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Screening Bias

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121. Test-treatment RCTs are susceptible to bias: a review of the methodological quality of randomized trials that evaluate diagnostic tests. (PubMed)

Test-treatment RCTs are susceptible to bias: a review of the methodological quality of randomized trials that evaluate diagnostic tests. There is a growing recognition for the need to expand our evidence base for the clinical effectiveness of diagnostic tests. Many international bodies are calling for diagnostic randomized controlled trials to provide the most rigorous evidence of impact to patient health. Although these so-called test-treatment RCTs are very challenging to undertake due (...) to their methodological complexity, they have not been subjected to a systematic appraisal of their methodological quality. The extent to which these trials may be producing biased results therefore remains unknown. We set out to address this issue by conducting a methodological review of published test-treatment trials to determine how often they implement adequate methods to limit bias and safeguard the validity of results.We ascertained all test-treatment RCTs published 2004-2007, indexed in CENTRAL, including

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2017 BMC medical research methodology

122. Drop-out from cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a randomized controlled trial of ST-elevation myocardial infarction does not cause selection bias on endpoints. (PubMed)

Drop-out from cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a randomized controlled trial of ST-elevation myocardial infarction does not cause selection bias on endpoints. The extent of selection bias due to drop-out in clinical trials of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as surrogate endpoints is unknown. We sought to interrogate the characteristics and prognosis of patients who dropped out before acute CMR assessment compared to CMR-participants (...) in a previously published double-blinded, placebo-controlled all-comer trial with CMR outcome as the primary endpoint.Baseline characteristics and composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, heart failure and re-infarction after 30 days and 5 years of follow-up were assessed and compared between CMR-drop-outs and CMR-participants using the trial screening log and the Eastern Danish Heart Registry.The drop-out rate from acute CMR was 28% (n = 92). These patients had a significantly worse clinical risk profile

2017 Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society

123. Controlled Self-assembly of Stem Cell Aggregates Instructs Pluripotency and Lineage Bias (PubMed)

Controlled Self-assembly of Stem Cell Aggregates Instructs Pluripotency and Lineage Bias Stem cell-derived organoids and other 3D microtissues offer enormous potential as models for drug screening, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine. Formation of stem/progenitor cell aggregates is common in biomanufacturing processes and critical to many organoid approaches. However, reproducibility of current protocols is limited by reliance on poorly controlled processes (e.g., spontaneous (...) -assembly kinetics. We show that aggregation method instructs EB lineage bias, with faster aggregation promoting pluripotency loss and ectoderm, and slower aggregation favoring mesoderm and endoderm. We also find that aggregation kinetics of EBs markedly influence EB structure, with slower kinetics resulting in increased EB porosity and growth factor signaling. Our findings suggest that controlling internal structure of cell aggregates by modifying aggregation kinetics is a potential strategy

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2017 Scientific reports

124. Resolving kangaroo phylogeny and overcoming retrotransposon ascertainment bias (PubMed)

Resolving kangaroo phylogeny and overcoming retrotransposon ascertainment bias Reconstructing phylogeny from retrotransposon insertions is often limited by access to only a single reference genome, whereby support for clades that do not include the reference taxon cannot be directly observed. Here we have developed a new statistical framework that accounts for this ascertainment bias, allowing us to employ phylogenetically powerful retrotransposon markers to explore the radiation of the largest (...) living marsupials, the kangaroos and wallabies of the genera Macropus and Wallabia. An exhaustive in silico screening of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) reference genome followed by experimental screening revealed 29 phylogenetically informative retrotransposon markers belonging to a family of endogenous retroviruses. We identified robust support for the enigmatic swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) falling within a paraphyletic genus, Macropus. Our statistical approach provides a means to test

