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41. Three-Dimensional Strains in Human Posterior Sclera Using Ultrasound Speckle Tracking (PubMed)

Three-Dimensional Strains in Human Posterior Sclera Using Ultrasound Speckle Tracking Intraocular pressure (IOP) induced strains in the peripapillary sclera may play a role in glaucoma progression. Using inflation testing and ultrasound speckle tracking, the 3D strains in the peripapillary sclera were measured in nine human donor globes. Our results showed that the peripapillary sclera experienced through-thickness compression and meridional stretch during inflation, while minimal (...) circumferential dilation was observed when IOP was increased from 10 to 19 mmHg. The maximum shear was primarily oriented in the through-thickness, meridional cross sections and had a magnitude slightly larger than the first principal strain. The tissue volume had minimal overall change, confirming near-incompressibility of the sclera. Substantial strain heterogeneity was present in the peripapillary region, with local high strain areas likely corresponding to structural heterogeneity caused by traversing

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2016 Journal of biomechanical engineering

42. Sclera

Sclera Sclera Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Sclera Sclera Aka: Sclera , Scleral Icterus , Yellow Sclera , Episclera (...) II. Physiology Sclera Thick, protective outer coat of the eye underlying the Poorly vascularized Normally white (with possible bluish discoloration) and opaque Scleral inflammation is very painful, and associated with Episclera Covers the anterior Sclera and lacks the Scleral bluish discoloration Continuous with the Episcleral inflammation is not typically painful, and does not cause vision change III. Findings: Normal Normally white and opaque IV. Causes: Scleral Inflammation V. Causes: Scleral

2018 FP Notebook

43. Congenital keratoglobus with blue sclera in two siblings with overlapping Marshall/Stickler phenotype (PubMed)

Congenital keratoglobus with blue sclera in two siblings with overlapping Marshall/Stickler phenotype We aimed to describe congenital keratoglobus with blue sclera in two siblings with overlapping Marshall/Stickler phenotype. Two sisters (ages four and six) with bilateral high astigmatism were evaluated by slit-lamp microscopy. Corneal topography and pachymetry maps were also obtained. Slit-lamp examination revealed that both corneas were globular in shape with peripheral corneal thinning (...) . Pachymetry maps showed diffuse corneal thinning. Two siblings had in common the features of keratoglobus, blue sclera, atypical face, hearing loss, and hypermobile joints. We tentatively diagnosed the sisters as having an overlapping Marshall-Stickler phenotype based on clinical and radiological findings. Marshall-Stickler syndrome may exist in the differential diagnosis of keratoglobus with blue sclera.

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2016 Indian journal of ophthalmology

44. Biomechanics of the sclera and effects on intraocular pressure (PubMed)

Biomechanics of the sclera and effects on intraocular pressure Accumulating evidence indicates that glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), resulting in gradual and progressive permanent loss of vision. Reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the only proven method for preventing and delaying the progression of glaucomatous visual impairment. However, the specific role of IOP in optic nerve injury remains (...) controversial, and little is known about the biomechanical mechanism by which elevated IOP leads to the loss of RGC. Published studies suggest that the biomechanical properties of the sclera and scleral lamina cribrosa determine the biomechanical changes of optic nerve head, and play an important role in the pathologic process of loss of RGC and optic nerve damage. This review focuses on the current understanding of biomechanics of sclera in glaucoma and provides an overview of the possible interactions

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2016 International journal of ophthalmology

45. The contribution of glycosaminoglycans to the mechanical behaviour of the posterior human sclera (PubMed)

The contribution of glycosaminoglycans to the mechanical behaviour of the posterior human sclera We characterized the structural and mechanical changes after experimental digestion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (s-GAGs) in the human posterior sclera, using ultrasound thickness measurements and an inflation test with three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC). Each scleral specimen was first incubated in a buffer solution to return to full hydration, inflation tested, treated (...) behaviour of the posterior human sclera.© 2016 The Author(s).

