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21. Enlargement of the Axial Length and Altered Ultrastructural Features of the Sclera in a Mutant Lumican Transgenic Mouse Model. (PubMed)

Enlargement of the Axial Length and Altered Ultrastructural Features of the Sclera in a Mutant Lumican Transgenic Mouse Model. Lumican (LUM) is a candidate gene for myopia in the MYP3 locus. In this study, a mutant lumican (L199P) transgenic mouse model was established to investigate the axial length changes and ultrastructural features of the sclera. The mouse model was established by pronuclear microinjection. Transgenic mice and wild-type B6 mice were killed at eight weeks of age. Gene (...) expression levels of LUM and collagen type I (COL1) in the sclera were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the protein levels were assessed by Western blot analysis. Ocular axial lengths were measured on the enucleated whole eye under a dissecting microscope. Ultrastructural features of collagen fibrils in the sclera were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Lumican and collagen type I were both elevated at the transcriptional and protein levels

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2016 PLoS ONE

22. A Novel Organ Culture Model to Quantify Collagen Remodeling in Tree Shrew Sclera. (PubMed)

A Novel Organ Culture Model to Quantify Collagen Remodeling in Tree Shrew Sclera. Increasing evidence suggests that unknown collagen remodeling mechanisms in the sclera underlie myopia development. We are proposing a novel organ culture system in combination with two-photon fluorescence imaging to quantify collagen remodeling at the tissue- and lamella-level. Tree shrew scleral shells were cultured up to 7 days in serum-free media and cellular viability was investigated under: (i) minimal (...) lamellae elongated while others shortened. Findings suggest that tree shrew sclera can be cultured in serum-free media for 7 days with no significant reduction in cell viability. Scleral fibroblasts are sensitive to tissue manipulations and tissue gluing. However, Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture has a protective effect on cell viability and can offset the cytotoxic effect of cyanoacrylate adhesive. This is the first study to quantify collagen micro-deformations over a prolonged period in organ culture

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2016 PLoS ONE

23. Measuring Deformation in the Mouse Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Sclera. (PubMed)

Measuring Deformation in the Mouse Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Sclera. To develop an ex vivo explant system using multiphoton microscopy and digital volume correlation to measure the full-field deformation response to intraocular pressure (IOP) change in the peripapillary sclera (PPS) and in the optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytic structure.Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-glutamate transporter-GLT1 (GLT1/GFP) mouse eyes were explanted and imaged with a laser-scanning microscope under

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

24. Toward Sclera-Force-Based Robotic Assistance for Safe Micromanipulation in Vitreoretinal Surgery (PubMed)

Toward Sclera-Force-Based Robotic Assistance for Safe Micromanipulation in Vitreoretinal Surgery In vitreoretinal surgery instruments are inserted through the sclera to perform precise surgical maneuvers inside the eyeball, which exceeds typical human capabilities. Robotic assistance can enhance the skills of a novice surgeon, provide guidance during tool manipulation based on the desired behavior defined by expert surgeons' maneuvers, and consequently improve the surgical outcome. This paper (...) presents an experimental study characterizing the safe/desired magnitude of forces between the surgical instrument and the sclera insertion port as a function of the tool insertion depth. We explore two types of regressions, a polynomial and a sum of sines fit, to describe the observed user behavior during our one-user pilot study, based on which a variable admittance control scheme can be implemented to robotically guide other users towards this desired behavior for a safe operation.

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2017 Proceedings of IEEE Sensors. IEEE International Conference on Sensors

25. Minimally Invasive Repetitive UVA Irradiation along with Riboflavin Treatment Increased the Strength of Sclera Collagen Cross-Linking (PubMed)

Minimally Invasive Repetitive UVA Irradiation along with Riboflavin Treatment Increased the Strength of Sclera Collagen Cross-Linking This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of minimally invasive repetitive UVA irradiation along with riboflavin treatment on sclera collagen cross-linking in rabbits.Forty-eight healthy adult New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: pseudosurgery group (group I), single-irradiation group (group II), duplicate-irradiation group (group (...) III), and triplicate-irradiation group (group IV), with 12 rabbits in each group. For the single-irradiation group, a specially made LED light source was inserted through a minimally invasive conjunctival incision to gain close contact with the sclera for irradiation, and for the repetitive irradiation groups, the above experimental procedure was repeated once or twice every other week. Biomechanical parameters of the sclera including ultimate stress (σ) and 8% Young's modulus (E) were compared

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2017 Journal of ophthalmology

26. Anisotropic Finite Element Modeling Based on a Harmonic Field for Patient-Specific Sclera (PubMed)

Anisotropic Finite Element Modeling Based on a Harmonic Field for Patient-Specific Sclera Purpose. This study examined the influence of anisotropic material for human sclera. Method. First, the individual geometry of patient-specific sclera was reproduced from a laser scan. Then, high quality finite element modeling of individual sclera was performed using a convenient automatic hexahedral mesh generator based on harmonic field and integrated with anisotropic material assignment function (...) . Finally, comparison experiments were designed to investigate the effects of anisotropy on finite element modeling of sclera biomechanics. Results. The experimental results show that the presented approach can generate high quality anisotropic hexahedral mesh for patient-specific sclera. Conclusion. The anisotropy shows significant differences for stresses and strain distribution and careful consideration should be given to its use in biomechanical FE studies.

