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Sclera

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162. Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

as the tumor progresses. Invasion of the choroid is common, although occurrence of massive invasion is usually limited to advanced disease. After invading the choroid, the tumor gains access to systemic circulation and creates the potential for metastases. Further progression through the ocular coats leads to invasion of the sclera and the orbit. Anteriorly, tumor invading the anterior chamber may gain access to systemic circulation through the canal of Schlemm. Progression through the optic nerve and past (...) the lamina cribrosa increases the risk of systemic and CNS dissemination (refer to ). Figure 1. Anatomy of the eye showing the outside and inside of the eye, including the eyelid, pupil, sclera, iris, ciliary body, canal of Schlemm, cornea, lens, vitreous humor, retina, choroid, optic nerve, and lamina cribrosa. The vitreous humor is a gel that fills the center of the eye. Screening The following screening and monitoring strategies reflect common practices in the management of retinoblastoma. In children

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

163. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

or more in thickness can be demonstrated provided it is located behind the equator where the intraocular tumor, sclera, and adjacent orbital fat are readily imaged.[ ] Orbital extraocular extension of choroidal melanoma may be found in eyes with medium and large tumors, but it is very rare in eyes with small melanomas. Metastatic Disease Systemic metastases are evident in only 1% to 4% of patients at the time of diagnosis of the primary ocular melanoma.[ ] Because the uveal tract is a vascular

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

164. Novel use of fibrin sealant for scleral suture free placement of a glaucoma drainage device in advanced scleral thinning (PubMed)

Novel use of fibrin sealant for scleral suture free placement of a glaucoma drainage device in advanced scleral thinning This reports a case using fibrin glue to secure a glaucoma drainage device plate to the sclera where there is a concern with the use of suture.A 13-year-old patient with congenital aniridia and associated glaucoma refractory to topical medications underwent implantation of a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) for improved intraocular pressure (IOP) control. The patient had (...) to the sclera in patients with suturing contraindications.

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2017 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

165. Newborn Nursing Care Pathway

history) Assess mother’s/ family/ supports understanding of newborn physiology and capacity to identify variances that may require further assessments Refer to: • Skin Norm and Normal Variations • Outer canthus aligned with upper ear • Dark or slate blue color • Blink reflex present • Edematous lids • Sclera clear • No tears • Pupils equal and reactive to light • May see subconjunctival hemorrhage • Administer eye prophylaxis (after completion of initial feeding or by 1 hour after birth) 20 promotes (...) attention by looking, lifting upper eyelids, ‘brightening’ Attracted to human face Display visual abilities most consistently in quiet alert state Norm and Normal Variations • Refer to POS • Resolving or decreasing edema of eyelids and chemical conjunctivitis • May have slight jaundice of sclera Parent education/ Anticipatory Guidance • Refer to 12 – 24 hr • Jaundice progression/ treatment Norm and Normal Variations • Refer to POS and >24-72 hr • May have transient strabismus or nystagmus until 3 – 4

2015 British Columbia Perinatal Health Program

167. Miniature lens system implantation for advanced age-related macular degeneration

no standard treatment for dry AMD. 3 3 The procedure The procedure 3.1 The aim of an implantable miniature lens system is either to magnify the image on the macula, or to optically move the image onto an undamaged part of the retina. Implantation of lens systems for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is usually done under local anaesthesia. The natural lens of the eye is removed through a small incision at the limbus (the area where the cornea meets the sclera) and the new lens system

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Interventional Procedures

168. Insertion of a subretinal prosthesis system for retinitis pigmentosa

. 3.2 Implantation of the microchip is done with the patient under general anaesthesia. A vitrectomy is performed and the microchip is implanted underneath the macula using a transscleral, then subretinal approach. The microchip connects to a thin cable that exits the eye at the equator, through the choroid and sclera, and runs under the skin to a power source which is fixed to bone in the retroauricular region. This, in turn, connects to an external power source/control unit via a removable

