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101. Clinical Characteristics of a Large Cohort of Patients with Scleritis and Episcleritis. (PubMed)

Clinical Characteristics of a Large Cohort of Patients with Scleritis and Episcleritis. To evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical features, ocular complications, and disease associations of patients with scleritis and episcleritis; as well as to delineate the risk factors for decreased vision in patients with scleritis.Retrospective case series.Five hundred patients with scleritis and 85 patients with episcleritis.The electronic health records of 500 patients with scleritis and 85 (...) patients with episcleritis seen at 2 tertiary referral centers were reviewed and their clinical features were studied.Clinical features (pain, scleral inflammation), ocular complications (decrease in vision, anterior uveitis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, ocular hypertension), and disease associations.In a series of 585 patients, 500 patients had scleritis (85.5%) and 85 patients had episcleritis (14.2%). Ocular complications were more frequent overall in patients with scleritis versus in those

2011 Ophthalmology

102. The diagnosis and management of episcleritis and scleritis. (PubMed)

The diagnosis and management of episcleritis and scleritis. 4381284 1967 05 02 2014 11 20 0078-5334 85 1965 Transactions of the ophthalmological societies of the United Kingdom Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K The diagnosis and management of episcleritis and scleritis. 369-78 Watson P G PG Lobascher D D eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial England Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 0200570 0078-5334 0 Steroids 9PHQ9Y1OLM Prednisolone H806S4B3NS Oxyphenbutazone

1967 Transactions of the Ophthalmological Societies of the United Kingdom

103. Scleritis and episcleritis. (PubMed)

Scleritis and episcleritis. The data from 159 patients (217 eyes) with episscleritis and 207 patients (301 eyes) with scleritis have been investigated in detail and the results analysed with the help of a computer. Of these patients, 91 per cent were followed-up during a period of one to eight years. A new classification is presented which is as follows: Episcleritis (217 eyes) Simple episcleritis (170 eyes) Nodular episcleritis (47 eyes) Scleritis (301 eyes) Diffuse anterior scleritis (119 (...) eyes) Nodular anterior scleritis (134 eyes) Necrotizing scleritis (42 eyes). Of these, 13 were regarded as scleromalacia perforans. Posterior scleritis (6 eyes) The diagnosis is based on an exact clinical examination which is fully described. Episcleritis has been shown to be a benign recurring condition, a mild keratitis being the only occasional complication. Episcleritis does not progress to scleritis, except in the case of herpes zoster which sometimes starts as an episcleritis

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1976 The British journal of ophthalmology

104. Evaluation of eyes enucleated for scleritis. (PubMed)

Evaluation of eyes enucleated for scleritis. A series of 30 enucleated eyes, all of which had a primary histological diagnosis of scleritis, was analysed. The average age of patients at enucleation was 68 years; many of these patients had had the disease for more than 30 years. In 40 per cent the diagnosis of scleritis was unsuspected and was often masked by multiple complications. Scleritis with uveitis and glaucoma was the most common combination to come to enucleation. In 82 per cent, pain

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1976 The British journal of ophthalmology

105. Episcleritis and scleritis. A study of their clinical manifestations and association with rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed)

Episcleritis and scleritis. A study of their clinical manifestations and association with rheumatoid arthritis. 1268180 1976 08 02 2018 11 13 0007-1161 60 3 1976 Mar The British journal of ophthalmology Br J Ophthalmol Episcleritis and scleritis. A study of their clinical manifestations and association with rheumatoid arthritis. 192-226 McGavin D D DD Williamson J J Forrester J V JV Foulds W S WS Buchanan W W WW Dick W C WC Lee P P MacSween R N RN Whaley K K eng Journal Article England Br J

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1976 The British journal of ophthalmology

106. Corneal sensation in scleritis and episcleritis. (PubMed)

Corneal sensation in scleritis and episcleritis. A series of 59 patients were examined for loss of corneal sensitivity. Thirty-five of them suffered from scleritis and 24 suffered from episcleritis. There was a difference between the 2 conditions in that significantly more patients with scleritis were affected than patients with episcleritis. It was also found that among the scleritis patients there was a close relationship between the number of quadrants affected and decrease in sensitivity (...) . Five patients had necrotising scleritis, and they all showed marked loss of sensitivity. Sensitivity returned to normal when the scleritis resolved except when a large area of scleral ectasia resulted. The test is of importance because it is one of the easiest methods of detecting the onset of necrotising scleritis in its earliest stages.

