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Screening Bias

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161. Validity and reliability of swallowing screening tools used by nurses for dysphagia: A systematic review. (PubMed)

of the screening tools ranged from 29% to 100% and from 65% to 100%, respectively. The interrater reliability ranged from good to excellent agreement. On the basis of quality evaluations, all the included studies had a risk of bias because of inadequate methodological characteristics. The Standardized Swallowing Assessment is the most suitable tool for detecting dysphagia because its psychometric properties and feasibility are higher than those of other screening tools that can be administered by nurses. (...) Validity and reliability of swallowing screening tools used by nurses for dysphagia: A systematic review. Dysphagia following neurological impairment increases the risk of dehydration, malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and even death. Screening for dysphagia has been reported to change negative outcomes. This review evaluated the validity and reliability of measurement tools for screening dysphagia in patients with neurological disorders to identify a feasible tool that can be used by nurses

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2017 Ci ji yi xue za zhi = Tzu-chi medical journal

162. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

. All of the studies are observational and subject to selection bias on the basis of the individual who chooses to be screened. Consistency : Good among the observational studies. External Validity : Poor—studies on populations in high-risk areas (East Asia) may not be applicable to low-risk areas such as the United States. Harms Based on solid evidence, screening would result in uncommon but serious side effects associated with endoscopy, which may include perforation, cardiopulmonary events (...) experts).[ ] People were invited by letter from a population registry to attend two rounds of screening, and a total of 6,200 eligible screened participants (of a planned 12,000) were analyzed. Their gastric cancer mortality from 2 to 7 years after screening was compared with four control groups that had not been invited to be screened, and the relative risk was about 0.5 (no P value reported). The study was, however, prone to strong biases, including selection bias, and likely differential exclusion

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

163. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

any lives. This concept is explained by the following four types of statistical bias: Lead-time bias: Cancer detected by screening earlier than the cancer would have been detected based on symptoms does nothing but advance the date of diagnosis. Earlier detection and treatment does not alter the natural disease progression. The 5-year survival rate from the time of diagnosis is longer for a cancer caught early even when the screening has made no difference in how long the person lives. Length bias (...) : Screening mammography detects slowly growing cancers that have a better prognosis than cancers presenting clinically (detected by the doctor or the person when he or she gets ill). Adding these nonprogressive cancers to the life-threatening cancers (whose outcome is not affected by earlier treatment) increases the 5-year survival rate, even though screening has made no difference in how many lives are saved. Overdiagnosis bias: Screening detects cancers that would never cause symptoms or death

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

164. Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of stage I and II (71% vs. 20%; P < .001) and superior 3-year progression-free survival in the screen-detected population. However, the survival benefit in the study may also be caused by lead-time bias. Other screening programs in southern China use EBV-associated antibodies, but their effects are difficult to determine because of lack of controls for comparison of survival outcomes.[ , , ] In summary, current screening studies for nasopharyngeal cancer do not provide solid evidence of a benefit (...) Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version Oral Cavity, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

165. Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD (...) ): ; 2002-. Search term Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Health Professional Version PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board . Published online: February 22, 2019. This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about esophageal cancer screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

166. Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

(Gleason 8–10 or T4, N1, or M1). The increased detection was confined to lower Gleason grade or lower-stage cancers, emerged at the beginning of screening, and persisted throughout the duration of follow-up, suggesting overdiagnosis. Limitations of the CAP trial include the following:[ ] The intervention was only a single round of PSA testing. There were many postrandomization exclusions that could lead to bias; however, there was little evidence of bias in comparing the characteristics of the groups (...) and conclusions are prone to bias conclusions and have been criticized by several groups of scientists.[ , ] This analysis also ignored the other potential shortcomings identified above ( ). Treatment of Prostate Cancer Because the efficacy of screening depends on the effectiveness of management of screen-detected lesions, studies of treatment efficacy in early-stage disease are relevant to the issue of screening. Treatment options for early-stage disease include radical prostatectomy, definitive radiation

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

167. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

" rates. Chest 96 (2): 291-6, 1989. [ ] Dammas S, Patz EF Jr, Goodman PC: Identification of small lung nodules at autopsy: implications for lung cancer screening and overdiagnosis bias. Lung Cancer 33 (1): 11-6, 2001. [ ] Marcus PM, Fagerstrom RM, Prorok PC, et al.: Screening for lung cancer with helical CT scanning. Clinical Pulmonary Medicine 9 (6): 323-9, 2002. Hasegawa M, Sone S, Takashima S, et al.: Growth rate of small lung cancers detected on mass CT screening. Br J Radiol 73 (876): 1252-9 (...) Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ; 2002

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

168. Screening of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli in Clinical Fecal Samples

but not in detail. The study selection process was not described and a list of excluded studies was not provided. It was unclear if article selection and data extraction were done in duplicate, whether quality assessment of the studies was STEC screening 6 conducted, or if publication bias was explored. Meta-analysis was not conducted as studies appeared to be heterogeneous. There was no mention of conflict of interest. In one HTA report 4 the objective, inclusion and exclusion criteria were stated (...) . 1,2,16,17,22 Culture based methods compared with other methods Six studies 2,7,19,20,23,27 investigating culture based methods compared with other tests were identified. Risk of bias related to the patient selection was low in five studies, 2,19,20,23,27 and high in one study. 7 Risk of bias related to the index test was low in three studies 20,23,27 and unclear in three studies. 2,7,19 Risk of bias related to the reference test was low in two studies 20,27 and STEC screening 7 unclear in four studies