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Interventional Procedures

169. The removal of imbedded corneal foreign bodies to any person presenting to an optometrist

by optometrists is shown below in Table 1. The wording of the proposed item is based on MBS item 42644, for removal of CFB by an ophthalmologist (with the omission of the word ‘sclera’). Should the proposed MBS item be approved, the Department of Health recommended that additional explanatory notes be added to para O6 of the Medicare Benefits Schedule Book Optometrical Services Schedule, as shown in Table 1. A fee of $90.25 was proposed by the applicant, based on direct and indirect practice costs (...) to a corneal ulcer. The applicant has proposed the existing item descriptor (42644) be adopted for the optometry item with the removal of 'sclera’ and PASC proposed the same schedule fee as for 42644. ESC agreed that there should not be a requirement for co-claiming with a consultation item. ESC noted that PASC recommended that if a new item be listed it be claimed with a consultation item, on the basis that this was how GPs claimed the item. However, MBS data showed that only about 70% of these services

2014 Medical Services Advisory Committee

170. Lipid Emulsion-Based OCT Angiography for Ex Vivo Imaging of the Aqueous Outflow Tract. (PubMed)

Lipid Emulsion-Based OCT Angiography for Ex Vivo Imaging of the Aqueous Outflow Tract. Contrast agents applicable for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are rare. The intrascleral aqueous drainage system would be a potential application for a contrast agent, because the aqueous veins are of small diameter and located deep inside the highly scattering sclera. We tested lipid emulsions (LEs) as candidate OCT contrast agents in vitro and ex vivo, including milk and the anesthetic substance

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2019 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

171. A Case Report of Complete Blockage of a Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant Following Insertion of a 3-0 Supramid Suture. (PubMed)

to the sclera, the device was flow tested. No flow was observed through the device tube and a significant ballooning of the tube diameter occurred with increased pressure on the device. The device was explanted from the eye and replaced with a different implant without further post-operative complication. The explanted device was assessed using custom microfluidic equipment in an in vitro environment.This phenomenon occurred despite using several different batches of the 3-0 Supramid stent suture

2019 Journal of Glaucoma

172. Gene expression profiling in a mouse model of retinal vein occlusion induced by laser treatment reveals a predominant inflammatory and tissue damage response. (PubMed)

), and even choroid and sclera at the laser site was observed in histological sections. Genes associated with inflammation or cell damage were highly up-regulated in all laser-treated eyes as detected by RNAseq and qPCR. Retinal hypoxia was observed by hypoxyprobe staining in all RVO eyes for up to 5 days with a maximal extension at days 2 and 3, but no significant RVO-dependent changes in gene expression were detected for angiogenesis- or hypoxia-related genes.The laser-induced RVO mouse model

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2018 PLoS ONE

173. Eponymythology: Graves orbitopathy

of 40 eye signs have been described over the past two centuries. The most enduring of these are outlined. Dalrymple sign (1803–1852) [ ] The most common clinical sign in Graves orbitopathy, is eyelid retraction. Dalrymple is associated with the description of ‘ a widened lid opening in exophthalmus with sclera revealed above the upper margin of the cornea ‘ better known as lid retraction. 1849 – The first published description was by (1816-1886) in ‘ On protrusion of the eyes in connexion (...) denuded of the protection of the upper lid by a constant and powerful spasm of the levator palpebrae *superioris, which drew the lids, so far upwards and backwards, that much of the sclera above the cornea was visible.’ 1852 – The eponym ‘ Dalrymple sign ‘ may have originated after the publication of his book, ‘ The Pathology of the Human Eye ‘ in 1852. Cooper does not specifically use the eponym, suggesting it manifested later, probably posthumously. No separate accounts or case reports were

2018 Life in the Fast Lane Blog

174. Amphiregulin and ocular axial length. (PubMed)

showed reduced axial elongation in a dose-dependent manner (dose: 5 μg: side difference: 0.14 ± 0.05 mm;10 μg: 0.22 ± 0.06 mm; 20 μg: 0.32 ± 0.06 mm; p < 0.001), thicker sclera (all p < 0.05) and higher cell density in the retinal nuclear layers and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) (all p < 0.05). In animals without lens-induced myopia, the right eyes with amphiregulin antibody application (20 μg) showed reduced axial elongation (p = 0.04), and the right eyes with amphiregulin injections experienced

