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Screening Bias

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61. Recommendations on screening for developmental delay

Recommendations on screening for developmental delay Guidelines CMAJ ©2016 8872147 Canada Inc. or its licensors CMAJ 1 CME Competing interests: None declared. This article has been peer reviewed. *The complete list of authors appears at the end of the article. The complete list of current members of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care is available at www.canadian taskforce.ca/members_eng. html Correspondence to: Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, info (...) -based screening of all preschool children has been pro- posed to facilitate early identification and treat- ment. For example, the province of Ontario rec- ommends developmental screening of all children at 18 months, 10 and the American Acad- emy of Pediatrics recommends developmental screening at 9, 18 and 30 months and autism screening at 24 and 30 months. 11,12 The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care assessed the evidence on the effectiveness of population- based screening

2016 CPG Infobase

62. Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of BIA 5-1058

. Cohorts 1 and 2) must be available before dose escalation to the next dose levels. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Cardiovascular Disease+Pulmonary Disease Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Drug: BIA 5-1058 Drug: Placebo Phase 1 Detailed Description: Each cohort will follow the same study design. Subjects will be screened for inclusion in the study between 28 and 3 days before the first dose. Eligible subjects will be admitted 2 days before dosing (Day 2) for all regimens (...) , as agreed by the PI and sponsor's medical monitor; Subjects who have previously been enrolled in a BIA 5-1058 study or who have previously been enrolled and dosed in this study; Use of any investigational drug or participation in any clinical trial within 90 days prior to screening; Donation or reception of any blood or blood products within the 3 months prior to screening; Donation or loss of greater than 400 mL of blood within the previous 3 months; Vegetarians, vegans or other medical dietary

2018 Clinical Trials

63. Pain? Where?! Attentional bias for pain in the brain

Pain? Where?! Attentional bias for pain in the brain Pain? Where?! Attentional bias for pain in the brain • Body in Mind Research into the role of the brain and mind in chronic pain Pain? Where?! Attentional bias for pain in the brain April 3, 2018 by Shortly after starting my PhD, my father had a work accident. He broke his wrist in 2 places, and after surgery had to undergo weeks of physiotherapy. While I do not particularly enjoy seeing others in pain, I must say that, as an experimental (...) on the existing literature, we do not know. Although some research suggests that this might have been the case, a recent meta-analysis revealed that the evidence in favor of such an “attentional bias” is mixed at best.[1] Looking at the procedure of these studies, the mixed evidence should not come as a surprise. In particular, these studies did not work with actual pain but rather with pain-related stimuli (e.g., a picture of a broken limb). Therefore, to solve this issue, and to investigate the underlying

2018 Body in Mind blog

64. Does information from ClinicalTrials.gov increase transparency and reduce bias? Results from a five-report case series. (PubMed)

Does information from ClinicalTrials.gov increase transparency and reduce bias? Results from a five-report case series. We investigated whether information in ClinicalTrials.gov would impact the conclusions of five ongoing systematic reviews.We considered five reviews that included 495 studies total. Each review team conducted a search of ClinicalTrials.gov up to the date of the review's last literature search, screened the records using the review's eligibility criteria, extracted information (...) , and assessed risk of bias and applicability. Each team then evaluated the impact of the evidence found in ClinicalTrials.gov on the conclusions in the review.Across the five reviews, the number of studies that had both a registry record and a publication varied widely, from none in one review to 43% of all studies identified in another. Among the studies with both a record and publication, there was also wide variability in the match between published outcomes and those listed in ClinicalTrials.gov

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2018 Systematic reviews

65. Interventions to reduce adverse health outcomes resulting from manifestations of gender bias amongst immigrant populations: a scoping review. (PubMed)

interventions implemented to address manifestations of gender bias among immigrant populations.A scoping review was undertaken to describe the literature on existing interventions and determine knowledge gaps. Nine academic and grey literature databases were searched for literature, with four reviewers screening the results.Of the 29 included reports, most targeted domestic violence amongst the Latino population in the United States, with few interventions focusing on other outcomes, populations (...) Interventions to reduce adverse health outcomes resulting from manifestations of gender bias amongst immigrant populations: a scoping review. Immigrants to Western countries increasingly originate from countries with pervasive gender inequalities, where women experience disproportionately high rates of threats to their well-being. Health and social services in countries of settlement encounter several adverse outcomes linked to gender bias among immigrant groups. Little is known about

