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Screening Bias

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81. Randomisation to protect against selection bias in healthcare trials. (PubMed)

Randomisation to protect against selection bias in healthcare trials. Randomised trials use the play of chance to assign participants to comparison groups. The unpredictability of the process, if not subverted, should prevent systematic differences between comparison groups (selection bias). Differences due to chance will still occur and these are minimised by randomising a sufficiently large number of people.To assess the effects of randomisation and concealment of allocation on the results (...) of healthcare studies.We searched the Cochrane Methodology Register, MEDLINE, SciSearch and reference lists up to September 2009. In addition, we screened articles citing included studies (ISI Science Citation Index) and papers related to included studies (PubMed).Eligible study designs were cohorts of studies, systematic reviews or meta-analyses of healthcare interventions that compared random allocation versus non-random allocation or adequate versus inadequate/unclear concealment of allocation

2011 Cochrane

82. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in hospital screening samples

three studies which provided screening test accuracy data for MacConkey selective agar plus carbapenem disc(s) as applied to rectal swab samples. All were at risk of incorporation bias since the result of the index test formed part of the reference standard. One study from Israel reported sensitivity of 75.8% and specificity of 89.6% for detection of KPC producing Enterobacteriaceae with MacConkey agar plates with imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem 10 microgram discs 15 . The authors noted (...) the performance of MacConkey plates with ertapenem discs or imipenem discs in identifying carbapenemase- producing Klebsiella pneumonia 16 . For both tests, sensitivity was low (81.8% for ertapenem and 67.2% for imipenem). Chromogenic media No studies were identified which assessed the accuracy of Colorex™ mSuperCARBA™ or Brilliance™ CRE ESBL biplate for identification of CPE in rectal swab screening samples. Seven studies were identified as outlined in Table 6. All were at risk of incorporation bias since

2016 Evidence Notes from Healthcare Improvement Scotland

83. Screening for Hepatitis C Virus: A Systematic Review

through third-party consultation. For the question on patient preferences and values, two reviewers independently inductively coded and captured relevant result statements from each included study. Subsequently, coding structures were compared and discussed until a mutually agreed upon coding structure emerged. No eligible studies were found on the clinical effectiveness of screening. Quality Assessment and Risk of Bias Assessment Following data extraction, for the research questions on clinical (...) , insufficient reporting, the relevance of the included study populations and settings, and richness of the data. The evidence on clinical validity of screening with Ab and Ag tests started out graded as high based on study design. Through an assessment of study design, risk of bias, indirectness, inconsistency, imprecision, and publication bias, the quality of evidence was downgraded. The GRADE of the evidence on each of the clinical validity outcomes was finally assessed as low. Conclusions

2017 CADTH - Health Technology Assessment

84. HPV Testing for Primary Cervical Cancer Screening — Project Protocol

between women screened and women contributing to the diagnostic test group will be documented and the potential for bias assessed. Reasons for observed heterogeneity will be explored by subgroup or multivariate regression analyses, given the availability of covariate data. Individual comparisons (e.g., for all HPV testing as compared with cytology-based testing, and for individual classes of tests compared with cytology-based testing) will be summarized separately (including those that compare tests (...) HPV Testing for Primary Cervical Cancer Screening — Project Protocol HPV Testing for Primary Cervical Cancer Screening — Project Protocol | CADTH.ca CADTH Document Viewer HPV Testing for Primary Cervical Cancer Screening — Project Protocol Table of Contents Search this document HPV Testing for Primary Cervical Cancer Screening — Project Protocol May 2017 Rationale and Policy Issues It is estimated that more than 80% of sexually active women will acquire a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection

2017 CADTH - Optimal Use

85. Recommendations on screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in primary care.

to limitations in design, indirectness, inconsistency of findings, imprecision, and reporting bias (such as publication bias). Meta-analyses were conducted where appropriate. Data Synthesis For the binary outcomes of benefit of one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening (i.e., AAA-related mortality, all-cause mortality and AAA rupture rates); and binary outcomes of harms (i.e., increase in AAA-related procedures, 30-day post-operative mortality) the evidence review and synthesis team utilized (...) of interest including how clinical benefits of screening differ for various high versus low risk screening approaches, or by subgroups that may influence the underlying risk of developing abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Fourth, the team did not analyze the benefits of screening based on specific aortic diameter or baseline risk of rupture. Finally, there were insufficient studies reporting outcomes of interest to assess publication bias. Gaps in Knowledge Further work is required to assess whether

