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Screening Bias

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41. Vision screening for correctable visual acuity deficits in school-age children and adolescents. (PubMed)

of life, costs, and adverse effects. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE.We identified seven relevant studies. Five of these studies were conducted in China with one study in India and one in Tanzania. A total of 9858 children aged between 10 and 18 years were randomised in these studies, 8240 of whom (84%) were followed up between one and eight months after screening. Overall we judged the studies to be at low risk of bias. None of these studies compared vision screening (...) Vision screening for correctable visual acuity deficits in school-age children and adolescents. Although the benefits of vision screening seem intuitive, the value of such programmes in junior and senior schools has been questioned. In addition there exists a lack of clarity regarding the optimum age for screening and frequency at which to carry out screening.To evaluate the effectiveness of vision screening programmes carried out in schools to reduce the prevalence of correctable visual acuity

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2018 Cochrane

42. Are There Tools to Screen Children and Adolescents in the Emergency Department With Mental Health and Substance Abuse Issues?

Are There Tools to Screen Children and Adolescents in the Emergency Department With Mental Health and Substance Abuse Issues? TAKE-HOME MESSAGE Modest-quality evidence suggests that clinical decision instruments may be useful in identifying children and adolescents at increased risk for alcohol abuse, suicide, and need for mental health admission. Are There Tools to Screen Children and Adolescents in the Emergency Department With Mental Health and Substance Abuse Issues? EBEM Commentators (...) Michael P. Wilson, MD, PhD Rawle A. Seupaul, MD Department of Emergency Medicine University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, AR Results Table 1. Helpful ED screening tools. Positive LR Negative LR Sensitivity, % (95% CI) Speci?city, % (95% CI) HEADS-ED 6.3 0.21 82 (NR) 87 (NR) ASQ 2.8 0.04 98 (91.7–99.7) 66 (55.2–75.0) DSM-IV 8.8 0.13 88 (NR) 90 (NR) LR, Likelihood ratio; CI, con?dence interval; NR, not reported; ASQ, Ask Suicide-Screening Questions. The HEADS-ED tool is used to predict

2018 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

43. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) - asymptomatic women attending breast screening

studies were rated as having a low risk of bias, but one was rated as having an unclear risk of bias (Lourenco et al, 2014). Houssami et al 2016 9 This rapid review focused on the evidence relating to DBT screening in women with dense breasts, with the aim of estimating additional breast cancer detection attributable to DBT in comparison with standard 2D mammography. Eight studies were included. Four were prospective trials comparing both modalities (DBT plus FFDM versus FFDM alone) in the same (...) Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) - asymptomatic women attending breast screening 77 1 Health technology description Questions addressed The aim of this evidence note is to establish whether the existing evidence supports the addition of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) to the breast screening pathway. The specific questions addressed are: ? In asymptomatic women attending for breast screening, what is the evidence that DBT and full- field digital mammography or synthetic 2D (FFDM or 2SD

2018 Evidence Notes from Healthcare Improvement Scotland

44. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) - breast screening recall

15, 17 . The retrospective studies mostly involved readers evaluating two sets of images for each study participant: (1) the screening mammograms with the DBT images, and (2) the screening mammograms with the SMVs 5, 15, 17, 18, 20, 23 . To reduce bias from readers’ memories, most (but not all) studies stated that the DBT and SMVs for each participant were reviewed at different times (varying between 2 and 9 weeks apart). Most studies also stated that the readers were blinded to the assessment (...) Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) - breast screening recall 76 1 Health technology description Questions addressed ? In women who have been recalled from breast screening for further assessment, what is the evidence that digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in place of coned views improves cancer detection? ? How does breast density and type/stage of cancer influence the results? Key points ? Evidence from ten studies suggests that, from a diagnostic perspective, digital breast tomosynthesis

2018 Evidence Notes from Healthcare Improvement Scotland

45. Accuracy of Self-Report for Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

no studies that reported on clinical outcomes or adverse events or unintended consequences of accepting self-report. In addition, there was significant heterogeneity among studies, which may be due to differences between the populations studied. Most studies had unclear risk of bias due to unclear reporting of blinding and incomplete medical record review. Implications for VHA Policy/Practice Although VA has good systems for tracking screening services delivered by VA, many women Veterans obtain some Pap (...) Accuracy of Self-Report for Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Management Briefs eBrief-no152 -- Accuracy of Self-Report for Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Enter search terms Button to search HSRD ® Inside VA Budget and Performance Inside the News Room National Observances Special Events » » » » » Management Briefs eBrief-no152 -- Accuracy of Self-Report for Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Health Services Research & Development Management eBrief no. 152 » Issue 152 April 2019