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2018 BMC Women's Health

66. Quantifying bias in measuring insecticide-treated bednet use: meta-analysis of self-reported vs objectively measured adherence (PubMed)

Quantifying bias in measuring insecticide-treated bednet use: meta-analysis of self-reported vs objectively measured adherence Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are recommended for use by 3.4 billion people at risk of malaria world-wide. Policy makers rely on measurements of ITN use to optimize malaria prevention efforts. Self-reports are the most common means of assessing ITN use, but self-reports may be biased in a way that reduces their reliability as a proxy for ITN adherence. This meta (...) -analysis compared self-reported and two methods which are more objective measures of ITN use to explore whether self-reports overestimate actual ITN adherence.A comprehensive search of electronic databases and hand searching reference lists resulted in screening 2885 records and 202 articles were read in full. Sixteen articles with comparable data were chosen for the meta-analysis. Comparable data was defined as self-reported and objectively measured ITN use (observation of a mounted ITN or surprise

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2018 Journal of global health

67. Differences in trait impulsivity do not bias the response to pharmacological drug challenge in the rat five-choice serial reaction time task (PubMed)

Differences in trait impulsivity do not bias the response to pharmacological drug challenge in the rat five-choice serial reaction time task Maladaptive impulsivity is symptomatic of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance abuse disorders; paradigms designed to assess the underlying neurobiology of this behavior are essential for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Various models may be used to assess (...) findings indicate that different pharmacological challenges increase impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, with modest effects on attention. These effects were not influenced by underlying differences in impulsivity phenotype, which is an important prerequisite to reliably use these challenge models to screen and profile compounds with putative anti-impulsive characteristics.

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2018 Psychopharmacology

68. Sex bias in basic and preclinical age-related hearing loss research (PubMed)

both sexes, 34% used males only, and 13% used females only. In papers reporting sex and number of animals used, 67% were males and 33% were females. Over twice as many internationally based studies used males only compared to US-based studies. Only 15% of all manuscripts discussed sex-based results.Sex bias is present in basic and preclinical age-related hearing loss research for the manuscripts screened in the 10-year period. Equal inclusion of both males and females in basic and preclinical age (...) Sex bias in basic and preclinical age-related hearing loss research This study aims to determine if there is sex bias in basic and preclinical research on age-related hearing loss for the 10-year period of 2006-2015, prior to the NIH mandate of including sex as a biological variable in 2016.Manuscripts were identified in PubMed for the query "age-related hearing loss" for the 10-year period of 2006 to 2015. Manuscripts were included if they were original research (not reviews or meta-analyses

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2018 Biology of sex differences

69. Psychological Intervention to Reduce Weight Bias Internalization

levels of WBI. Participants will attend a screening visit in which they will complete a behavioral evaluation with a psychologist and a medical history that will be reviewed by a nurse practitioner or physician. Questionnaires assessing experiences and internalization of weight bias, with confirmation by interviewer assessment during the behavioral evaluation, will be used to determine whether participants meet criteria for having high levels of WBI. Eligible consenting participants will be randomly (...) of 4 (midpoint) or above on the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) and by in-person interview. Participants must be seeking weight loss. If currently taking medications, dosages must be stable for at least 3 months. Participants will be eligible to participate if they exhibit mild to moderate severity of depression, anxiety, or binge eating disorder, as determined by the behavioral evaluation and the screening measures (Beck Depression Inventory-II and Questionnaire for Eating and Weight

2018 Clinical Trials

70. Attention Bias Modification Treatment in Social Anxiety

Attention Bias Modification Treatment in Social Anxiety Attention Bias Modification Treatment in Social Anxiety - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Attention Bias Modification Treatment (...) though there are effective interventions that can help people who suffer from it, many of them do not seek or receive an evidence-based, face to face treatment. According to cognitive models, attention to social threat is one of the principles that maintain social anxiety. In fact, individuals with social anxiety present attention bias to threat stimuli. However, there is inconsistency in the literature with regards to attentional biases that individuals with anxiety present. A recent model

