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Screening Bias

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161. Effect of cervical cancer education and provider recommendation for screening on screening rates: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Effect of cervical cancer education and provider recommendation for screening on screening rates: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Although cervical cancer is largely preventable through screening, detection and treatment of precancerous abnormalities, it remains one of the top causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality globally.The objective of this systematic review is to understand the evidence of the effect of cervical cancer education compared to control conditions on cervical (...) cancer screening rates in eligible women population at risk of cervical cancer. We also sought to understand the effect of provider recommendations for screening to eligible women on cervical cancer screening (CCS) rates compared to control conditions in eligible women population at risk of cervical cancer.We used the PICO (Problem or Population, Interventions, Comparison and Outcome) framework as described in the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook to develop our search strategy. The details of our

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2017 PloS one

162. Screening for type 2 diabetes: do screen-detected cases fare better? (PubMed)

were clinically detected with regard to all-cause mortality, CVD, renal disease and retinopathy. How much of these associations can be explained by earlier treatment because of screening rather than healthy user bias, lead time bias and length time bias warrants further investigation. (...) Screening for type 2 diabetes: do screen-detected cases fare better? We aimed to investigate whether diabetes cases detected through screening have better health outcomes than clinically detected cases in a population-based cohort of adults who were eligible to be screened for diabetes at 10 year intervals.The Västerbotten Intervention Programme is a community- and individual-based public health programme in Västerbotten County, Sweden. Residents are invited to clinical examinations

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2017 Diabetologia

163. Comparison of diagnostic performance of Two-Question Screen and 15 depression screening instruments for older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

in older adults. Combined diagnostic accuracy including sensitivity and specificity were the primary outcomes. Potential risks of bias and the quality of studies were also assessed.ResultsA total of 46 506 participants from 132 studies were identified evaluating 16 screening instruments. The majority of studies (63/132) used various versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and 6 used the Two-Question Screen. The combined sensitivity and specificity for the Two-Question Screen were 91.8% (95% CI (...) Comparison of diagnostic performance of Two-Question Screen and 15 depression screening instruments for older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. BackgroundScreening for depression in older adults is recommended.AimsTo evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Two-Question Screen for older adults and compare it with other screening instruments for depression.MethodWe undertook a literature search for studies assessing the diagnostic performance of depression screening instruments

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2017 The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science

164. Poorer cardiovascular screening, diagnosis and management if you have a mental illness

of this study. Only one author screened the initial list of references and as studies were only included if psychiatric disorders were presented categorially, there is the possibility that large population based studies using continuous measures of assessment or overlapping symptomatology (e.g. psychosis), may have been missed. Studies may also have been missed due to the standard terms used for searching. Only 20 studies were included in the final analysis, meaning that the effects of publication bias (...) Poorer cardiovascular screening, diagnosis and management if you have a mental illness Poorer cardiovascular care if you have a mental illness Search National Elf Service Search National Elf Service » » » » Poorer cardiovascular screening, diagnosis and management if you have a mental illness Jul 11 2018 Posted by The increased frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in bipolar disorder, depression and schizophrenia are significant contributors to the increased morbidity and mortality

2018 The Mental Elf

165. School dental screening

were cluster RCTs. 2 studies were considered to be at low risk of bias, 3 at unclear risk and one at high risk. Four trials evaluated traditional screening versus no screening. Due to inconsistencies no conclusions could be drawn. Two cluster-RCTs (both four-arm trials) evaluated criteria-based screening versus no screening and showed a pooled effect estimate of RR 1.07 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.16), suggesting a possible benefit for screening (low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference (...) School dental screening School dental screening - National Elf Service Search National Elf Service Search National Elf Service » » » » School dental screening Jan 12 2018 Posted by Oral disease, in particular caries is the commonest disease in children worldwide and a major public health problem. Oral diseases impose considerable financial, social and personal burdens so prevention early detection and treatment are important. Schools dental screening is considered to help make children

