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Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins

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1. Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins

Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer (...) Administration 4 Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins Aka: Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins , Cefoxitin , Cefotetan , Cefamandole From Related Chapters II. Coverage III. Indications Abdominal Surgery prophylaxis Colorectal surgery prophylaxis IV. Coverage Cefoxitin (Mefoxin) 1-2 grams IM or IV every 6-8 hours Cefotetan (Cefotan) 1-2 grams IM or IV every 12 hours Cefamandole V. Downsides Poor overall activity Expensive Images: Related

2018 FP Notebook

2. Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins

Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer (...) Administration 4 Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins Aka: Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins , Ceftazidime From Related Chapters II. Coverage Pseudomonas (Main indication) poorly covered No coverage III. Preparations: Ceftazidime (Fortaz) Adult: 1-2 grams IM or IV every 8 to 12 hours Child: 30-50 mg/kg IV every 8 hours IV. Disadvantages Most expensive Limited spectrum Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images

2018 FP Notebook

3. Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins

Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer (...) Administration 4 Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins Aka: Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins , Cefoxitin , Cefotetan , Cefamandole From Related Chapters II. Coverage III. Indications Abdominal Surgery prophylaxis Colorectal surgery prophylaxis IV. Coverage Cefoxitin (Mefoxin) 1-2 grams IM or IV every 6-8 hours Cefotetan (Cefotan) 1-2 grams IM or IV every 12 hours Cefamandole V. Downsides Poor overall activity Expensive Images: Related

2015 FP Notebook

4. Emergence of the third-generation cephalosporin-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae due to the acquisition of a self-transferable blaDHA-1-carrying plasmid by an ST23 strain (PubMed)

Emergence of the third-generation cephalosporin-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae due to the acquisition of a self-transferable blaDHA-1-carrying plasmid by an ST23 strain 29683780 2018 09 17 2018 11 14 2150-5608 9 1 2018 12 31 Virulence Virulence Emergence of the third-generation cephalosporin-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae due to the acquisition of a self-transferable bla DHA-1 -carrying plasmid by an ST23 strain. 838-844 10.1080/21505594.2018.1456229 Xie Yingzhou Y (...) Jiao Tong University , Shanghai , China. f Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology , School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University , Shanghai , China. eng Letter Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't United States Virulence 101531386 2150-5594 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 0 Cephalosporins EC 3.5.2.6 beta-Lactamases IM Virulence. 2018 Dec 31;9(1):1000 29768087 Animal Structures Animals Anti-Bacterial Agents pharmacology Bacterial Load Cephalosporins pharmacology Disease

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2018 Virulence

5. Third Generation Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins

cell lysis. Stable in the presence of a variety of beta-lactamases, this agent is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria compared to second-generation cephalosporins. Definition (MSH) A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. Definition (PDQ) A broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic derived semisynthetically from the marine fungus Cephalosporium acremonium with antibacterial (...) activity. As does penicillin, the beta-lactam antibiotic cefixime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by disrupting peptidoglycan synthesis, resulting in a reduction in bacterial cell wall stability and bacterial cell lysis. Stable in the presence of a variety of beta-lactamases, this agent is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria compared to second-generation cephalosporins. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=37809

2018 FP Notebook

6. Reducing Surgical Site Infections after Hysterectomy: Metronidazole plus cefazolin compared to cephalosporin alone. (PubMed)

Reducing Surgical Site Infections after Hysterectomy: Metronidazole plus cefazolin compared to cephalosporin alone. Organisms that are isolated from vaginal cuff infections and pelvic abscesses after hysterectomy frequently include anaerobic vaginal flora. Metronidazole has outstanding coverage against nearly all anaerobic species, which is superior to both cefazolin and second-generation cephalosporins. Cefazolin plus metronidazole has been demonstrated to reduce infectious morbidity compared (...) with either cefazolin or second-generation cephalosporins in other clean-contaminated procedures, which include both as colorectal surgery and cesarean delivery.The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the combination of cefazolin plus metronidazole before hysterectomy was more effective in the prevention of surgical site infection than existing recommendations of cefazolin or second-generation cephalosporin.This was a retrospective cohort study of patients in the Michigan Surgical Quality

2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

7. Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins

Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer (...) Administration 4 Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins Aka: Third Generation Anti-Pseudomonal Cephalosporins , Ceftazidime From Related Chapters II. Coverage Pseudomonas (Main indication) poorly covered No coverage III. Preparations: Ceftazidime (Fortaz) Adult: 1-2 grams IM or IV every 8 to 12 hours Child: 30-50 mg/kg IV every 8 hours IV. Disadvantages Most expensive Limited spectrum Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images

2015 FP Notebook

8. Single versus combination intravenous anti-pseudomonal antibiotic therapy for people with cystic fibrosis. (PubMed)

participants) comparing a single anti-pseudomonal agent to a combination of the same antibiotic and one other, were included.There was a wide variation in the individual antibiotics used in each trial. In total, the trials included seven comparisons of a beta-lactam antibiotic (penicillin-related or third generation cephalosporin) with a beta-lactam-aminoglycoside combination and three comparisons of an aminoglycoside with a beta-lactam-aminoglycoside combination. These two groups of trials were analysed (...) comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 14 October 2016.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing a single intravenous anti-pseudomonal antibiotic with a combination of that antibiotic plus a second anti-pseudomonal antibiotic in people with CF.Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data.We identified 45 trials, of which eight trials (356

