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61. Peripapillary rat sclera investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. (PubMed)

Peripapillary rat sclera investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. To demonstrate polarization-sensitive (PS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noninvasive, volumetric, and quantitative imaging of the birefringent properties of the peripapillary rat sclera; to compare the findings from PS-OCT images to state-of-the-art histomorphometric analysis of the same tissues.A high-speed PS-OCT prototype operating at 840 nm was modified for imaging the rat eye (...) . Densely sampled PS-OCT raster scans covering an area of ~1.5 × 1.5 mm centered at the papilla were acquired in the eyes of anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cross-sectional PS-OCT images were computed, and fundus maps displaying the birefringent properties of the sclera were analyzed. Postmortem histomorphologic analysis was performed.Polarization-sensitive OCT enables visualization of the polarization properties of ocular tissues in vivo. The birefringent characteristics of the rat sclera were

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2014 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

62. Magic Angle-Enhanced MRI of Fibrous Microstructures in Sclera and Cornea with and without Intraocular Pressure Loading. (PubMed)

Magic Angle-Enhanced MRI of Fibrous Microstructures in Sclera and Cornea with and without Intraocular Pressure Loading. The structure and biomechanics of the sclera and cornea are central to several eye diseases such as glaucoma and myopia. However, their roles remain unclear, partly because of limited noninvasive techniques to assess their fibrous microstructures globally, longitudinally, and quantitatively. We hypothesized that magic angle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal (...) the structural details of the corneoscleral shell and their changes upon intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation.Seven ovine eyes were extracted and fixed at IOP = 50 mm Hg to mimic ocular hypertension, and another 11 eyes were unpressurized. The sclera and cornea were scanned at different angular orientations relative to the main magnetic field inside a 9.4-Tesla MRI scanner. Relative MRI signal intensities and intrinsic transverse relaxation times (T2 and T2*) were determined to quantify the magic angle

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2014 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

63. Effect of candesartan on the expression of sclera-choroidal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in hypercholesterolemic models (PubMed)

Effect of candesartan on the expression of sclera-choroidal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in hypercholesterolemic models To evaluate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II AT-1 receptor by the systemic administration of candesartan on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits.New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups, as follows: GI, which was fed a rabbit standard diet; GII, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic (...) diet; and GIII, which received hypercholesterolemic diet plus candesartan. Samples of the rabbits' sclera and choroid were then studied by hematoxylin-eosin staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression.Histological analysis of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sclera and choroid revealed that macrophages were rarely present in GI, and GII had significantly increased macrophage numbers compared to GIII. Moreover, in GII, the sclera

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2014 Clinics

64. Evaluation of pars plana sclera fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lens (PubMed)

Evaluation of pars plana sclera fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lens The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of modified posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation with transscleral fixation.This is a study, which is conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, Jinan Eye Hospital, Jinan Second People's Hospital.A total of 82 patients who were scheduled for sutured PCIOL were divided randomly into modified and conventional groups. The former

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2014 Indian journal of ophthalmology

65. Correlation between biomechanical responses of posterior sclera and IOP elevations during micro-volumetric change in the eye. (PubMed)

Correlation between biomechanical responses of posterior sclera and IOP elevations during micro-volumetric change in the eye. This study tested the hypothesis that intraocular pressure (IOP) elevations, induced by controlled increase of intraocular volume, are correlated with the biomechanical responses of the posterior sclera.Porcine globes were tested within 48 hours postmortem. The first group of globes (n = 11) was infused with 15 μL of phosphate-buffered saline at three different rates (...) to investigate rate-dependent IOP elevations. The second group (n = 16) was first infused at the fast rate and then underwent inflation tests to investigate the relationship between IOP elevations (ΔIOP) and scleral strains. The strains in the superotemporal region of the posterior sclera were measured by ultrasound speckle tracking. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ΔIOP due to micro-volumetric infusion and the scleral strains at a specific inflation pressure.The average ΔIOP

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2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

66. Gene expression signatures in tree shrew sclera in response to three myopiagenic conditions. (PubMed)

Gene expression signatures in tree shrew sclera in response to three myopiagenic conditions. We compared gene expression signatures in tree shrew sclera produced by three different visual conditions that all produce ocular elongation and myopia: minus-lens wear, form deprivation, and dark treatment.Six groups of tree shrews (n = 7 per group) were used. Starting 24 days after normal eye-opening (days of visual experience [DVE]), two minus-lens groups wore a monocular -5 diopter (D) lens for 2 (...) days (ML-2) or 4 days (ML-4); two form-deprivation groups wore a monocular translucent diffuser for 2 days (FD-2) or 4 days (FD-4). A dark-treatment (DK) group was placed in continuous darkness for 11 days after experiencing a light/dark environment until 17 DVE. A normal colony-reared group was examined at 28 DVE. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the relative differences in mRNA levels for 55 candidate genes in the sclera that were selected, either because they showed differential expression