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2016 Journal of the Royal Society Interface

46. Simultaneous treatment of pterygium complicated with conjunctivochalasis: analysis of pterygium excision and conjunctival autotransplantation combined with sclera fixation. (PubMed)

Simultaneous treatment of pterygium complicated with conjunctivochalasis: analysis of pterygium excision and conjunctival autotransplantation combined with sclera fixation. This prospective study investigated the safety and efficacy of a therapeutic method of treating pterygium complicated with conjunctivochalasis, using pterygium excision and conjunctival autotransplantation combined with sclera fixation, followed by therapeutic contact lens application.Fifty-seven patients (83 eyes) diagnosed (...) as pterygium complicated with conjunctivochalasis, at our hospital from July 2011 to June 2012, were selected. Patients were treated with pterygium excision and conjunctival autotransplantation combined with sclera fixation surgery, then therapeutic bandage contact lenses were applied. The efficacy of simultaneous surgery was evaluated based on vision changes, tear dynamics, and other complications. Histopathological changes were investigated on removed bulbar conjunctival tissue, using hematoxylin eosin

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2015 BMC Ophthalmology

47. Bare sclera resection followed by mitomycin C and/or autograft limbus conjunctiva in the surgery for pterygium: a Meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Bare sclera resection followed by mitomycin C and/or autograft limbus conjunctiva in the surgery for pterygium: a Meta-analysis. To evaluate the recurrence and complications after bare sclera resection (BSR) combined with mitomycin C (MMC) treatment and/or autograft limbus conjunctiva (ALC) in the surgery for pterygium.Meta-analysis was used to evaluate the differences in patient outcomes between BSR of pterygium with or without MMC and/or ALC. All included studies were randomized trials

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2015 International journal of ophthalmology

48. A Review of Collagen Cross-Linking in Cornea and Sclera (PubMed)

A Review of Collagen Cross-Linking in Cornea and Sclera Riboflavin/UVA cross-linking is a technique introduced in the past decades for the treatment of keratoconus, keratectasia, and infectious keratitis. Its efficacy and safety have been investigated with clinical and laboratory studies since its first clinical application by Wollensak for the treatment of keratoconus. Although its complications are encountered during clinical practice, such as infection inducing risk, minimal invasion merits (...) a further investigation on its future application in clinical practice. Recently, collagen cross-linking in sclera shows a promising prospect. In present study, we summarized the representative studies describing the clinical and laboratory application of collagen cross-linking published in past decades and provided our opinion on the positive and negative results of cross-linking in the treatment of ophthalmic disorders.

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2015 Journal of ophthalmology

49. In vivo volumetric depth-resolved vasculature imaging of human limbus and sclera with 1μm swept source phase-variance optical coherence angiography (PubMed)

In vivo volumetric depth-resolved vasculature imaging of human limbus and sclera with 1μm swept source phase-variance optical coherence angiography We present nnnnnin vivo volumetric depth-resolved vasculature images of the anterior segment of the human eye acquired with phase-variance based motion contrast using a high-speed (100 kHz, 105 A-scans/s) swept source optical coherence tomography system (SSOCT). High phase stability SSOCT imaging was achieved by using a computationally efficient (...) phase stabilization approach. The human corneo-scleral junction and sclera were imaged with swept source phase-variance optical coherence angiography and compared with slit lamp images from the same eyes of normal subjects. Different features of the rich vascular system in the conjunctiva and episclera were visualized and described. This system can be used as a potential tool for ophthalmological research to determine changes in the outflow system, which may be helpful for identification

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2015 Journal of optics (2010)

50. Glaucoma-related Changes in the Mechanical Properties and Collagen Micro-architecture of the Human Sclera (PubMed)

Glaucoma-related Changes in the Mechanical Properties and Collagen Micro-architecture of the Human Sclera The biomechanical behavior of the sclera determines the level of mechanical insult from intraocular pressure to the axons and tissues of the optic nerve head, as is of interest in glaucoma. In this study, we measure the collagen fiber structure and the strain response, and estimate the material properties of glaucomatous and normal human donor scleras.Twenty-two posterior scleras from (...) normal and diagnosed glaucoma donors were obtained from an eyebank. Optic nerve cross-sections were graded to determine the presence of axon loss. The specimens were subjected to pressure-controlled inflation testing. Full-field displacement maps were measured by digital image correlation (DIC) and spatially differentiated to compute surface strains. Maps of the collagen fiber structure across the posterior sclera of each inflated specimen were obtained using synchrotron wide-angle X-ray scattering