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

86. Screening and Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Screening and Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening and Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea | National Guideline Clearinghouse success fail JUL Aug 12 2017 2018 2019 02 Oct 2017 - 13 Jul 2018 COLLECTED BY Organization: Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted websites for the sake of history and digital heritage. The group is 100% composed (...) In Username or Email * Password * Remember Me Don't have an account? The AHRQ National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC, guideline.gov) Web site will not be available after July 16, 2018 because federal funding through AHRQ will no longer be available to support the NGC as of that date. For additional information, read our . Guideline Synthesis Screening and Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Guidelines Being Compared: American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Clinical practice guideline for diagnostic

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

87. Final recommendation statement: thyroid cancer: screening.

., country, inclusion criteria, age, sex, race/ethnicity, risk factors for thyroid cancer), screening and treatment details, reference standard or comparator details (if applicable), length of follow-up, and outcomes (e.g., cancer yield, diagnostic accuracy, cancer morbidity, mortality, and harms). Data Synthesis and Analysis For each key question (KQ), the number and design of included studies, summary of results, consistency and precision of results, reporting bias, summary of study quality (...) Final recommendation statement: thyroid cancer: screening. Final recommendation statement: thyroid cancer: screening. | National Guideline Clearinghouse success fail JUN 10 2017 2018 2019 03 Oct 2017 - 13 Jul 2018 COLLECTED BY Organization: Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted websites for the sake of history and digital heritage. The group is 100

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

88. Recommendations on hepatitis C screening for adults.

included studies because these data are not directly related to participant willingness to be screened, and are therefore outside the scope of this review. For Q5, one reviewer extracted descriptive and outcome data and the other verified the accuracy of data extraction. The reviewers met frequently throughout the process to discuss discrepancies. Disagreements were resolved through discussion or third-party consultation. Quality Assessment and Risk of Bias Assessment Following data extraction (...) Recommendations on hepatitis C screening for adults. Recommendations on hepatitis C screening for adults. | National Guideline Clearinghouse success fail JUN 10 2017 2018 2019 03 Oct 2017 - 12 Jul 2018 COLLECTED BY Organization: Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted websites for the sake of history and digital heritage. The group is 100% composed

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

89. Screening for Gynecologic Conditions with Pelvic Examination

Screening for Gynecologic Conditions with Pelvic Examination Screening for Gynecologic Conditions with Pelvic Examination | National Guideline Clearinghouse success fail JUL Aug 12 2017 2018 2019 02 Oct 2017 - 13 Jul 2018 COLLECTED BY Organization: Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted websites for the sake of history and digital heritage. The group is 100 (...) Sign In Username or Email * Password * Remember Me Don't have an account? The AHRQ National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC, guideline.gov) Web site will not be available after July 16, 2018 because federal funding through AHRQ will no longer be available to support the NGC as of that date. For additional information, read our . Guideline Synthesis Screening for Gynecologic Conditions with Pelvic Examination Guidelines Being Compared: American College of Physicians (ACP) Screening pelvic examination

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

90. Final recommendation statement: obesity in children and adolescents: screening.

Final recommendation statement: obesity in children and adolescents: screening. Final recommendation statement: obesity in children and adolescents: screening. | National Guideline Clearinghouse success fail JUN 09 2017 2018 2019 14 Apr 2018 - 12 Jul 2018 COLLECTED BY Organization: Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted websites for the sake of history (...) at . TIMESTAMPS Search Sign In Username or Email * Password * Remember Me Don't have an account? The AHRQ National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC, guideline.gov) Web site will not be available after July 16, 2018 because federal funding through AHRQ will no longer be available to support the NGC as of that date. For additional information, read our . Guideline Summary NGC:011239 2017 Jun NEATS Assessment Final recommendation statement: obesity in children and adolescents: screening. Final recommendation