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2016 Cochrane

9. Third Generation Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins

cell lysis. Stable in the presence of a variety of beta-lactamases, this agent is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria compared to second-generation cephalosporins. Definition (MSH) A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. Definition (PDQ) A broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic derived semisynthetically from the marine fungus Cephalosporium acremonium with antibacterial (...) activity. As does penicillin, the beta-lactam antibiotic cefixime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by disrupting peptidoglycan synthesis, resulting in a reduction in bacterial cell wall stability and bacterial cell lysis. Stable in the presence of a variety of beta-lactamases, this agent is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria compared to second-generation cephalosporins. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=37809

2015 FP Notebook

10. Population Pharmacokinetics of Anti-infective Drugs in Children With Infectious Diseases

of infectious diseases in children. It will also set the foundation for further studies to improve anti-infective drug therapies for children. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Children; Infection Drug: cephalosporins,penicillins,macrolides,carbapenems and antiviral drugs Detailed Description: 1.Establish population pharmacokinetic (PPK) models of each anti-infective drug in children by nonlinear mixed effect modeling (NONMEM). At different timepoint after antibiotic administration, plasma samples (...) Estimated Primary Completion Date : October 1, 2025 Estimated Study Completion Date : December 31, 2025 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine available for: (AHRQ) related information: Groups and Cohorts Go to Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment Children with the usage of anti-infective drugs Drug: cephalosporins,penicillins,macrolides,carbapenems and antiviral drugs According to the models of population pharmacokinetics,the investigators and want to correlate use of antibiotics

2017 Clinical Trials

11. General Principles of Fracture Care (Follow-up)

fracture management. Time to antibiotic administration has been shown to be the most important factor in reduction of infection risk in open fractures; therefore, antibiotics should be given immediately. For type I and type II fracture injuries, a first-generation cephalosporin (eg, cefazolin) is adequate. If the wound is severely contaminated (type III), an aminoglycoside (eg, gentamicin, tobramycin) is commonly added to complement treatment. If the injury is a "barnyard injury" (contaminated (...) cases, osteomyelitis and systemic infection in the form of sepsis. Early recognition of a local infection may prevent the development of sepsis and, thus, decrease patient morbidity. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens include group A streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and enterococci. Appropriate antibiotics should be administered if an infection is suspected. A 2-week course of first-generation cephalosporins, such as cephalexin, is generally sufficient

2014 eMedicine Surgery

12. General Principles of Fracture Care (Treatment)

fracture management. Time to antibiotic administration has been shown to be the most important factor in reduction of infection risk in open fractures; therefore, antibiotics should be given immediately. For type I and type II fracture injuries, a first-generation cephalosporin (eg, cefazolin) is adequate. If the wound is severely contaminated (type III), an aminoglycoside (eg, gentamicin, tobramycin) is commonly added to complement treatment. If the injury is a "barnyard injury" (contaminated (...) cases, osteomyelitis and systemic infection in the form of sepsis. Early recognition of a local infection may prevent the development of sepsis and, thus, decrease patient morbidity. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens include group A streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and enterococci. Appropriate antibiotics should be administered if an infection is suspected. A 2-week course of first-generation cephalosporins, such as cephalexin, is generally sufficient

2014 eMedicine Surgery

13. The Importance of Anti-anaerobic Therapy for Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

The Importance of Anti-anaerobic Therapy for Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) The Importance of Anti-anaerobic Therapy for Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before (...) adding more. The Importance of Anti-anaerobic Therapy for Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01160640 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : July 12, 2010 Results First Posted : December 21, 2016 Last Update Posted : July 10, 2018 Sponsor

2010 Clinical Trials

14. Cephalosporins

. aureus and for prophylaxis before cardiothoracic, orthopedic, abdominal, and pelvic surgery. Second-generation cephalosporins and cephamycins Second-generation cephalosporins are active against Gram-positive cocci Certain gram-negative bacilli Cephamycins are active against sp, including B. fragilis These drugs may be slightly less active against gram-positive cocci than 1st-generation cephalosporins. Second-generation cephalosporins and cephamycins are often used for polymicrobial infections (...) that include gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci. Because cephamycins are active against Bacteroides sp, they can be used when anaerobes are suspected (eg, in intra-abdominal , , or ). However, in some medical centers, these bacilli are no longer reliably susceptible to cephamycins. Third-generation cephalosporins These drugs are active against and some Enterobacteriaceae (eg, , , ) that do not produce ampC beta-lactamase or extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Most 3rd-generation