2019 Veterans Affairs - R&D

46. Screening for Breast Cancer in Average-Risk Women

Screening for Breast Cancer in Average-Risk Women ACP Guidance Statement on Breast Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Women | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians '); } '); })(); Sign in below to access your subscription for full content INDIVIDUAL SIGN IN | You will be directed to acponline.org to register and create your Annals account INSTITUTIONAL SIGN IN | | Subscribe to Annals of Internal Medicine . You will be directed to acponline.org to complete your purchase (...) . Search Clinical Guidelines | 16 April 2019 Screening for Breast Cancer in Average-Risk Women: A Guidance Statement From the American College of Physicians Free Amir Qaseem, MD, PhD, MHA; Jennifer S. Lin, MD, MCR; Reem A. Mustafa, MD, MPH, PhD; Carrie A. Horwitch, MD, MPH; Timothy J. Wilt, MD, MPH; for the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians Amir Qaseem, MD, PhD, MHA American College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (A.Q.) Jennifer S. Lin, MD, MCR Kaiser

2019 American College of Physicians

47. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women: Screening

trends from the observational studies are at risk of bias because of changes in case management program implementation, other interventions (eg, antiviral medication), cultural or secular changes (eg, universal vaccination), changes in reporting methods, and differences in data collection procedures. Potential Harms of Screening and Treatment No studies were identified that reported the potential harms of universal HBV screening during pregnancy or case management. Screening has a low false-positive (...) Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women: Screening Final Recommendation Statement: Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women: Screening - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 1.0.0.308 Last Build: 5/9/2019 1:01:08 PM You are here: Final Recommendation Statement : Final Recommendation Statement Final Recommendation Statement Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women: Screening Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent

2019 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

48. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults: Screening

studies suggests that the magnitude of benefit from screening may be reduced relative to screening in earlier cohorts. Patients in the control groups had higher rates of pyelonephritis than those in the treatment groups in all but one of the studies. Pooled analysis demonstrated a 76% reduction in pyelonephritis among the intervention groups (pooled relative risk [RR], 0.24 [95% CI, 0.14-0.40]; 12 studies; n = 2068). A sensitivity analysis that removed studies deemed to have high risk of bias (...) Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults: Screening Final Recommendation Statement: Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults: Screening - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 1.0.0.308 Last Build: 5/9/2019 1:01:08 PM You are here: Final Recommendation Statement : Final Recommendation Statement Final Recommendation Statement Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults: Screening Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the U.S. government. They should

2019 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

49. Translating a rodent measure of negative bias into humans: the impact of induced anxiety and unmedicated mood and anxiety disorders. (PubMed)

Translating a rodent measure of negative bias into humans: the impact of induced anxiety and unmedicated mood and anxiety disorders. Mood and anxiety disorders are ubiquitous but current treatment options are ineffective for many sufferers. Moreover, a number of promising pre-clinical interventions have failed to translate into clinical efficacy in humans. Improved treatments are unlikely without better animal-human translational pipelines. Here, we translate a rodent measure of negative (...) affective bias into humans, exploring its relationship with (1) pathological mood and anxiety symptoms and (2) transient induced anxiety.Adult participants (age = 29 ± 11) who met criteria for mood or anxiety disorder symptomatology according to a face-to-face neuropsychiatric interview were included in the symptomatic group. Study 1 included N = 77 (47 = asymptomatic [female = 21]; 30 = symptomatic [female = 25]), study 2 included N = 47 asymptomatic participants (25 = female). Outcome measures were

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2019 Psychological Medicine

50. Bias of Inaccurate Disease Mentions in Electronic Health Record-based Phenotyping. (PubMed)

Bias of Inaccurate Disease Mentions in Electronic Health Record-based Phenotyping. Electronic health record (EHR)-based phenotyping is an automated technique for identifying patients diagnosed with a particular disease using EHR data. However, EHR-based phenotyping has difficulties in achieving satisfactorily high performance because clinical notes include disease mentions that ultimately signify something other than the patient's diagnosis (such as differential diagnosis or screening). Our (...) such disease mentions.Among the patients whose clinical notes included disease mentions without any modifier or indicator, the proportion of patients whose disease mentions signified the patients' diagnosis was 78.1% (on average). This value can be interpreted as the bias of disease mentions that did not signify the patient's diagnosis on the precision of EHR-based phenotyping by extracting disease mentions from clinical notes.This study quantified the bias occurred owing to disease mentions