2018 Clinical Trials

71. Effect of BIA 5 1058 on Cardiac Repolarization

Effect of BIA 5 1058 on Cardiac Repolarization Effect of BIA 5 1058 on Cardiac Repolarization - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effect of BIA 5 1058 on Cardiac Repolarization The safety (...) Go to Brief Summary: The purpose is to evaluate the effect of single therapeutic (400 mg) and supratherapeutic (1200 mg) doses of BIA 5-1058 on the time-matched change from baseline in placebo-adjusted interval corrected (QT) for heart rate (HR) Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Cardiovascular Disease Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Heart Failure Drug: BIA 5-1058 Drug: Placebo Oral Tablet Drug: Moxifloxacin 400 mg Phase 1 Detailed Description: This will be a Phase 1, randomized

2018 Clinical Trials

72. Increased Attentional Bias Toward Visual Cues in Internet Gaming Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Event-Related Potential Study (PubMed)

in IGD is not well-understood, such as its relationship to compulsivity. In this study, we used the electrophysiological marker of late positive potential (LPP) to compare attentional bias in IGD and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty patients with IGD, 20 patients with OCD, and 23 healthy control (HC) subjects viewed a series of game-related, OCD-related, and neutral pictures while their event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The game-related cues included in-game screen captures (...) Increased Attentional Bias Toward Visual Cues in Internet Gaming Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Event-Related Potential Study Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a newly identified potential addiction disorder associated with compulsive internet-game playing behavior and attentional bias toward online gaming- related cues. Attentional bias toward addiction-related cues is the core feature of addiction that is associated with craving, but the pathophysiology of attentional bias

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2018 Frontiers in Psychiatry

73. Perceptual teleology: expectations of action efficiency bias social perception (PubMed)

Perceptual teleology: expectations of action efficiency bias social perception Primates interpret conspecific behaviour as goal-directed and expect others to achieve goals by the most efficient means possible. While this teleological stance is prominent in evolutionary and developmental theories of social cognition, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In predictive models of social cognition, a perceptual prediction of an ideal efficient trajectory would be generated from prior (...) knowledge against which the observed action is evaluated, distorting the perception of unexpected inefficient actions. To test this, participants observed an actor reach for an object with a straight or arched trajectory on a touch screen. The actions were made efficient or inefficient by adding or removing an obstructing object. The action disappeared mid-trajectory and participants touched the last seen screen position of the hand. Judgements of inefficient actions were biased towards the efficient

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2018 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

74. Ligand Bias and Its Association With Pro-resolving Actions of Melanocortin Drugs (PubMed)

Ligand Bias and Its Association With Pro-resolving Actions of Melanocortin Drugs Resolution Pharmacology identifies drugs developed on the biology of the resolution phase of inflammation, the complex molecular and cellular network of events that ensure the tight temporal and spatial control on the inflammatory response. As such, new anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving drugs could derive from pro-resolving mediators and receptors. To implement faithful screening programs, however

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2018 Frontiers in pharmacology

75. Bias From Potentially Mischievous Responders on Large-Scale Estimates of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Questioning (LGBQ)-Heterosexual Youth Health Disparities. (PubMed)

Bias From Potentially Mischievous Responders on Large-Scale Estimates of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Questioning (LGBQ)-Heterosexual Youth Health Disparities. To determine how sensitive estimates of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ)-heterosexual youth health disparities are to the presence of potentially mischievous responders.We used US data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, pooled across jurisdictions that included a question about sexual identity for a total sample of 148 (...) estimates of the average LGBQ-heterosexual youth health disparity by up to 46% for boys and 23% for girls; however, screening did not affect all outcomes equally. Drug- and alcohol-related disparities were most affected, particularly among boys, but bullying and suicidal ideation were unaffected.Including screener items in public health data sets and performing rigorous sensitivity analyses can support the validity of youth health estimates.