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1977 The British journal of ophthalmology

107. Scleritis and temporal arteritis. (PubMed)

Scleritis and temporal arteritis. Thirty consecutive patients with severe scleritis or episcleritis were admitted as in-patients to the Medical Ophthalmology Unit and assessed for systemic disease. There were seventeen women and thirteen men. The mean age was 53 with a median of 57 (range 23-83). Eighteen of the patients had scleritis: eleven of these had evidence of connective tissue disease and three of them had temporal arteritis. Twelve patients had episcleritis: six of them had a collagen (...) disease and one of them developed temporal arteritis. This high incidence of temporal arteritis in association with scleritis has not been previously reported. It is important to diagnose and treat overt temporal arteritis early with parenteral steroids so that ischaemic papillopathy can be avoided. A higher incidence of collagen diseases than previously described is reported in episcleritis. It is thought that this is secondary to selection since patients with the usual self-limiting episcleritis

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1976 Postgraduate medical journal

108. Angle-closure glaucoma secondary to posterior scleritis. (PubMed)

Angle-closure glaucoma secondary to posterior scleritis. This paper reports 3 patients who presented with angle-closure glaucoma secondary to posterior scleritis. Differentiation from primary angle-closure glaucoma is important, as medical treatment is markedly different while surgical treatment is not required.

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1978 The British journal of ophthalmology

109. Scleritis and associated disease. (PubMed)

Scleritis and associated disease. One hundred patients (66 women and 34 men) who presented consecutively to Moorfields Eye Hospital with scleral disease underwent medical examination. Thirteen were found to have seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and another 16 also had rheumatoid factor present (Rheumaton test). Autoantibodies were present in 35% of patients, being most common in the elderly and most frequent in cases of necrotising and diffuse scleritis. Although scleral disease is uncommon (...) , it is associated with connective-tissue disorders. Scleritis may be severe and destructive locally, and one series showed that 27% of patients who develop necrotising scleritis are dead from systemic complications within five years. It is therefore important for it to be correctly diagnosed and effectively treated at an early stage.

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1978 British medical journal

110. Scleritis and aortic incompetence. Two manifestations of connective tissue disease. (PubMed)

Scleritis and aortic incompetence. Two manifestations of connective tissue disease. 4394498 1970 12 22 2018 11 13 0003-4967 29 5 1970 Sep Annals of the rheumatic diseases Ann. Rheum. Dis. Scleritis and aortic incompetence. Two manifestations of connective tissue disease. 477-82 Pitkeathly D A DA Howitt G G Lyne A J AJ eng Journal Article England Ann Rheum Dis 0372355 0003-4967 IM Adult Aortic Valve Insufficiency etiology Arteritis complications Arthritis complications Collagen Diseases

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1970 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

111. EPISCLERITIS AND SCLERITIS. I (PubMed)

EPISCLERITIS AND SCLERITIS. I 5650814 1968 07 09 2008 11 20 0007-1161 52 3 1968 Mar The British journal of ophthalmology Br J Ophthalmol Episcleritis and scleritis. I. 278-9 contd Watson P G PG Hayreh S S SS Awdry P N PN eng Journal Article England Br J Ophthalmol 0421041 0007-1161 IM Cataract etiology Edema Eye Diseases Female Glaucoma etiology Humans Inflammation Keratitis etiology Macula Lutea Male Retinal Detachment etiology Sclera blood supply pathology Uveitis etiology 1968 3 1 1968 3 1 0

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1968 The British journal of ophthalmology

112. Episcleritis and scleritis. Their association with connective tissue disease. (PubMed)

Episcleritis and scleritis. Their association with connective tissue disease. 5427418 1970 08 26 2008 11 20 0003-4967 29 2 1970 Mar Annals of the rheumatic diseases Ann. Rheum. Dis. Episcleritis and scleritis. Their association with connective tissue disease. 191-2 Lyne A J AJ Pitkeathly D A DA eng Journal Article England Ann Rheum Dis 0372355 0003-4967 IM Arthritis, Rheumatoid complications Collagen Diseases complications Humans Scleroderma, Systemic complications etiology 1970 3 1 1970 3 1 0

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1970 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

113. Prednisolone-21-stearoylglycolate in scleritis. (PubMed)

Prednisolone-21-stearoylglycolate in scleritis. 5448130 1970 09 23 2018 11 13 0007-1161 54 6 1970 Jun The British journal of ophthalmology Br J Ophthalmol Prednisolone-21-stearoylglycolate in scleritis. 394-8 Hayreh S S SS Watson P G PG eng Journal Article England Br J Ophthalmol 0421041 0007-1161 9PHQ9Y1OLM Prednisolone IM Adolescent Adult Aged Arthritis, Rheumatoid complications Child Eye Diseases complications drug therapy Female Humans Male Middle Aged Prednisolone administration & dosage

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1970 The British journal of ophthalmology