2019 International journal of medical informatics

51. Exploring attentional bias towards threatening faces in chimpanzees using the dot probe task. (PubMed)

Exploring attentional bias towards threatening faces in chimpanzees using the dot probe task. Primates have evolved to rapidly detect and respond to danger in their environment. However, the mechanisms involved in attending to threatening stimuli are not fully understood. The dot-probe task is one of the most widely used experimental paradigms to investigate these mechanisms in humans. However, to date, few studies have been conducted in non-human primates. The aim of this study (...) was to investigate whether the dot-probe task can measure attentional biases towards threatening faces in chimpanzees. Eight adult chimpanzees participated in a series of touch screen dot-probe tasks. We predicted faster response times towards chimpanzee threatening faces relative to neutral faces and faster response times towards faces of high threat intensity (scream) than low threat intensity (bared teeth). Contrary to prediction, response times for chimpanzee threatening faces relative to neutral faces did

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2018 PLoS ONE

52. "A Prospective Approach to Inform and Treat 1,340 Patients at Risk for BIA-ALCL." (PubMed)

"A Prospective Approach to Inform and Treat 1,340 Patients at Risk for BIA-ALCL." Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma's increasing incidence and associated mortality has become alarming. However, many patients remain unaware of their risk for BIA-ALCL and may overlook early warning signs of the cancer. The authors aim to contact all breast implant patients at a single institution to educate them on the disease and provide screening and treatment as indicated.All patients (...) who had breast implants placed at Penn State Hershey Medical Center from 1979 to November 2017 were mailed a letter to describe BIA-ALCL and to encourage a follow-up visitation. Patient information regarding demographics, implant type, the number of calls and follow up visits, physical exam findings, as well as patient decisions after being informed of the disease were recorded prospectively.One thousand two hundred and eighty-four letters were mailed with 1,020 (79.4%) to patients with smooth

2019 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

53. Unreported exclusion and sampling bias in interpretation of randomized controlled trials in patients with STEMI. (PubMed)

(95% CI: (2.36-4.82)), ineligible non-screened (n = 154) (hazard ratio: 6.48 (95% CI: (4.77-8.80).Sampling bias had occurred due to both reported and unreported exclusion of eligible patients and the difference in mortality between participants and non-participants could not be explained only by the trial exclusion criteria. Thus, screening logs may not be suited to address the risks of sampling bias.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (...) Unreported exclusion and sampling bias in interpretation of randomized controlled trials in patients with STEMI. To assess the impact of sampling bias due to reported as well as unreported exclusion of the target population in a multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT) of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).We compared clinical characteristics and mortality between participants in the DANAMI-3 trial to contemporary non-participants with STEMI using unselected registries. A total

2019 International journal of cardiology

54. A Prospective Approach to Inform and Treat 1340 Patients at Risk for BIA-ALCL. (PubMed)

A Prospective Approach to Inform and Treat 1340 Patients at Risk for BIA-ALCL. The increasing incidence and associated mortality of breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) has become alarming. However, many patients remain unaware of their risk for BIA-ALCL and may overlook early warning signs of the cancer. The authors aim to contact all breast implant patients at a single institution to educate them on the disease and provide screening and treatment (...) as indicated.All patients who had breast implants placed at Penn State Hershey Medical Center from 1979 to November of 2017 were mailed a letter to describe BIA-ALCL and to encourage a follow-up visit. Patient information regarding demographics, implant type, the number of calls and follow-up visits, physical examination findings, and patient decisions after being informed of the disease were recorded prospectively.One thousand two hundred eighty-four letters were mailed to 1020 patients (79.4 percent

2019 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

55. Count me in: using a patient portal to minimize implicit bias in clinical research recruitment. (PubMed)

Count me in: using a patient portal to minimize implicit bias in clinical research recruitment. Determine whether women and men differ in volunteering to join a Research Recruitment Registry when invited to participate via an electronic patient portal without human bias.Under-representation of women and other demographic groups in clinical research studies could be due either to invitation bias (explicit or implicit) during screening and recruitment or by lower rates of deciding to participate (...) when offered. By making an invitation to participate in a Research Recruitment Registry available to all patients accessing our patient portal, regardless of demographics, we sought to remove implicit bias in offering participation and thus independently assess agreement rates.Women were represented in the Research Recruitment Registry slightly more than their proportion of all portal users (n = 194 775). Controlling for age, race, ethnicity, portal use, chronic disease burden, and other