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

169. Prevention of early-onset Group B streptococcal sepsis in infants, using universal screening versus risk-based protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Prevention of early-onset Group B streptococcal sepsis in infants, using universal screening versus risk-based protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility (...) : Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening will be performed in two phases, namely initial screening based on title and abstract, followed by full-text screening of the eligible articles for final inclusion. In each phase, 2 observers will independently assess each article. Discrepancies will be resolved through discussion, or by consulting a third investigator. ">Procedure for study selection Example : Title-abstract screening: 1. Not an original full research paper

2019 PROSPERO

170. Follow-up screening colonoscopy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Follow-up screening colonoscopy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email (...) salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening will be performed in two phases

2019 PROSPERO

171. The acceptability of self-collected HPV DNA cervical screening: a qualitative meta-synthesis

The acceptability of self-collected HPV DNA cervical screening: a qualitative meta-synthesis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external (...) websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening

2019 PROSPERO

172. A systematic review of nutrition screening tools in low- and middle-income countries

A systematic review of nutrition screening tools in low- and middle-income countries Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites (...) . Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening will be performed

2019 PROSPERO

173. A systematic review of cervical cancer screening among immigrant women in Australia

A systematic review of cervical cancer screening among immigrant women in Australia Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email (...) salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening will be performed in two phases

2019 PROSPERO

174. Birth cohort screening for hepatitis C: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness

Birth cohort screening for hepatitis C: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email (...) salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening will be performed in two phases

2019 PROSPERO

175. Cost-effectiveness of rapid point-of-care antenatal (POC) syphilis screening to prevent congenital syphilis in sub-Saharan Africa

Cost-effectiveness of rapid point-of-care antenatal (POC) syphilis screening to prevent congenital syphilis in sub-Saharan Africa Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record (...) criteria: Example: Screening will be performed in two phases, namely initial screening based on title and abstract, followed by full-text screening of the eligible articles for final inclusion. In each phase, 2 observers will independently assess each article. Discrepancies will be resolved through discussion, or by consulting a third investigator. ">Procedure for study selection Example : Title-abstract screening: 1. Not an original full research paper (e.g. review, editorial) 2. Not an in vivo animal

2019 PROSPERO

176. Screening for emotional distress in cancer patients: improvement of a systematic review of assessment instruments

Screening for emotional distress in cancer patients: improvement of a systematic review of assessment instruments Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated (...) : Screening will be performed in two phases, namely initial screening based on title and abstract, followed by full-text screening of the eligible articles for final inclusion. In each phase, 2 observers will independently assess each article. Discrepancies will be resolved through discussion, or by consulting a third investigator. ">Procedure for study selection Example : Title-abstract screening: 1. Not an original full research paper (e.g. review, editorial) 2. Not an in vivo animal study 3

2019 PROSPERO

177. Diagnostic and screening value of biomarkers in common cancers: an overview, evidence mapping and adjusted indirect comparisons

Diagnostic and screening value of biomarkers in common cancers: an overview, evidence mapping and adjusted indirect comparisons Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any (...) : Screening will be performed in two phases, namely initial screening based on title and abstract, followed by full-text screening of the eligible articles for final inclusion. In each phase, 2 observers will independently assess each article. Discrepancies will be resolved through discussion, or by consulting a third investigator. ">Procedure for study selection Example : Title-abstract screening: 1. Not an original full research paper (e.g. review, editorial) 2. Not an in vivo animal study 3

2019 PROSPERO

178. Non-invasive prenatal testing for the prenatal screening of chromosomal abnormalities other than trisomies 21, 18, 13: a systematic review of diagnostic test accuracy studies

Non-invasive prenatal testing for the prenatal screening of chromosomal abnormalities other than trisomies 21, 18, 13: a systematic review of diagnostic test accuracy studies Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability (...) : Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening will be performed in two phases, namely initial screening based on title and abstract, followed by full-text screening of the eligible articles for final inclusion. In each phase, 2 observers will independently assess each article. Discrepancies will be resolved through discussion, or by consulting a third investigator. ">Procedure for study selection Example : Title-abstract screening: 1. Not an original full research paper (e.g. review

2019 PROSPERO

179. Is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment an accurate screening tool for cognitive decline in people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus?

Is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment an accurate screening tool for cognitive decline in people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus? Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration (...) criteria: Example: Screening will be performed in two phases, namely initial screening based on title and abstract, followed by full-text screening of the eligible articles for final inclusion. In each phase, 2 observers will independently assess each article. Discrepancies will be resolved through discussion, or by consulting a third investigator. ">Procedure for study selection Example : Title-abstract screening: 1. Not an original full research paper (e.g. review, editorial) 2. Not an in vivo animal

2019 PROSPERO

180. Promising screening approaches for identifying individuals with FASD: a systematic literature review

Promising screening approaches for identifying individuals with FASD: a systematic literature review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files (...) or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening

2019 PROSPERO

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