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2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

67. Feeling blue? Minocycline-induced staining of the teeth, oral mucosa, sclerae and ears - a case report. (PubMed)

Feeling blue? Minocycline-induced staining of the teeth, oral mucosa, sclerae and ears - a case report. Minocycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic belonging to the tetracycline family, often prescribed in infective skin conditions such as acne and rosacea. Minocycline-induced staining of the sclerae, ears, oral mucosa and teeth are rare but troublesome conditions. If patients already have concerns about their appearance due to an unsightly skin condition, careful consideration ought to be given

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2013 British Dental Journal

68. ACCOMMODATIVE MOVEMENTS OF THE VITREOUS MEMBRANE, CHOROID, AND SCLERA IN YOUNG AND PRESBYOPIC HUMAN AND NONHUMAN PRIMATE EYES. (PubMed)

ACCOMMODATIVE MOVEMENTS OF THE VITREOUS MEMBRANE, CHOROID, AND SCLERA IN YOUNG AND PRESBYOPIC HUMAN AND NONHUMAN PRIMATE EYES. We report, for the first time to our knowledge, dynamic movements of the vitreous membrane and peripheral choroid during accommodation, and age-related changes in the anterior sclera.We studied 11 rhesus monkeys (ages 6-27 years) and 12 human subjects (ages 19-65 years). Accommodation was induced pharmacologically in human subjects and by central electrical stimulation (...) anterior hyaloid bends posteriorly during accommodation in proportion to accommodative amplitude and the sclera bows inward with increasing age in both species. Future descriptions of the accommodative mechanism, and approaches to presbyopia therapy, may need to incorporate these findings.

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2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

69. Biomechanical Properties and Correlation With Collagen Solubility Profile in the Posterior Sclera of Canine Eyes With an ADAMTS10 Mutation. (PubMed)

Biomechanical Properties and Correlation With Collagen Solubility Profile in the Posterior Sclera of Canine Eyes With an ADAMTS10 Mutation. We examined the biomechanical properties and correlation with the collagen solubility profile of the posterior sclera in a canine model of primary open-angle glaucoma caused by the G661R missense mutation in the ADAMTS10 gene.Scleral strips from ADAMTS10-mutant (affected) dogs and age-matched controls were collected. Viscoelastic properties (i.e., complex (...) = 0.88, P < 0.005).An inherently weaker and biochemically distinct posterior sclera was observed in dogs with the G661R missense mutation in ADAMTS10 before clinical indications of optic nerve damage. It remains to be shown whether and how the altered scleral biomechanics may affect the rate of glaucoma progression following intraocular pressure elevation.

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2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

70. Differences in the region and depth-dependent microstructural organization in normal versus glaucomatous human posterior sclerae. (PubMed)

Differences in the region and depth-dependent microstructural organization in normal versus glaucomatous human posterior sclerae. This study quantitatively investigated differences in the regional- and depth-dependent human posterior scleral microstructure in glaucomatous (G) and nonglaucomatous (NG) donors.Twenty-five posterior poles from six G and seven NG donors were analyzed using small angle light scattering (SALS) to investigate the organization of scleral fibers around the optic nerve (...) by an average of 0.14 from the episcleral surface to the intraocular surface. The percentage of equatorial fibers decreased universally through the depth from approximately 61% to 33%. Generally, the inferior and superior regions had a lower Ecc and PEF compared to the nasal and temporal regions.Region and depth of the posterior sclera are important factors that should be included when comparing scleral microstructure of G and NG tissue in experimental and computational work. The dramatic changes

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2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

71. Diffusion of macromolecules through sclera. (PubMed)

Diffusion of macromolecules through sclera. To quantify the in vitro permeability coefficient over different topographical locations of porcine sclera to macromolecules with different molecular weight.Fresh equatorial and posterior superotemporal porcine sclera was mounted in a two-chamber diffusion apparatus, and its permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextrans ranging in molecular weight from 40 kDa to 150 kDa was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry (...) . The sclera was processed as frozen sections and viewed with a fluorescence microscope. The thickness of the area and the thickness that macromolecules enriched in the surface of sclera were measured.The permeability coefficient (Pc) of porcine sclera to macromolecules was significantly higher (40 kDa, p = 0.028; 70 kDa, p = 0.033; 150 kDa, p = 0.007) in equatorial region than posterior, which could be attributed to the significant difference of thickness (p < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis) between them. Moreover