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2017 Scientific reports

125. Autocalibration method for non-stationary CT bias correction (PubMed)

Autocalibration method for non-stationary CT bias correction Computed tomography (CT) is a widely used imaging modality for screening and diagnosis. However, the deleterious effects of radiation exposure inherent in CT imaging require the development of image reconstruction methods which can reduce exposure levels. The development of iterative reconstruction techniques is now enabling the acquisition of low-dose CT images whose quality is comparable to that of CT images acquired with much (...) -stationary noise response. In this work, we analyze the effect of reconstruction biases caused by non-stationary noise and propose an autocalibration methodology to compensate it. Our contributions are: 1) the derivation of a functional relationship between observed bias and non-stationary noise, 2) a robust and accurate method to estimate the local variance, 3) an autocalibration methodology that does not necessarily rely on a calibration phantom, attenuates the bias caused by noise and removes

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2017 Medical Image Analysis

126. A catch-up illusion arising from a distance-dependent perception bias in judging relative movement (PubMed)

A catch-up illusion arising from a distance-dependent perception bias in judging relative movement The perception of relative target movement from a dynamic observer is an unexamined psychological three body problem. To test the applicability of explanations for two moving bodies participants repeatedly judged the relative movements of two runners chasing each other in video clips displayed on a stationary screen. The chased person always ran at 3 m/s with an observer camera following (...) or leading at 4.5, 3, 1.5 or 0 m/s. We harmonized the chaser speed in an adaptive staircase to determine the point of subjective equal movement speed between runners and observed (i) an underestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved towards the viewer, and (ii) an overestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved away from the viewer, leading to a catch-up illusion in case of equidistant runners. The bias was independent of the richness of available self-movement cues. Results are inconsistent

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2017 Scientific reports

127. Mass Balance Recovery, Metabolite Profile and Metabolite Identification of [14C]-BIA 9-1067

Mass Balance Recovery, Metabolite Profile and Metabolite Identification of [14C]-BIA 9-1067 Mass Balance Recovery, Metabolite Profile and Metabolite Identification of [14C]-BIA 9-1067 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more (...) studies before adding more. Mass Balance Recovery, Metabolite Profile and Metabolite Identification of [14C]-BIA 9-1067 The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03119194 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : April 18, 2017 Last Update Posted : August 24, 2017 Sponsor: Bial - Portela C

2017 Clinical Trials

128. Approach Bias Retraining to Augment Smoking Cessation

(week 17) follow-up (i.e., post-quit). Reaction Time on Approach Bias Retraining Task [ Time Frame: 7 weeks ] The time between the start of the trial and the picture disappearing from the screen will be recorded. The investigators will look at the change in response times for each individual. The investigators hypothesize that there will be a greater decrease in reaction time for those in the ABR training group. Secondary Outcome Measures : Urge to Smoke as assessed by the QSU-brief (Questionnaire (...) Approach Bias Retraining to Augment Smoking Cessation Approach Bias Retraining to Augment Smoking Cessation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Approach Bias Retraining to Augment Smoking

2017 Clinical Trials

129. Bioavailability Study of BIA 5-453

Bioavailability Study of BIA 5-453 Bioavailability Study of BIA 5-453 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Bioavailability Study of BIA 5-453 The safety and scientific validity of this study (...) and tolerability of BIA 5-453 under fasted and fed conditions. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Hypertension Congestive Heart Failure Drug: BIA 5-453 Phase 1 Detailed Description: This was a Single-centre, two-way crossover, randomised, open-label study in 12 healthy male volunteers. Subjects received a single oral 200 mg dose of BIA 5-453 following a standard meal in one period, and following at least 10 hours of fasting in another period. Treatment periods were separated by a washout

2017 Clinical Trials

130. Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Multiple Rising Dose Regimens of BIA 5-453

Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Multiple Rising Dose Regimens of BIA 5-453 Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Multiple Rising Dose Regimens of BIA 5-453 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove (...) one or more studies before adding more. Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Multiple Rising Dose Regimens of BIA 5-453 The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03099226 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : April 4, 2017 Last Update Posted : April 4, 2017 Sponsor