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

91. Final recommendation statement: vision in children ages 6 months to 5 years: screening.

Final recommendation statement: vision in children ages 6 months to 5 years: screening. Final recommendation statement: vision in children ages 6 months to 5 years: screening. | National Guideline Clearinghouse success fail May JUN 09 2017 2018 2019 19 May 2018 - 12 Jul 2018 COLLECTED BY Organization: Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted websites (...) to 5 years: screening. Final recommendation statement: vision in children ages 6 months to 5 years: screening. [internet]. Rockville (MD): U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF); 2017 Sep [9 p]. [43 references] This is the current release of the guideline. This guideline updates a previous version: Vision screening for children 1 to 5 years of age: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation statement. Pediatrics. 2011 Feb;127(2):340-6. This guideline meets NGC's 2013 (revised) inclusion

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

92. Antenatal screening approaches effective in preventing MTCT of HIV, HBV, syphilis and rubella in vulnerable populations

prevented construction of evidence tables. For the same reason, the risk of bias was assessed as high for all the results. One researcher extracted and transferred the most relevant and best-quality information into a narrative text describing each study. Another researcher checked the text against the publications. Large differences in the TECHNICAL REPORT Antenatal screening approaches effective in preventing MTCT of HIV, HBV, syphilis and rubella in vulnerable populations 4 variability/heterogeneity (...) Antenatal screening approaches effective in preventing MTCT of HIV, HBV, syphilis and rubella in vulnerable populations TECHNICAL REPORT Antenatal screening approaches effective in preventing mother- child-transmission of HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella in vulnerable populations Literature review www.ecdc.europa.euECDC TECHNICAL REPORT Antenatal screening approaches effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella in vulnerable populations

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Literature Reviews

93. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella susceptibility

17 3.5.1 Effectiveness of antenatal screening for rubella susceptibility 17 3.5.2 Cost-effectiveness of antenatal screening for rubella susceptibility 18 3.6 Risk of bias and quality/strength of evidence 18 4 Discussion 21 5 Conclusions 22 6 Next steps 22 References 23 Appendix 1. Literature search on the topic of cost-effectiveness of antenatal screening 26 Appendix 2. Literature search on the topic of effectiveness of antenatal screening 28 Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antenatal (...) Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella susceptibility TECHNICAL REPORT Effectiveness and cost- effectiveness of antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella susceptibility Literature review www.ecdc.europa.euECDC TECHNICAL REPORT Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella susceptibility Literature review ii This report was commissioned by the European

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Literature Reviews

94. Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents

Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents | From the American Academy of Pediatrics | Pediatrics '); document.write(''); } function OAS_AD(pos) { if (OAS_version >= 11 && typeof(OAS_RICH)!='undefined') { OAS_RICH(pos); } else { OAS_NORMAL(pos); } } //--> Search for this keyword Source User menu Sections Sign up (...) for highlighting editor-chosen studies with the greatest impact on clinical care. Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents Joseph T. Flynn , David C. Kaelber , Carissa M. Baker-Smith , Douglas Blowey , Aaron E. Carroll , Stephen R. Daniels , Sarah D. de Ferranti , Janis M. Dionne , Bonita Falkner , Susan K. Flinn , Samuel S. Gidding , Celeste Goodwin , Michael G. Leu , Makia E. Powers , Corinna Rea , Joshua Samuels , Madeline Simasek , Vidhu V

2017 American Academy of Pediatrics

95. Screening for Atrial Fibrillation: 2017 European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) Consensus Document

Screening for Atrial Fibrillation: 2017 European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) Consensus Document Screeningforatrialfibrillation:aEuropean HeartRhythmAssociation(EHRA)consensus documentendorsedbytheHeartRhythm Society(HRS),AsiaPacificHeartRhythm Society(APHRS),andSociedad LatinoamericanadeEstimulaci onCard iaca y Electrofisiolog ia(SOLAECE) GeorgesH.Mairesse 1 *(Chair,Belgium),PatrickMoran 2 (Ireland), IsabelleC.VanGelder 3 (TheNetherlands),ChristianElsner 4 (Germany), MartenRosenqvist 5 (...) quality of life. Its natural evolution usually progresses from short self-terminating rare episodes with little or no symptoms to longer, more frequent, more prolonged and usually clinically detectable ones, even if individ- ual variations can also be observed. 8 An earlier detection of AF could thus allow an earlier adequate management to avoid later complications. 9,10 Screening for AF is not yet recommended by all scientific AF guide- lines, even in specific ‘at risk’ populations. The present