2018 The Dental Elf

166. Screening women for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings. (PubMed)

professionals either directly screened women face-to-face or were informed of the results of screening questionnaires, as compared with usual care (which could include screening that did not involve a healthcare professional).Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias in the trials and undertook data extraction. For binary outcomes, we calculated a standardised estimation of the odds ratio (OR). For continuous data, either a mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) was calculated (...) Screening women for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings. Intimate partner violence (IPV) damages individuals, their children, communities, and the wider economic and social fabric of society. Some governments and professional organisations recommend screening all women for IPV rather than asking only women with symptoms (case-finding). Here, we examine the evidence for whether screening benefits women and has no deleterious effects.To assess the effectiveness of screening for IPV

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2015 Cochrane

167. Screening and subsequent management for thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy for improving maternal and infant health. (PubMed)

, guideline/protocol) for detecting thyroid dysfunction (including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and/or thyroid autoimmunity) pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy with no screening, or alternative screening methods.Two review authors independently assessed eligibility of studies, extracted and checked data accuracy, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies.We included two randomised controlled trials (involving 26,408 women) - these trials were considered to be at low risk of bias. Universal (...) Screening and subsequent management for thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy for improving maternal and infant health. Thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy (both hyper- and hypothyroidism) is associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes for mothers and infants in the short- and long-term. Managing the thyroid dysfunction (e.g. thyroxine for hypothyroidism, or antithyroid medication for hyperthyroidism) may improve outcomes. The best method of screening

2015 Cochrane

168. Antenatal lower genital tract infection screening and treatment programs for preventing preterm delivery. (PubMed)

compared with no screening.Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked for accuracy.One study (4155 women at less than 20 weeks' gestation) met the inclusion criteria. The intervention group (2058 women) received infection screening and treatment for bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis and candidiasis; the control group (2097 women) also received screening, but the results of the screening program were not revealed and women (...) Antenatal lower genital tract infection screening and treatment programs for preventing preterm delivery. Genital tract infection is associated with preterm birth (before 37 weeks' gestation). Screening for infections during pregnancy may therefore reduce the numbers of babies being born prematurely. However, screening for infections may have some adverse effects, such as increased antibiotic drug resistance and increased cost of treatment.To assess the effectiveness of antenatal lower genital

2015 Cochrane

169. Screening with urinary dipsticks for reducing morbidity and mortality. (PubMed)

with no dipstick screening were eligible for inclusion. We searched for studies that investigated the use of urinary dipsticks for detecting haemoglobin, protein, albumin, albumin-creatinine ratio, leukocytes, nitrite, or glucose, alone or in any combination, and in any setting. We planned to exclude studies conducted in patients with urinary disorders.It was planned that two authors would independently extract data from included studies and assess risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. However (...) Screening with urinary dipsticks for reducing morbidity and mortality. Urinary dipsticks are sometimes used for screening asymptomatic people, and for case-finding among inpatients or outpatients who do not have genitourinary symptoms. Abnormalities identified on screening sometimes lead to additional investigations, which may identify serious disease, such as bladder cancer and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Urinary dipstick screening could improve prognoses due to earlier detection, but could

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2015 Cochrane

170. Recommendations on screening for cognitive impairment in older adults

) to accompany its guidelines. Tools are informed by feedback from clinicians and patients obtained in interviews or focus groups. Although we recommend against screening for cognitive impairment, practitioners Guidelines 6 CMAJ Table 1 (part 1 of 2): GRADE table of beneficial effects of treatment interventions for mild cognitive impairment on cognition 19–29,30 No. of studies Quality assessment No. of patients Effect* Quality† Importance Serious risk of bias Serious inconsistency Serious indirectness (...) Recommendations on screening for cognitive impairment in older adults Guidelines CMAJ ©2015 8872147 Canada Inc. or its licensors CMAJ 1 CME A s people age, changes to the structure and the function of the brain may result in cognitive decline. These changes, however, do not equally affect all cognitive do- mains or all people. Older adults may perform as well as younger adults in some or all cognitive domains, and some may even perform better. 1 The most common cognitive functions affected