2017 Clinical Trials

131. Effect of BIA 6-512 at Steady-state on the Levodopa Pharmacokinetics With a Single-dose of Levodopa/Benserazide 200/50 mg or With a Single-dose of Levodopa/Benserazide 200/50 mg Plus a Single-dose of Nebicapone 150 mg

or other study assessments, in the investigator's opinion. Subjects who had previously participated in a clinical trial with BIA 6-512. Subjects who had used any investigational drug or participated in any clinical trial within 6 months prior to screening. Subjects who had participated in more than 2 clinical trials within the 12 months prior to screening. Subjects who had donated or received any blood or blood products within the 3 months prior to screening. Subjects who were vegetarians, vegans (...) Effect of BIA 6-512 at Steady-state on the Levodopa Pharmacokinetics With a Single-dose of Levodopa/Benserazide 200/50 mg or With a Single-dose of Levodopa/Benserazide 200/50 mg Plus a Single-dose of Nebicapone 150 mg Effect of BIA 6-512 at Steady-state on the Levodopa Pharmacokinetics With a Single-dose of Levodopa/Benserazide 200/50 mg or With a Single-dose of Levodopa/Benserazide 200/50 mg Plus a Single-dose of Nebicapone 150 mg - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary

2017 Clinical Trials

132. Pharmacokinetic Profile of BIA 6-512 in Healthy Elderly Subjects Versus Healthy Young Subjects

Pharmacokinetic Profile of BIA 6-512 in Healthy Elderly Subjects Versus Healthy Young Subjects Pharmacokinetic Profile of BIA 6-512 in Healthy Elderly Subjects Versus Healthy Young Subjects - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one (...) or more studies before adding more. Pharmacokinetic Profile of BIA 6-512 in Healthy Elderly Subjects Versus Healthy Young Subjects The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03095105 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : March 29, 2017 Last Update Posted : March 30, 2017 Sponsor: Bial

2017 Clinical Trials

133. Effect of Food on BIA 6-512 (Trans-resveratrol)

Effect of Food on BIA 6-512 (Trans-resveratrol) Effect of Food on BIA 6-512 (Trans-resveratrol) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effect of Food on BIA 6-512 (Trans-resveratrol) The safety (...) of the study was to investigate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of a single 400 mg dose of BIA 6-512 (trans-resveratrol) in healthy volunteers Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Parkinson Disease Drug: BIA 6-512 400 mg Phase 1 Detailed Description: Single-centre, open-label, randomised, two-way crossover study in 24 healthy male and female subjects. The study consisted of 2 single-dose periods separated by a washout of 7 days or more. Eligible subjects were admitted to the UFH

2017 Clinical Trials

134. Tolerability and Steady-state Pharmacokinetics of BIA 6-512

Tolerability and Steady-state Pharmacokinetics of BIA 6-512 Tolerability and Steady-state Pharmacokinetics of BIA 6-512 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Tolerability and Steady-state (...) Pharmacokinetics of BIA 6-512 The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03093389 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : March 28, 2017 Last Update Posted : March 28, 2017 Sponsor: Bial - Portela C S.A. Information provided by (Responsible Party): Bial - Portela C S.A. Study Details Study

2017 Clinical Trials

135. Effect of BIA 6-512 at Steady-state on the Levodopa Pharmacokinetics

in a clinical trial with BIA 6-512. Subjects who had used any investigational drug or participated in any clinical trial within 6 months prior to screening. Subjects who had participated in more than 2 clinical trials within the 12 months prior to screening. Subjects who had donated or received any blood or blood products within the 3 months prior to screening. Subjects who were vegetarians, vegans or have medical dietary restrictions. Subjects who cannot communicate reliably with the investigator. Subjects (...) Effect of BIA 6-512 at Steady-state on the Levodopa Pharmacokinetics Effect of BIA 6-512 at Steady-state on the Levodopa Pharmacokinetics - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effect of BIA 6-512

2017 Clinical Trials

136. Codon bias imposes a targetable limitation on KRAS-driven therapeutic resistance (PubMed)

Codon bias imposes a targetable limitation on KRAS-driven therapeutic resistance KRAS mutations drive resistance to targeted therapies, including EGFR inhibitors in colorectal cancer (CRC). Through genetic screens, we unexpectedly find that mutant HRAS, which is rarely found in CRC, is a stronger driver of resistance than mutant KRAS. This difference is ascribed to common codon bias in HRAS, which leads to much higher protein expression, and implies that the inherent poor expression of KRAS due (...) that codon bias plays a critical role in KRAS-driven resistance and provide a rationale for targeting translation to overcome resistance.