2017 Heart Rhythm Society

96. Preeclampsia: Screening

Preeclampsia: Screening Final Recommendation Statement: Preeclampsia: Screening - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 1.0.0.308 Last Build: 11/16/2018 6:27:19 PM You are here: Final Recommendation Statement : Final Recommendation Statement Final Recommendation Statement Preeclampsia: Screening Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the U.S. government. They should not be construed as an official position of the Agency (...) for Healthcare Research and Quality or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Recommendation Summary Population Recommendation Grade Pregnant woman The USPSTF recommends screening for preeclampsia in pregnant women with blood pressure measurements throughout pregnancy. To read the recommendation statement in JAMA , select . To read the evidence summary in JAMA , select . Table of Contents Preface The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) makes recommendations about the effectiveness

2017 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

97. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: Screening

and specificity of type IV portable monitors was highly variable and inconsistent (more information is available in Table 5 of the full evidence report ). Overall, consistent with findings from other systematic reviews, type III and type IV portable monitors seem to be generally accurate in diagnosing OSA but have a wide and variable bias in estimating actual AHI , in patients being evaluated for suspected OSA. It is unclear how these portable sleep monitors would perform in asymptomatic, screen-detected (...) Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: Screening Final Recommendation Statement: Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: Screening - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 1.0.0.308 Last Build: 11/16/2018 6:27:19 PM You are here: Final Recommendation Statement : Final Recommendation Statement Final Recommendation Statement Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: Screening Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the U.S. government. They should

2017 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

98. Improving Awareness of and Screening for Health Risks Among Sex Workers

Improving Awareness of and Screening for Health Risks Among Sex Workers Improving Awareness of and Screening for Health Risks Among Sex Workers - ACOG Menu ▼ Improving Awareness of and Screening for Health Risks Among Sex Workers Page Navigation ▼ Number 708, July 2017 Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women This Committee Opinion was developed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women in collaboration with Jennefer (...) presented. Improving Awareness of and Screening for Health Risks Among Sex Workers ABSTRACT: The population of women who sell or exchange sex or intimate sexual services for material goods or services, also called “sex work,” often is unrecognized in the typical obstetric and gynecologic practice. The prevalence of this behavior among adult women is difficult to quantify because of its frequent omission from the routine sexual history by women and clinicians. Data on the prevalence of sex work

2017 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

99. HTA of HPV testing for cervical cancer screening

HTA of HPV testing for cervical cancer screening Health technology assessment of BCG vaccination programmes Health Information and Quality Authority Health technology assessment of human papillomavirus testing as the primary screening method for prevention of cervical cancer 24 May 2017 Safer Better Care Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of human papillomavirus testing as the primary screening method for prevention of cervical cancer Health Information and Quality Authority ii Health (...) Technology Assessment (HTA) of human papillomavirus testing as the primary screening method for prevention of cervical cancer Health Information and Quality Authority iii About the Health Information and Quality Authority The Health Information and Quality Authority (HIQA) is an independent authority established to drive high quality and safe care for people using our health and social care services in Ireland. HIQA’s role is to develop standards, inspect and review health and social care services

2017 Health Information and Quality Authority

100. Risk of bias from inclusion of patients who already have diagnosis of or are undergoing treatment for depression in diagnostic accuracy studies of screening tools for depression: systematic review. (PubMed)

Risk of bias from inclusion of patients who already have diagnosis of or are undergoing treatment for depression in diagnostic accuracy studies of screening tools for depression: systematic review. To investigate the proportion of original studies included in systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of screening tools for depression that appropriately exclude patients who already have a diagnosis of or are receiving treatment for depression and to determine whether (...) these systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluate possible bias from the inclusion of such patients.Systematic review.Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, ISI, SCOPUS, and Cochrane databases were searched from 1 January 2005 to 29 October 2009.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in any language that reported on the diagnostic accuracy of screening tools for depression.Only eight of 197 (4%) unique publications from 17 systematic reviews and meta-analyses specifically excluded patients who already had

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2011 BMJ

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