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2015 PloS one

51. Heterologous, Fresh, Human Donor Sclera as Patch Graft Material in Glaucoma Drainage Device Surgery. (PubMed)

Heterologous, Fresh, Human Donor Sclera as Patch Graft Material in Glaucoma Drainage Device Surgery. To determine the safety and efficacy of fresh, human sclera allografts as a patch graft material in glaucoma drainage device (GDD) surgery.Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional, consecutive case series.All GDD cases operated between 2008 and 2013 in which fresh human corneoscleral rims were used immediately after the central corneal button was used for penetrating or endothelial (...) , respectively, using Tube Versus Trabeculectomy study criteria.Heterologous, fresh, human donor sclera appears to be a safe material for GDD tube coverage. It provides a cost-efficient alternative compared with traditional patch graft materials associated with a low risk of pathogen transmission.

2015 Journal of Glaucoma

52. Changing Material Properties of the Tree Shrew Sclera during Minus Lens Compensation and Recovery. (PubMed)

Changing Material Properties of the Tree Shrew Sclera during Minus Lens Compensation and Recovery. To estimate two collagen-specific material properties (crimp angle and elastic modulus of collagen fibrils) of the remodeling tree shrew sclera during monocular -5 diopter (D) lens wear and recovery.Tensile tests were performed on scleral strips obtained from juvenile tree shrews exposed to three different visual conditions: normal, monocular -5 D lens wear to induce myopia, and recovery. Collagen (...) fibrils are crimped in the unloaded sclera and uncrimp as the tissue stiffens under load. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to estimate the (unloaded) crimp angle and elastic modulus of collagen fibrils using a microstructure-based constitutive model.Compared with the control eye, the crimp angle was significantly higher in the treated eye after 2 days and remained significantly higher until 21 days of lens wear (P < 0.05). The difference between the crimp angle of the treated and control eye

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2015 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

53. [The clinical comparison of conjunctival resection with conjunctival resection and sclera fixation in the treatment of conjunctivochalasis]. (PubMed)

[The clinical comparison of conjunctival resection with conjunctival resection and sclera fixation in the treatment of conjunctivochalasis]. To evaluate the efficacy of two surgical treatments for conjunctivochalasis.Prospective randomized control study. Thirty-three conjunctivochalasis patients (33 eyes) were randomly divided into two groups:simple resection group, and resection and fixation group. The former received simple conjunctival resection, and the latter received conjunctival (...) the two groups on month 6 postoperatively (t = 0.647, P = 0.537).Both conjunctival resection and conjunctival resection with sclera fixation can effectively improve symptoms, but the latter has a lower recurrence rate.

2014 [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology

54. Effect of candesartan on the expression of sclera-choroidal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in hypercholesterolemic models (PubMed)

Effect of candesartan on the expression of sclera-choroidal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in hypercholesterolemic models To evaluate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II AT-1 receptor by the systemic administration of candesartan on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits.New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups, as follows: GI, which was fed a rabbit standard diet; GII, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic (...) diet; and GIII, which received hypercholesterolemic diet plus candesartan. Samples of the rabbits' sclera and choroid were then studied by hematoxylin-eosin staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression.Histological analysis of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sclera and choroid revealed that macrophages were rarely present in GI, and GII had significantly increased macrophage numbers compared to GIII. Moreover, in GII, the sclera

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2014 Clinics

55. Evaluation of pars plana sclera fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lens (PubMed)

Evaluation of pars plana sclera fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lens The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of modified posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation with transscleral fixation.This is a study, which is conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, Jinan Eye Hospital, Jinan Second People's Hospital.A total of 82 patients who were scheduled for sutured PCIOL were divided randomly into modified and conventional groups. The former

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2014 Indian journal of ophthalmology