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

15. Cephalosporin

originated from a 1975 study looking at the original cephalosporins, and subsequent "safety first" policy meant this was widely quoted and assumed to apply to all members of the group. Hence, it was commonly stated that they are contraindicated in patients with a history of severe, immediate allergic reactions ( , , , etc.) to penicillins, , or cephalosporins. This, however, should be viewed in the light of recent epidemiological work suggesting, for many second-generation (or later) cephalosporins (...) . Cephalosporins are sometimes grouped into "generations" by their properties. The first cephalosporins were designated first-generation cephalosporins, whereas, later, more extended- cephalosporins were classified as second-generation cephalosporins. Each newer generation has significantly greater Gram-negative antimicrobial properties than the preceding generation, in most cases with decreased activity against Gram-positive organisms. Fourth-generation cephalosporins, however, have true broad-spectrum

2012 Wikipedia

16. Anaerobic infection

effective against Gram-negative enteric bacilli (i.e. aminoglycoside) or an anti-pseudomonal cephalosporin (i.e. cefepime ) are generally added to metronidazole, and occasionally cefoxitin when treating intra-abdominal infections to provide coverage for these organisms. should not be used as a single agent as empiric therapy for abdominal infections. Penicillin can be added to in treating of intracranial, pulmonary and dental infections to provide coverage against microaerophilic streptococci (...) in the presence of more than 0.5% oxygen and moderate anaerobic bacteria that are able of growing between 2 and 8% oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria usually do not possess catalase, but some can generate superoxide dismutase which protects them from oxygen. The clinically important anaerobes in decreasing frequency are: 1. Six genera of Gram-negative rods ( , , , , and Sutterella spp.); 2. Gram-positive cocci (primarily spp.); 3. Gram-positive ( spp.) and non-spore-forming bacilli ( , , , and Bifidobacterium spp

2012 Wikipedia

17. Cough (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

(for example, sepsis, a pulmonary embolism or lung cancer). T T reatment reatment 1.1.5 Give general advice to people about: the usual course of acute cough (lasts up to 3 or 4 weeks) how to manage their symptoms with self-care (see the recommendations on self-care) when to seek medical help, for example if symptoms worsen rapidly or significantly, do not improve after 3 to 4 weeks, or the person becomes systemically very unwell. 1.1.6 Do not offer the following treatments to people for an acute cough (...) difference in the number of people with adverse events which led to withdrawal (0.5% versus 1.0%; very low quality evidence). Based on 2 systematic reviews and meta-analyses, Wagner et al. (2015) and Timmer et al. (2013), in adults, young people or children with an acute cough or acute bronchitis. Non-ster Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) oidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) NSAIDs (naproxen or ibuprofen) were not significantly different to placebo for a cumulative cough score at follow

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

18. Sore throat (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

). Statistically significant differences were seen for some comparisons but the absolute differences between antibiotic classes was small. There was no significant difference in adverse events for cephalosporins, macrolides or sulfonamides compared with phenoxymethylpenicillin in 1 systematic review (van Driel et al. 2016). The other systematic review (Altamimi et al. 2012) found that a shorter course of late- generation (broader spectrum) antibiotics was associated with significantly more adverse events (...) prescribing (NG84) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 241.1.7 As well as the general advice in recommendation 1.1.4, give advice about: an antibiotic not being needed seeking medical help if symptoms worsen rapidly or significantly, do not start to improve after 1 week, or the person becomes systemically very unwell. See the evidence and committee discussion on no antibiotic. P People who ma eople who

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

19. Prostatitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

of antibiotics for treating acute prostatitis. The committee was aware of several guidelines, which reflect current practice, that make recommendations based on expert consensus and overviews of the literature on pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial resistance patterns. Based on experience, the committee agreed that treating acute prostatitis requires high doses of fluoroquinolones, second- or third-generation cephalosporins or broad-spectrum penicillins (possibly combined with an aminoglycoside (...) on an individual patient basis. The committee agreed that the choice of intr intra av venous antibiotics enous antibiotics for managing acute prostatitis in people who are severely unwell or unable to take oral antibiotics (with combined use if sepsis is a concern) are: ciproflo ciprofloxacin xacin or le lev voflo ofloxacin xacin (fluoroquinolones) cefuro cefuroxime xime or ceftriax ceftriaxone one (second- or third-generation cephalosporins) gentamicin gentamicin or amikacin amikacin (aminoglycosides

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

20. Pyelonephritis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

, or are more severely unwell. These are: co-amo co-amoxicla xiclav v (only in combination or if culture results are available and bacteria are susceptible) cefuro cefuroxime xime (a second-generation cephalosporin) or ceftriax ceftriaxone one (a third-generation cephalosporin) ciproflo ciprofloxacin xacin (taking safety concerns into account) gentamicin gentamicin or amikacin amikacin (aminoglycosides); which may be appropriate for some people with acute pyelonephritis, particularly those with severe (...) antibiotic for pregnant women who don't require intravenous antibiotics, and cefuro cefuroxime xime (a second-generation cephalosporin) as the first-choice intravenous antibiotic. Ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim are not recommended because they should be avoided in pregnancy. Co-amoxiclav was not recommended because of high resistance levels nationally and the risks of treatment failure in pregnancy. The committee agreed, based on experience, that local microbiologists should be consulted for advice

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

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