2015 CPG Infobase

171. Attention, arousal and other rapid bedside screening instruments for delirium in older patients: a systematic review of test accuracy studies

and Embase. We scrutinized forward citations in Google Scholar, and references of included articles and prior reviews. We included studies among older patients that investigated the sensitivity and specificity of delirium screening instruments that could be administered in 3 min or less, and did not require surrogate information. We extracted study characteristics, risk of bias, sensitivity and specificity.we identified 27 studies among 4,766 patients in hospitals and nursing homes. They tested many (...) different single and several combined screening instruments. Prevalence of delirium varied between 4% and 57%. Only one study scored a low risk of bias on all domains. Sensitivity varied between 17% and 100%, and specificity between 38% and 99%. Of the 22 tests with sensitivity ≥90%, seven also had specificity ≥80% in older patients in general. These results were approximately reproduced for the Observational Scale of Level of Arousal (OSLA) and Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS): sensitivity

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2018 EvidenceUpdates

172. Interventions to improve the uptake of cervical cancer screening among lower socioeconomic groups: A systematic review

update has been conducted on the effectiveness of interventions to improve the uptake of cervical cancer screening among lower socioeconomic groups. A systematic computerized literature search was undertaken in June 2016 for relevant papers published since 2006. Data was extracted on study participants, setting, intervention and control using a predefined extraction tool and a full quality assessment was undertaken using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. This update yielded 16 studies of mixed quality (...) Interventions to improve the uptake of cervical cancer screening among lower socioeconomic groups: A systematic review Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Screening can reduce both the incidence and mortality of the disease but is often not utilized by lower socioeconomic groups. A systematic review, including studies of interventions to improve breast and cervical cancer screening uptake, up to 2006, found targeted interventions could be effective. A formal

2018 EvidenceUpdates

173. Vision screening of older drivers for preventing road traffic injuries and fatalities. (PubMed)

Vision screening of older drivers for preventing road traffic injuries and fatalities. Demographic data in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand suggest a rapid growth in the number of persons over the age of 65 years as the baby boomer generation passes retirement age. As older adults make up an increasing proportion of the population, they are an important consideration when designing future evidence-based traffic safety policies, particularly those that lead to restrictions (...) or cessation of driving. Research has shown that cessation of driving among older drivers can lead to negative emotional consequences such as depression and loss of independence. Older adults who continue to drive tend to do so less frequently than other demographic groups and are more likely to be involved in a road traffic crash, possibly due to what is termed the "low mileage bias". Available research suggests that older driver crash risk estimates based on traditional exposure measures are prone

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2014 Cochrane

174. Interventions to improve the uptake of screening across a range of conditions in Ethnic Minority Groups: a systematic review

) which assisted retrieval of the core contents of each study and the organisation of material.Evidence was organised by screening test and type of intervention. Two authors (CK and MP) extracted data into evidence tables to enable comparison of study characteristics and findings. The heterogeneity of methods precluded a meta-analysis thus results are descriptive. Evidence was also assessed, using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tables.This systematic review appraises data from international (...) Interventions to improve the uptake of screening across a range of conditions in Ethnic Minority Groups: a systematic review Screening programmes are well established in cancer, and are now being implemented in other conditions. An effective screening programme leads to early disease detection and improved outcomes but its impact is dependent on the quality of the test and the proportion of the target population participating. A further consideration is that uptake of screening by minority

2018 EvidenceUpdates

175. Evaluation of Interventions Intended to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates in the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

, to August 31, 2017. Key search terms included colorectal cancer and screening.Randomized clinical trials of US-based interventions in clinical settings designed to improve CRC screening test completion in average-risk adults.At least 2 investigators independently extracted data and appraised each study's risk of bias. Where sufficient data were available, random-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain either a pooled risk ratio (RR) or risk difference (RD) for screening completion for each type (...) of intervention.The main outcome was completion of CRC screening. Examination included interventions to increase completion of (1) initial CRC screening by any recommended modality, (2) colonoscopy after an abnormal initial screening test result, and (3) continued rounds of annual fecal blood tests (FBTs).The main review included 73 randomized clinical trials comprising 366 766 patients at low or medium risk of bias. Interventions that were associated with increased CRC screening completion rates compared