114. Episcleritis and scleritis. II. (PubMed)

Episcleritis and scleritis. II. 5651050 1968 07 09 2013 11 21 0007-1161 52 4 1968 Apr The British journal of ophthalmology Br J Ophthalmol Episcleritis and scleritis. II. 348-9 Watson P G PG Hayreh S S SS Awdry P N PN eng Journal Article England Br J Ophthalmol 0421041 0007-1161 9PHQ9Y1OLM Prednisolone H806S4B3NS Oxyphenbutazone XXE1CET956 Indomethacin IM Corneal Opacity etiology Eye Diseases complications drug therapy Humans Indomethacin administration & dosage Inflammation Keratitis

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1968 The British journal of ophthalmology

115. Necrogranulomatous scleritis. Effects on the sclera of vascular deprivation. (PubMed)

Necrogranulomatous scleritis. Effects on the sclera of vascular deprivation. 5665943 1968 09 25 2018 11 13 0007-1161 52 6 1968 Jun The British journal of ophthalmology Br J Ophthalmol Necrogranulomatous scleritis. Effects on the sclera of vascular deprivation. 453-60 Sevel D D eng Journal Article England Br J Ophthalmol 0421041 0007-1161 IM Animals Cats Electrocoagulation Eye Diseases etiology Eye Neoplasms pathology Humans Inflammation pathology Ischemia complications Melanoma pathology

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1968 The British journal of ophthalmology

116. Scleritis and rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed)

Scleritis and rheumatoid arthritis. 4326763 1971 09 15 2018 11 13 0003-4967 30 4 1971 Jul Annals of the rheumatic diseases Ann. Rheum. Dis. Scleritis and rheumatoid arthritis. 343-7 Jayson M I MI Jones D E DE eng Journal Article England Ann Rheum Dis 0372355 0003-4967 9002-60-2 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone 9842X06Q6M Betamethasone MRK240IY2L Azathioprine VB0R961HZT Prednisone IM Adrenocorticotropic Hormone therapeutic use Age Factors Arteritis complications Arthritis, Rheumatoid complications

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1971 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

117. Oculomotor nerve paresis in a case of scleritis. (PubMed)

Oculomotor nerve paresis in a case of scleritis. 5575223 1971 07 06 2008 11 20 0007-1161 55 3 1971 Mar The British journal of ophthalmology Br J Ophthalmol Oculomotor nerve paresis in a case of scleritis. 196-8 Davies M S MS Karseras A G AG eng Journal Article England Br J Ophthalmol 0421041 0007-1161 IM Choroid Eye Diseases complications etiology Female Humans Middle Aged Ophthalmoplegia complications Sclera 1971 3 1 1971 3 1 0 1 1971 3 1 0 0 ppublish 5575223 PMC1208220

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1971 The British journal of ophthalmology

118. Unusual presentation of necrotic nodular scleritis. (PubMed)

Unusual presentation of necrotic nodular scleritis. 5129972 1972 02 29 2018 11 13 0007-1161 55 11 1971 Nov The British journal of ophthalmology Br J Ophthalmol Unusual presentation of necrotic nodular scleritis. 781-3 Dugmore W N WN eng Journal Article England Br J Ophthalmol 0421041 0007-1161 IM Adult Diagnosis, Differential Eye Diseases diagnosis surgery Humans Male Pain Sclera 1971 11 1 1971 11 1 0 1 1971 11 1 0 0 ppublish 5129972 PMC1208553 Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1965;85:357-67 4381283

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1971 The British journal of ophthalmology

119. Necrogranulomatous scleritis treated by an onlay scleral graft. (PubMed)

Necrogranulomatous scleritis treated by an onlay scleral graft. 4647127 1973 03 13 2018 11 13 0007-1161 56 11 1972 Nov The British journal of ophthalmology Br J Ophthalmol Necrogranulomatous scleritis treated by an onlay scleral graft. 791-9 Sevel D D Abramson A A eng Journal Article England Br J Ophthalmol 0421041 0007-1161 IM Aged Autopsy Eye pathology Eye Diseases surgery therapy Granuloma pathology Humans Inflammation Male Necrosis Sclera pathology transplantation Transplantation

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1972 The British journal of ophthalmology

120. Rheumatoid scleritis: a long-term follow up. (PubMed)

Rheumatoid scleritis: a long-term follow up. 4777041 1974 04 03 2018 11 13 0035-9157 66 12 1973 Dec Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine Proc. R. Soc. Med. Rheumatoid scleritis: a long-term follow up. 1161-3 Jones P P Jayson M I MI eng Journal Article England Proc R Soc Med 7505890 0035-9157 IM Age Factors Aged Arteritis complications Arthritis, Rheumatoid complications mortality Eye Manifestations Follow-Up Studies Humans Middle Aged Pain Pericarditis complications Prognosis Rheumatic

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1973 Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine

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