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2013 Acta ophthalmologica

72. Collagen crosslinking of porcine sclera using genipin. (PubMed)

Collagen crosslinking of porcine sclera using genipin. To evaluate the effect of collagen cross-linking induced by genipin in porcine sclera.Porcine cadaver eyes were treated with genipin at concentrations (by w/v) of 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 1.0% for 15 and 30 min. Riboflavin/ultraviolet A(UVA)-treated and untreated samples were used as controls. After treatment, scleral strips of 4.0 × 10.0 mm were cut. Twenty-four hours later, the stress-strain parameters of the strips were measured using (...) difference between the untreated group and the genipin 30-min groups (all p < 0.05). Of 0.3% genipin for 15 min or 0.01% genipin for 30 min had a similar stress-strain curve with those of eyes treated with the riboflavin/UVA group. The sclera exhibited a bluish colour which became deeper with increase concentration and cross-linking time.Collagen cross-linking induced by genipin could increase the biomechanical strength in porcine sclera. The effect depends on the concentration and treatment time

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2013 Acta ophthalmologica

73. Effect of irradiation time on riboflavin-ultraviolet-A collagen crosslinking in rabbit sclera. (PubMed)

Effect of irradiation time on riboflavin-ultraviolet-A collagen crosslinking in rabbit sclera. To determine the effect of the duration of irradiation on the biomechanical parameters of combined riboflavin-ultraviolet-A (UVA) collagen crosslinking (CXL) in rabbit sclera.Department of Ophthalmology, Provincial Hospital affiliated with Shandong University, Shandong, China.Experimental study.Thirty-six New Zealand rabbits were divided into 6 groups based on the duration of irradiation (10, 20, 30 (...) lead to a noticeable increase in the biomechanical stiffness of the sclera. The physiological modulus is the most sensitive tool to measure stiffness. In this study, the optimum duration of irradiation was 40 minutes.Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2013 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

74. Whole Globe Inflation Testing of Exogenously Crosslinked Sclera Using Genipin and Methylglyoxal (PubMed)

Whole Globe Inflation Testing of Exogenously Crosslinked Sclera Using Genipin and Methylglyoxal Exogenous collagen cross-linking has been investigated as method of reinforcing scleral biomechanics, with the goal of counteracting scleral weakening that occurs at the onset of myopia. This study uses whole globe inflation testing to investigate the biomechanical effect of treating posterior sclera with the collagen cross-linking agents methylglyoxal and genipin. Pairs of porcine eyes were treated (...) in four ways. Three groups involved 1% methylglyoxal: two-hour (Group I) or thirty-minute (Group II) incubation of the whole globe, and thirty-minute incubation of only the posterior sclera of the intact eye (Group III). Group IV consisted of a thirty-minute incubation of the posterior sclera in 1% genipin. Following treatment, each eye was subjected to inflation testing under physiological pressure levels (0-150 mmHg); four strain markers on the posterior pole were tracked, providing displacement

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2012 Experimental eye research

75. Surgical repair of bilateral full thickness macular holes in a patient with blue sclera secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta (PubMed)

Surgical repair of bilateral full thickness macular holes in a patient with blue sclera secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta 22498800 2012 09 28 2018 11 13 1476-5454 26 7 2012 Jul Eye (London, England) Eye (Lond) Surgical repair of bilateral full thickness macular holes in a patient with blue sclera secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta. 1023-4 10.1038/eye.2012.63 Benzimra J D JD Kapoor B B Edmeades N N Burger A A Simcock P R PR eng Case Reports Letter 2012 04 13 England Eye (Lond) 8703986 0950 (...) -222X IM Aged Female Humans Osteogenesis Imperfecta complications Retinal Perforations surgery Sclera pathology Suture Techniques Treatment Outcome Vitrectomy methods 2012 4 14 6 0 2012 4 14 6 0 2012 9 29 6 0 ppublish 22498800 eye201263 10.1038/eye.2012.63 PMC3396165 Ophthalmology. 2004 Jul;111(7):1428-31 15234150 Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 Jul;121(7):1062-4 12860823 Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1985;104 ( Pt 2):191-5 3857778 J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1994 Jul-Aug;31(4):268-9 7807308 Retin Cases

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2012 Eye

76. Distribution of bone morphogenetic protein receptors in human scleral fibroblasts cultured in vitro and human sclera (PubMed)