2018 EvidenceUpdates

176. Population health interventions to improve colorectal cancer screening by fecal immunochemical tests: A systematic review

the studies were at high or unclear risk of bias; heterogeneous study designs and characteristics precluded meta-analysis. FIT-based CRC screening programs utilizing multilevel interventions (e.g. mailed FIT outreach, FIT paired with other preventative services, and provider alerts) have the potential to significantly increase screening participation. However, such programs must also follow-up patients with abnormal FIT results.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (...) Population health interventions to improve colorectal cancer screening by fecal immunochemical tests: A systematic review Despite clear evidence that colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces mortality, screening, including fecal immunochemical tests (FIT), is underutilized. We conducted a systematic review to determine the evidence of efficacy of interventions to improve FIT completion that could be scaled and utilized in population health management. We systematically searched publication

2018 EvidenceUpdates

177. Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

a priori) based on age, frequency of screening, family history, ethnicity, and socioeconomic level, as well as a sensitivity analysis based on the risk of bias. The quality of the evidence was assessed with the GRADE approach.Five randomised controlled trials, enrolling 721 718 men, were included. Studies varied with respect to screening frequency and intervals, PSA thresholds for biopsy, and risk of bias. When considering the whole body of evidence, screening probably has no effect on all-cause (...) mortality (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.01; moderate certainty) and may have no effect on prostate-specific mortality (IRR 0.96, 0.85 to 1.08; low certainty). Sensitivity analysis of studies at lower risk of bias (n=1) also demonstrates that screening seems to have no effect on all-cause mortality (IRR 1.0, 0.98 to 1.02; moderate certainty) but may have a small effect on prostate-specific mortality (IRR 0.79, 0.69 to 0.91; moderate certainty). This corresponds to one less death from prostate cancer per

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2018 BMJ

178. Psoriatic arthritis screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis

-specific accuracy estimates (sensitivity and specificity). Heterogeneity of the diagnostic odds ratio was evaluated through meta-regression. All full-text records were assessed for risk of bias with the QUADAS 2 tool.A total of 2280 references were identified and 130 records were assessed for full-text review, of which 42 were included for synthesis. Of these, 27 were included in quantitative syntheses. Of the records, 37% had an overall low risk of bias. Fourteen different screening tools and 104 (...) for the diagnostic odds ratios varied between 76 and 90.1%. Meta-regressions were conducted, in which the age, risk of bias for patient selection and the screening tool accounted for some of the observed heterogeneity.Questionnaire-based tools have moderate accuracy to identify PsA among psoriasis patients. The Early Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Questionnaire appears to have slightly better accuracy compared with the Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening, Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool and Psoriatic

2018 EvidenceUpdates

179. Digital Rectal Examination for Prostate Cancer Screening in Primary Care: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

(Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2) and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) guidelines to assess study risk of bias and quality.Our search yielded 8,217 studies, of which 7 studies with 9,241 patients were included after the screening process. All patients analyzed underwent both DRE and biopsy. Pooled sensitivity of DRE performed by primary care clinicians was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.36-0.67; I2 = 98.4%) and pooled specificity was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.41-0.76 (...) Digital Rectal Examination for Prostate Cancer Screening in Primary Care: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Although the digital rectal examination (DRE) is commonly performed to screen for prostate cancer, there is limited data to support its use in primary care. This review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of DRE in screening for prostate cancer in primary care settings.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), Cochrane

2018 EvidenceUpdates

180. Validity and reliability of clinical prediction rules used to screen for cervical spine injury in alert low-risk patients with blunt trauma to the neck: part 2. A systematic review from the Cervical Assessment and Diagnosis Research Evaluation (CADRE) Col (PubMed)

in alert low-risk adult patients with blunt trauma to the neck.We searched four databases from 2005 to 2015. Pairs of independent reviewers critically appraised eligible studies using the modified QUADAS-2 and QAREL criteria. We synthesized low risk of bias studies following best evidence synthesis principles.We screened 679 citations; five had a low risk of bias and were included in our synthesis. The sensitivity of the Canadian C-spine rule ranged from 0.90 to 1.00 with negative predictive values (...) Validity and reliability of clinical prediction rules used to screen for cervical spine injury in alert low-risk patients with blunt trauma to the neck: part 2. A systematic review from the Cervical Assessment and Diagnosis Research Evaluation (CADRE) Col To update findings of the 2000-2010 Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders (Neck Pain Task Force) on the validity and reliability of clinical prediction rules used to screen for cervical spine injury

2017 European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society

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