2019 Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association

56. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Associations between Clinical Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer: New Estimates Accounting for Detection Bias. (PubMed)

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Associations between Clinical Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer: New Estimates Accounting for Detection Bias. Previous meta-analyses have estimated summary positive associations between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer. However, none have accounted for detection bias, the possibility for increased prostate cancer screening and detection in men with clinical prostatitis, in their pooled estimates.We searched for studies that investigated (...) the most rigorous analyses to limit detection bias (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.77-1.74).Our findings indicate that previously reported positive associations between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer are likely due to detection bias.Studies using rigorous detection bias methods are warranted to replicate these findings, as well as to examine the possible relation between prostate inflammation and prostate cancer directly, rather than indirectly through the diagnosis of "prostatitis," which includes

2019 Cancer Epidemiology & Biomarkers and Prevention

57. Assessing the Role of Selection Bias in the Protective Relationship Between Caregiving and Mortality: the Caregiver-Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. (PubMed)

Assessing the Role of Selection Bias in the Protective Relationship Between Caregiving and Mortality: the Caregiver-Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Caregivers have lower mortality rates than non-caregivers in population-based studies, which contradicts the caregiver-stress model and raises speculation about selection bias influencing these findings. We examined possible selection bias due to 1) sampling decisions and 2) selective participation among women (baseline mean age=79 years (...) ) in Caregiver-SOF (1999-2009), an ancillary study to the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Caregiver-SOF includes 1,069 SOF participants (35% caregivers) from Baltimore, Maryland; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Monongahela Valley, Pennsylvania; and Portland, Oregon. Participants were identified by screening all SOF participants for caregiver status (1997-99; n=4,036; 23% caregivers) and rescreening a subset of caregivers and non-caregivers matched on sociodemographic factors 1-2 years later. Adjusted hazards

2019 American Journal of Epidemiology

58. School dental screening programmes for oral health. (PubMed)

(RCTs) (cluster or parallel) that evaluated school dental screening compared with no intervention or with one type of screening compared with another.We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.We included six trials (four were cluster-RCTs) with 19,498 children who were 4 to 15 years of age. Four trials were conducted in the UK and two were based in India. We assessed two trials to be at low risk of bias, one trial to be at high risk of bias and three trials to be at unclear (...) School dental screening programmes for oral health. School dental screening refers to visual inspection of children's oral cavity in a school setting followed by making parents aware of their child's current oral health status and treatment needs. Screening at school intends to identify children at an earlier stage than symptomatic disease presentation, hence prompting preventive and therapeutic oral health care for the children. This review evaluates the effectiveness of school dental

2017 Cochrane

59. Recommendations on screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in primary care

at the time of the trials was 3.9% to 7.2%, with more recent population-based estimates of prevalence in countries similar to Canada ranging from 1.5% to 1.7%, reducing the benefit of screening. †Downgraded to moderate owing to serious risk of bias. ‡Downgraded to low owing to serious risk of bias and imprecision.GUIDELINE E1142 CMAJ | SEPTEMBER 11, 2017 | VOLUME 189 | ISSUE 36 likely do not outweigh the harms. Therefore, the task force rec- ommended against screening men in this age group (...) Recommendations on screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in primary care © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors CMAJ | SEPTEMBER 11, 2017 | VOLUME 189 | ISSUE 36 E1137 A n abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) results from a weaken- ing in a section of the aortic wall in the abdomen, which bulges because of pressure from blood flow to form an aneurysm. 1 The aneurysm may grow and eventually rupture, caus- ing death from hemorrhage. 1 It is estimated that each year, 20?000 Canadians receive a diagnosis

2017 CPG Infobase

60. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus based on different risk profiles and settings for improving maternal and infant health. (PubMed)

trials are not eligible for inclusion in this review.Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included trials. We resolved disagreements through discussion or through consulting a third reviewer.We included two trials that randomised 4523 women and their infants. Both trials were conducted in Ireland. One trial (which quasi-randomised 3742 women, and analysed 3152 women) compared universal screening versus risk factor-based (...) screening, and one trial (which randomised 781 women, and analysed 690 women) compared primary care screening versus secondary care screening. We were not able to perform meta-analyses due to the different interventions and comparisons assessed.Overall, there was moderate to high risk of bias due to one trial being quasi-randomised, inadequate blinding, and incomplete outcome data in both trials. We used GRADEpro GDT software to assess the quality of the evidence for selected outcomes for the mother

2017 Cochrane

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