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2017 Nature communications

137. Cognitive Bias Modification for paranoia (CBM-pa): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (PubMed)

Cognitive Bias Modification for paranoia (CBM-pa): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial Persecutory delusions are the most common type of delusions in psychosis and present in around 10-15% of the general population. Persecutory delusions are thought to be sustained by biased cognitive and emotional processes. Recent advances favour targeted interventions, focussing on specific symptoms or mechanisms. Our aim is to test the clinical feasibility of a novel psychological intervention (...) , which manipulates biased interpretations toward more adaptive processing, in order to reduce paranoia in patients.The 'Cognitive Bias Modification for paranoia' (CBM-pa) study is a feasibility, double-blind, randomised controlled trial (RCT) for 60 stabilised outpatients with persistent, distressing paranoid symptoms. Patients will be randomised at a 50:50 ratio, to computerised CBM-pa or a text-reading control intervention, receiving one 40-min session per week, for 6 weeks. CBM-pa involves

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2017 Trials

138. Publication bias in animal research presented at the 2008 Society of Critical Care Medicine Conference (PubMed)

Publication bias in animal research presented at the 2008 Society of Critical Care Medicine Conference To determine a direct measure of publication bias by determining subsequent full-paper publication (P) of studies reported in animal research abstracts presented at an international conference (A).We selected 100 random (using a random-number generator) A from the 2008 Society of Critical Care Medicine Conference. Using a data collection form and study manual, we recorded methodology (...) and result variables from A. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to June 2015, and DOAJ and Google Scholar to May 2017 to screen for subsequent P. Methodology and result variables were recorded from P to determine changes in reporting from A. Predictors of P were examined using Fisher's Exact Test.62% (95% CI 52-71%) of studies described in A were subsequently P after a median 19 [IQR 9-33.3] months from conference presentation. Reporting of studies in A was of low quality: randomized 27% (the method

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2017 BMC research notes

139. Blood and stool biomarker for colorectal cancer screening

Blood and stool biomarker for colorectal cancer screening Health Policy Advisory Committee on Technology Technology Brief Update Blood and stool biomarker testing for colorectal cancer screening August 2016 © State of Queensland (Queensland Department of Health) 2016 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 3.0 Australia licence. In essence, you are free to copy and communicate the work in its current form for non-commercial purposes, as long (...) HealthPACT through funding. This Update was prepared by Linda Mundy from the HealthPACT Secretariat.. Blood and stool biomarker testing for CRC screening: Update August 2016 i 2016 Summary of findings The national bowel cancer screening program (NBCSP) aims to provide by 2020 biennial screening for asymptomatic individuals aged 50–74 years, using an immunological faecal occult blood test (FOBT) to detect colorectal cancer (CRC). Since the literature search was conducted for the original Brief

2016 COAG Health Council - Horizon Scanning Technology Briefs

140. Screening for Lung Cancer*

of an incompatible follow-up period (≤12 mo), the small number of reported events (lung cancers) and no reporting of mortality outcomes. Evidence from four studies showed no significant differences in rates of smoking cessation between the screened (LDCT or chest radiography) groups and the control groups. The risk of bias for these studies was unclear because of the self-reported nature of this outcome. USPSTF (2014) Benefits of Detection and Early Treatment Although lung cancer screening is not an alternative (...) Screening for Lung Cancer* Screening for Lung Cancer | National Guideline Clearinghouse success fail JUL Aug 12 2018 2019 30 Jan 2017 - 13 Jul 2018 COLLECTED BY Organization: Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted websites for the sake of history and digital heritage. The group is 100% composed of volunteers and interested parties, and has expanded

2016 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

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