposed (n = 16) newborns (20.6 +/- 14.4 versus. 81.3 +/- 32.5 ng/mL, p = 0.0001; 90.7 +/- 55.4 versus. 297 +/- 101 ng/10(9) platelets, p = 0.0005). Platelet serotonin levels (ng/10(9) platelets) in mother-child pairs (n = 32) were significantly correlated (r = 0.415, p = 0.018). The results indicate that, although platelet 5-HT is low

2004 Pediatric Research

20973. Endurance performance in humans: the effect of a dopamine precursor or a specific serotonin (5-HT2A/2C) antagonist. (Abstract)

Endurance performance in humans: the effect of a dopamine precursor or a specific serotonin (5-HT2A/2C) antagonist. In this study we examined the effect of a dopamine (DA) precursor (L-DOPA) or a serotonin (5-HT) antagonist (Ritanserin) on time to exhaustion. The study had a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled and cross-over design. Seven moderately trained men performed three tests to exhaustion at 65% Wattmax. Each test was separated by two weeks to allow washout of the drugs (dose

1997 International Journal of Sports Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20974. Direct evidence that acutely enhancing serotonin with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram modulates the loudness dependence of the auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) marker of central serotonin function. (Abstract)

Direct evidence that acutely enhancing serotonin with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram modulates the loudness dependence of the auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) marker of central serotonin function. The loudness dependence of the auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) has been suggested as a reliable measure of central serotonin function in humans. The most convincing evidence for a direct relationship between serotonergic function and LDAEP to date has come from animal studies (...) , while evidence in humans has been circumstantial and inconsistent. In the current study, we examine the direct effect of serotonergic modulation with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram on the LDAEP. The study was a double-blind placebo controlled design in which healthy participants were tested under two acute treatment conditions: placebo and citalopram (20 mg). Enhancement of serotonin function with citalopram in comparison to placebo decreased the slope of the LDAEP (i.e

2006 Human psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20975. Endogenous serotonin excites striatal cholinergic interneurons via the activation of 5-HT 2C, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 serotonin receptors: implications for extrapyramidal side effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Endogenous serotonin excites striatal cholinergic interneurons via the activation of 5-HT 2C, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 serotonin receptors: implications for extrapyramidal side effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The striatum is richly innervated by serotonergic afferents from the raphe nucleus. We explored the effects of this input on striatal cholinergic interneurons from rat brain slices, by means of both conventional intracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Bath-applied serotonin

2007 Neuropsychopharmacology

20976. The molecular mechanism of "ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA)]: serotonin transporters are targets for MDMA-induced serotonin release. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The molecular mechanism of "ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA)]: serotonin transporters are targets for MDMA-induced serotonin release. MDMA ("ecstasy") has been widely reported as a drug of abuse and as a neurotoxin. This report describes the mechanism of MDMA action at serotonin transporters from plasma membranes and secretory vesicles. MDMA stimulates serotonin efflux from both types of membrane vesicle. In plasma membrane vesicles isolated from human platelets, MDMA (...) inhibits serotonin transport and [3H]imipramine binding by direct interaction with the Na(+)-dependent serotonin transporter. MDMA stimulates radiolabel efflux from plasma membrane vesicles preloaded with [3H]serotonin in a stereo-specific, Na(+)-dependent, and imipramine-sensitive manner characteristic of transporter-mediated exchange. In membrane vesicles isolated from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules, which contain the vesicular biogenic amine transporter, MDMA inhibits ATP-dependent [3H]serotonin

1992 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

20977. The effect of multiple rising doses of Ro 11-2465 (serotonin uptake inhibitor) on serotonin content of human platelets. (Abstract)

The effect of multiple rising doses of Ro 11-2465 (serotonin uptake inhibitor) on serotonin content of human platelets. Ro 11-2465, a cyanide derivative of imipramine with serotonin uptake inhibitory properties, was investigated in six healthy volunteers for its effect on serotonin concentration in blood platelets. The initial dose was 1 mg daily, the maximum dose of 3 mg being reached on day 3 and maintained for 7 days. A significant decrease in the platelet serotonin concentration (...) was not observed until 3 days after the start of drug administration, after which depletion was rapid. After 5 days of treatment, the reduction was about 80% compared to pre-drug level. Serotonin restoration after drug withdrawal was very slow, and 5 days after discontinuation, it was still 70% below its baseline level.

1981 Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20978. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on platelet serotonin parameters in major depressive disorder. (Abstract)

Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on platelet serotonin parameters in major depressive disorder. The effects of treatment with serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors on platelet 5-HT2 receptors, 5-HT reuptake sites an 5-HT uptake were studied in a double-blind trial comparing two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), paroxetine, and fluoxetine, for the treatment of major depression. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores and platelet 5-HT parameters were

1997 Biological psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20979. Stimulation of splenic T-lymphocyte function by endogenous serotonin and by low-dose exogenous serotonin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stimulation of splenic T-lymphocyte function by endogenous serotonin and by low-dose exogenous serotonin. The modulatory effects of endogenous serotonin on splenic T-cell activity were investigated using two distinct approaches. The first approach showed that pretreatment of mice with p-cholorphenylalanine (PCPA) to deplete intracellular stores of serotonin reduced the capacity of their splenic T cells to proliferate and to express interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) in response to concanavalin (...) A (Con A). These responses could be restored by the addition of serotonin to the spleen cell cultures. In contrast, PCPA treatment did not effect stimulation of spleen cells to produce IL-2. The second approach showed that T-cell proliferation to Con A as well as to IL-2 was diminished by the presence of antagonists to the serotonin-2 receptor (5-HT2R). The effects of low doses (100 ng/ml) of exogenously added serotonin on functions of normal spleen cells were also examined. At this low dose

1993 Immunology

20980. No association between the serotonin transporter-linked promoter region polymorphism and either schizophrenia or density of the serotonin transporter in human hippocampus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

No association between the serotonin transporter-linked promoter region polymorphism and either schizophrenia or density of the serotonin transporter in human hippocampus. Allelic association case-control analysis of a deletion/insertion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has suggested associations with unipolar disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, the heterozygous long form of the 5-HTTLPR has been associated (...) with increased levels of mRNA for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and increased serotonin uptake in lymphoblastic cell lines. This study attempts to determine whether there is an association between 5-HTTLPR genotype and schizophrenia or the binding of [3H]paroxetine to the human hippocampal 5-HTT.DNA from the cerebellum from 58 schizophrenic and 62 control subjects was used to genotype the 5-HTTLPR. In addition, the relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and the affinity and density of [3H]paroxetine

1998 Molecular Medicine

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