2019 Acta ophthalmologica

175. SUTURELESS CLOSURE OF 23- AND 25-GAUGE LEAKING SCLEROTOMIES WITH THE SCLERAL NEEDLING TECHNIQUE. (PubMed)

) and after the introduction of the SN technique (post-SN; November 2017 to January 2018) was conducted. The SN technique was implemented as an alternative to suturing, using a 30-gauge needle inserted perpendicularly through the full thickness of the sclera adjacent to the scleral opening, with the needle then immediately removed and sclerotomy closure confirmed.A total of 203 eyes, 105 from pre-SN and 98 from post-SN, were included in the study. The number of eyes requiring suture closure

2019 Retina

176. Partial thickness cornea tissue from small incision lenticule extraction: A novel patch graft in glaucoma drainage implant surgery. (PubMed)

implantation surgery from August 2015 to January 2017 at the Xiamen Eye Center were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A (corneal group) included 131 cases (135 eyes), receiving the 3 layers of allogeneic cornea slices as graft. Group B (scleral group) included 124 cases (127 eyes), using the sclera as allograft. The appearance, graft, conjunctiva melting, and tube exposure were the primary observation points.After followed up for 6 to 20 months, a thinner appearance was seen in 3 eyes (2.2 (...) %) in the corneal graft group and 7 eyes (5.5%) in the scleral group. Conjunctiva melted and drainage tube exposed in 0 eyes (0%) in the corneal graft group and 2 eyes (1.6%) in the scleral group. One eye needed repair surgery. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups (P > .05). After surgery, the intraocular pressure was reduced significantly in both groups (P < .05). The white sclera slice could be seen under the conjunctiva, thereby affecting the cosmetic appearance.The cornea slice acquired

2019 Medicine

177. High myopia induced by form deprivation is associated with altered corneal biomechanical properties in chicks. (PubMed)

High myopia induced by form deprivation is associated with altered corneal biomechanical properties in chicks. The cornea is a soft, transparent, composite organic tissue, which forms the anterior outer coat of the eyeball. Although high myopia is increasing in prevalence worldwide and is known to alter the structure and biomechanical properties of the sclera, remarkably little is known about its impact on the biomechanics of the cornea. We developed and validated a novel optical-coherence

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2018 PLoS ONE

178. Histopathological evaluation of scleritis. (PubMed)

Histopathological evaluation of scleritis. The sclera is an uncommon site of primary inflammation. Biopsy is infrequently employed in the evaluation of scleritis, but familiarity with its differential diagnosis is instrumental in ensuring efficient histological evaluation. This review provides a clinical overview of scleritis and describes the context in which scleral biopsy might arise. Most cases are associated with systemic autoimmune disease, but a sizeable proportion occur as an isolated

2019 Journal of Clinical Pathology

179. Suprachoroidally injected pharmacological agents for the treatment of chorio-retinal diseases: a targeted approach. (PubMed)

of dosing, achievable pharmaceutical concentrations within posterior segment structures versus elsewhere in the eye or the body, invasiveness of the procedure and the inherent challenges with some administration methods. The use of the suprachoroidal space (SCS), which is the region between the sclera and the choroid, is being explored as a potential approach to target pharmacotherapies to the posterior segment via a minimally invasive injection procedure. Preclinical data on agents such as vascular (...) endothelial growth factor inhibitors and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) indicate that administration via suprachoroidal injection results in more posterior distribution of the pharmacologic agent, with higher exposure to the sclera, choroid, retinal pigment epithelium cells and retina, and lesser exposure to the anterior segment, than observed with IVT administration. Based in part on these findings, clinical trials have explored the efficacy and safety of suprachoroidal administration of pharmacologic

2019 Acta ophthalmologica

180. The eye in systemic inflammatory diseases. (PubMed)

The eye in systemic inflammatory diseases. Systemic inflammatory diseases commonly affect the sclera, cornea, retina, and orbit, and can pose a serious threat to sight. They encompass both primary and secondary vasculitic disorders and specific granulomatous inflammatory conditions. As well as direct eye involvement from the systemic inflammatory process, there can be signs of ocular ischaemia due to carotid or ophthalmic arteritis, hypertensive retinopathy, and ocular complications

2017 Lancet

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