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2018 American Journal of Public Health

76. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)-derived phase angle (PA) is a practical aid to nutritional assessment in hospital in-patients. (PubMed)

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)-derived phase angle (PA) is a practical aid to nutritional assessment in hospital in-patients. Nutritional status can be difficult to assess. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)-derived phase angle (PA), and the plasma markers citrulline and transthyretin (pre-albumin) have the potential to assist, but the protocol of fasting and resting for BIA renders the investigation impractical for routine use, especially so in populations at high risk (...) of malnutrition.1 To clarify whether starving and resting are necessary for reliable measurement of PA. 2 To identify whether PA, citrulline and transthyretin correlate with nutritional status.Eighty consenting adult in-patients were recruited. Nutritional status was determined by subjective global assessment (SGA) used as gold standard. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) was used and anthropometric measurements were performed. Serum was analysed for citrulline and transthyretin. PA was measured

2018 Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

77. Is Social Categorization Spatially Organized in a “Mental Line”? Empirical Evidences for Spatial Bias in Intergroup Differentiation (PubMed)

Is Social Categorization Spatially Organized in a “Mental Line”? Empirical Evidences for Spatial Bias in Intergroup Differentiation Social categorization is the differentiation between the self and others and between one's own group and other groups and it is such a natural and spontaneous process that often we are not aware of it. The way in which the brain organizes social categorization remains an unresolved issue. We present three experiments investigating the hypothesis that social (...) of response codes (SNARC). In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested the hypothesis that when membership of a social category is activated, people implicitly locate ingroup categories to the left of a mental line whereas outgroup categories are located on the far right of the same mental line. This spatial organization persists even when stimuli are presented on one of the two sides of the screen and their (explicit) position is spatially incompatible with the implicit mental spatial organization of social

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

78. Association Between Health Maintenance Practices and Skin Cancer Risk as a Possible Source of Detection Bias. (PubMed)

Association Between Health Maintenance Practices and Skin Cancer Risk as a Possible Source of Detection Bias. Detection bias may influence the results of epidemiologic studies of skin cancer risk. An individual's degree of contact with the health care system, and, specifically, undergoing routine screening practices, may be a source of such bias. More intensive screening practices may be associated with increased diagnoses of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (...) cancer. Researchers should be aware of this association and, where appropriate and possible, condition analyses of skin cancer risk on measures of health care use, including screening, to address confounding associated with detection bias.

2018 JAMA dermatology (Chicago, Ill.)

79. Web-based Attention Bias Modification Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

Web-based Attention Bias Modification Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders Web-based Attention Bias Modification Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . Web-based Attention Bias Modification Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders (ATTENTIO) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03764644 Recruitment Status : Terminated (Interim results showed high futility to continue) First Posted : December 5, 2018 Last Update Posted : December 5

2018 Clinical Trials

80. Primary cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus: End of study results from the ATHENA study using HPV as the first-line screening test

Primary cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus: End of study results from the ATHENA study using HPV as the first-line screening test Primarycervicalcancerscreeningwithhumanpapillomavirus:Endof studyresultsfromtheATHENAstudyusingHPVasthe?rst-line screeningtest ? ThomasC.Wright a, ?,MarkH.Stoler b ,CatherineM.Behrens c ,AbhaSharma c ,GuiliZhang c ,TeresaL.Wright d a DepartmentofPathologyandCellBiology,ColumbiaUniversity,NewYork,NY,USA b DepartmentofPathology,UniversityofVirginia (...) ,Charlottesville,VA,USA c RocheMolecularSystems,Pleasanton,CA,USA d Genentech,SouthSanFrancisco,CA,USA HIGHLIGHTS • A negative HPV results at baseline predicts one-half the risk of CIN3+ over 3years than a negative cytology result. • HPV primary screening with triage using 16/18 genotyping and cytology increases sensitivity to detect CIN3+ 28% over cytology. • Cytology failed to detect approximately 50% of CIN3+ in women 25–29years. abstract article info Articlehistory: Received23October2014

2015 Society of Gynecologic Oncology

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