Distribution of bone morphogenetic protein receptors in human scleral fibroblasts cultured in vitro and human sclera To investigate the distribution of bone morphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs) in human scleral fibroblsasts (HSFs) and in human sclera.Primary HSFs were cultured in vitro. The mRNA levels of BMP-2 and BMPRs in HSFs were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein distributions of BMP-2 and BMPRs in HSFs were further detected (...) by immunocytofluorescence and western blot. Their protein expression was also detected in frozen human posterior scleral sections by immunohistofluorescence.BMP-2 and BMPRs were expressed in both HSFs and human sclera not only at mRNA level but also at protein level. The expressions of BMPRIA and BMPRII were higher than that of BMPRIB in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of HSFs in vitro. Western blot further verified the results of immunocytofluorescence. In human sclera, BMP2, BMPR IB and BMPR II were found

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2012 International journal of ophthalmology

77. Evaluation of lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera stiffness in pseudoexfoliation and normal eyes by atomic force microscopy. (PubMed)

Evaluation of lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera stiffness in pseudoexfoliation and normal eyes by atomic force microscopy. Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is a systemic disorder of the elastic fiber system that can lead to PEX glaucoma. Elastotic alterations in the lamina cribrosa (LC) of PEX eyes suggested biomechanical implications predisposing to pressure-induced optic nerve damage. In this pilot study, the stiffness of LC and peripapillary sclera (ppSC) in eyes with and without PEX

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2012 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

78. Quantitative Mapping of Collagen Fiber Orientation in Non-Glaucoma and Glaucoma Posterior Human Scleras. (PubMed)

Quantitative Mapping of Collagen Fiber Orientation in Non-Glaucoma and Glaucoma Posterior Human Scleras. The posterior sclera has a major biomechanical influence on the optic nerve head, and may therefore be important in glaucoma. Scleral material properties are influenced significantly by collagen fiber architecture. Here we quantitatively map fiber orientation in non-glaucoma and glaucoma posterior human sclerae.Wide-angle x-ray scattering quantified fiber orientation at 0.5-mm intervals (...) across seven non-glaucoma post-mortem human sclerae, and five sclerae with glaucoma history and confirmed axon loss. Multiphoton microscopy provided semiquantitative depth-profiling in the peripapillary sclera.Midposterior fiber orientation was either uniaxial (one preferred direction) or biaxial (two directions). The peripapillary sclera was characterized by a ring of fibers located mainly in the mid-/outer stromal depth and encompassing ∼50% of the total tissue thickness. Fiber anisotropy was 37

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2012 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

79. Observations of vascular structures within and posterior to sclera in eyes with pathologic myopia by swept-source optical coherence tomography. (PubMed)

Observations of vascular structures within and posterior to sclera in eyes with pathologic myopia by swept-source optical coherence tomography. We examined the intrascleral and retrobulbar blood vessels in highly myopic eyes by swept-source optical coherence tomography (swept-source OCT).We included in the study 662 of 357 patients with pathologic myopia (spherical equivalent of myopic refractive error ≥ 8.00 diopters or axial length > 26.5 mm). A swept-source OCT system that uses a wavelength (...) sweeping laser with A-scan repetition rate of 100,000 Hz and 1 μm wavelength was used. Radial scans along 12 meridians of 12 mm scan length centered on the fovea were made. Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) also was performed to identify the intrascleral and retrobulbar vessels that were observed by swept-source OCT.Intrascleral and retrobulbar blood vessels were observed in the macular area of the highly myopic eyes. Linear hyporeflective structures running in the sclera were observed in 474

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2012 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

80. Regional Variations in Mechanical Strain in the Posterior Human Sclera. (PubMed)

Regional Variations in Mechanical Strain in the Posterior Human Sclera. The goal of this study was to establish sectorial and regional variability in the mechanical strain of peripapillary and mid-peripheral sclera in normal eyes from elderly human donors.Ten pairs of normal eyes from human donors aged 57 to 90 years old were mechanically inflation-tested within 48 hours post mortem. The intact posterior scleral shells were pressurized from 5 to 45 mm Hg while the full-field three-dimensional (...) displacements of the scleral surface were measured using laser speckle interferometry. The displacement field was fit to continuous and differentiable analytical functions, from which the full strain tensor of the outer scleral surface was calculated. Mean maximum principal (tensile) strain was computed for eight circumferential sectors (45° wide) within the peripapillary and mid-peripheral regions surrounding the optic nerve head (ONH).Overall, the peripapillary sclera exhibited significantly higher

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2012 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

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