56. Characterisation of the gelatinase system of the laminar human optic nerve and surrounding annulus of Bruch's membrane, choroid, and sclera. (PubMed)

Characterisation of the gelatinase system of the laminar human optic nerve and surrounding annulus of Bruch's membrane, choroid, and sclera. We determined the presence and levels of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the optic nerve and surrounding rim region of the human fundus.Samples of optic nerve, rim region, and Bruch's membrane-choroid from macular and peripheral regions were isolated from 9 pairs of human donor eyes. The MMPs were extracted and separated by gelatin

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2014 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

57. Enrichment Of Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Hyaluronan Receptor 1(LYVE-1)-Positive Macrophages Around Blood Vessels In The NormalHuman Sclera. (PubMed)

Enrichment Of Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Hyaluronan Receptor 1(LYVE-1)-Positive Macrophages Around Blood Vessels In The NormalHuman Sclera. To investigate whether the normal adult human sclera contains lymphatic vessels and to study their relation to immune cells and blood vessel anatomy.Scleral tissue probes from 35 adult human donor bulbi were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy for blood vessels (CD31+), lymphatic vessels (lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan (...) receptor 1 [LYVE1]+, podoplanin+), and macrophages (CD68+) at 12 locations (anterior, equatorial, and posterior at 3, 6, 9, and 12 o'clock positions of the eye) in all three scleral layers (episclera, stroma, and lamina fusca). Approval for scientific examination was obtained.CD31+ blood vessels were detectable in the human sclera, where the percentage area covered by CD31+ blood vessels was highest in the anterior episclera, followed by equatorial and posterior episclera, and was lowest in the scleral

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2014 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

58. Dome-Shaped Macular Configuration: Longitudinal Changes in the Sclera and Choroid by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Over Two Years. (PubMed)

Dome-Shaped Macular Configuration: Longitudinal Changes in the Sclera and Choroid by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Over Two Years. To study longitudinal changes in the posterior pole in eyes with dome-shaped macular configuration within the staphyloma.Prospective, longitudinal study.We prospectively examined the macular area in 35 eyes (26 patients) with dome-shaped macular configuration and high myopia (mean spherical equivalent, -14.83 ± 4.50 diopters) using swept-source optical

2014 American Journal of Ophthalmology

59. Peripapillary rat sclera investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. (PubMed)

Peripapillary rat sclera investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. To demonstrate polarization-sensitive (PS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noninvasive, volumetric, and quantitative imaging of the birefringent properties of the peripapillary rat sclera; to compare the findings from PS-OCT images to state-of-the-art histomorphometric analysis of the same tissues.A high-speed PS-OCT prototype operating at 840 nm was modified for imaging the rat eye (...) . Densely sampled PS-OCT raster scans covering an area of ~1.5 × 1.5 mm centered at the papilla were acquired in the eyes of anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cross-sectional PS-OCT images were computed, and fundus maps displaying the birefringent properties of the sclera were analyzed. Postmortem histomorphologic analysis was performed.Polarization-sensitive OCT enables visualization of the polarization properties of ocular tissues in vivo. The birefringent characteristics of the rat sclera were

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2014 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

60. Magic Angle-Enhanced MRI of Fibrous Microstructures in Sclera and Cornea with and without Intraocular Pressure Loading. (PubMed)

Magic Angle-Enhanced MRI of Fibrous Microstructures in Sclera and Cornea with and without Intraocular Pressure Loading. The structure and biomechanics of the sclera and cornea are central to several eye diseases such as glaucoma and myopia. However, their roles remain unclear, partly because of limited noninvasive techniques to assess their fibrous microstructures globally, longitudinally, and quantitatively. We hypothesized that magic angle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal (...) the structural details of the corneoscleral shell and their changes upon intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation.Seven ovine eyes were extracted and fixed at IOP = 50 mm Hg to mimic ocular hypertension, and another 11 eyes were unpressurized. The sclera and cornea were scanned at different angular orientations relative to the main magnetic field inside a 9.4-Tesla MRI scanner. Relative MRI signal intensities and intrinsic transverse relaxation times (T2 and T2*) were determined to quantify the magic angle

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2014 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

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