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2017 BioMed research international

27. Biomechanics of sclera crosslinked using genipin in rabbit (PubMed)

Biomechanics of sclera crosslinked using genipin in rabbit To strengthen the biomechanics of collagen by crosslinking rabbit scleral collagen with genipin to develop a new therapy for preventing myopic progression.Ten New Zealand rabbits were treated with 0.5 mmol/L genipin injected into the sub-Tenon's capsule in the right eyes. Untreated contralateral eyes served as the control. The treated area was cut into scleral strips measuring 4.0 mm×10.0 mm for stress-strain measurements (n=5 (...) ). The remaining five treated eyes were prepared for histological examination.Compared to the untreated scleral strips, the genipin-crosslinked scleral strips showed that the ultimate stress and Young's modulus at 10% strain were increased by the amplitude of 130% and 303% respectively, ultimate strain was decreased by 24%. There had no α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive cells in control and treated sclera. Histologically, there was no sign of apoptosis in the sclera, choroid, and retina; and no side

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

28. Expression and role of specificity protein 1 in the sclera remodeling of experimental myopia in guinea pigs (PubMed)

Expression and role of specificity protein 1 in the sclera remodeling of experimental myopia in guinea pigs To study the expression of collagen I and transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1), a transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) downstream target, and reveal the impact of the TGF-β1-Sp1 signaling pathway on collagen remodeling in myopic sclera.Seventy-five 1-week-old guinea pigs were randomly divided into normal control, form deprivation myopia (FDM), and self-control groups. FDM (...) was induced for different times using coverage with translucent latex balloons and FDM recovery was performed for 1wk after 4wk treatment; then, changes in refractive power and axial length were measured. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate dynamic changes in collagen I and Sp1 expression in the sclera of guinea pigs with emmetropia and experimental myopia, and the relationship between collagen I and Sp1 levels was analyzed.In the FDM group

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

29. Quantification of the efficacy of collagen cross-linking agents to induce stiffening of rat sclera (PubMed)

Quantification of the efficacy of collagen cross-linking agents to induce stiffening of rat sclera The concept of scleral stiffening therapies has emerged as a novel theoretical approach for treating the ocular disorders glaucoma and myopia. Deformation of specific regions of the posterior eye is innately involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases, and thus targeted scleral stiffening could resist these changes and slow or prevent progression of these diseases. Here, we present the first

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2017 Journal of the Royal Society Interface

30. Expression Profile of the Integrin Receptor Subunits in the Guinea Pig Sclera (PubMed)

Expression Profile of the Integrin Receptor Subunits in the Guinea Pig Sclera The ocular dimensional changes in myopia reflect increased scleral remodeling, and in high myopia, loss of scleral integrity leads to biomechanical weakening and continued scleral creep. As integrins, a type of cell surface receptors, have been linked to scleral remodeling, they represent potential targets for myopia therapies. As a first step, this study aimed to characterize the integrin subunits at the messenger (...) RNA level in the sclera of the guinea pig, a more recently added but increasingly used animal model for myopia research.Primers for α and β integrin subunits were designed using NCBI/UCSC Genome Browser and Primer3 software tools. Total RNA was extracted from normal scleral tissue and isolated cultured scleral fibroblasts, as well as liver and lung, as reference tissues, all from guinea pig. cDNA was produced by reverse transcription, PCR was used to amplify products of predetermined sizes

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2017 Current eye research

31. Long-term outcome of conjunctival fixation sutures to the sclera for prolapsed subconjunctival orbital fat (PubMed)

Long-term outcome of conjunctival fixation sutures to the sclera for prolapsed subconjunctival orbital fat PurposeTo report long-term outcome of new surgical technique for prolapsed subconjunctival orbital fat.Patients and methodsRetrospective study was conducted on 48 eyes of 37 patients who underwent excision of prolapsed subconjunctival orbital fat with conjunctival fixation to the sclera. Complications and recurrence were evaluated.ResultsThe mean follow-up period was 39 months (range, 8 (...) -101 months). Two eyes (4.4%) developed recurrence at 4 and 8 years after surgery. No long-term complication was found.ConclusionsThe new surgical technique to manage prolapsed subconjunctival orbital fat using conjunctival fixation to the sclera was very useful and effective, with few recurrence and no long-term complication.

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2017 Eye

32. Unilateral Adult Xanthogranulomatous Infiltration of the Conjunctiva, Limbus and Sclera Leading to a Combined Ophthalmic Artery and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (PubMed)

Unilateral Adult Xanthogranulomatous Infiltration of the Conjunctiva, Limbus and Sclera Leading to a Combined Ophthalmic Artery and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion To describe the features of a female patient with a biopsy-proven xanthogranulomatous infiltration of the conjunctiva, limbus and sclera who had an exudative retinal detachment, combined ophthalmic artery and central retinal vein occlusion unilaterally.A-53-year old otherwise healthy woman presenting with a painful visual loss in her

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2017 The open ophthalmology journal

33. Identification of multipotent stem/progenitor cells in murine sclera. (PubMed)

Identification of multipotent stem/progenitor cells in murine sclera. The sclera forms the fibrous outer coat of the eyeball and acts as a supportive framework. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the sclera contains mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells.Scleral tissue from C57BL6/J mice was separated from the retina and choroid and subsequently enzyme digested to release single cells. Proliferation capacity, self-renewal capacity, and ability for multipotent differentiation were (...) to differentiate to adipogenic, chondrogenic, and neurogenic lineages.This study indicates that the sclera contains multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Further study of SSPCs may help elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism of scleral diseases such as scleritis and myopia.

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

34. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Ophthalmic Disease Involving the Sclera Misdiagnosed as Intraocular Tumor: Report of One Case (PubMed)

Immunoglobulin G4-Related Ophthalmic Disease Involving the Sclera Misdiagnosed as Intraocular Tumor: Report of One Case Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is known to have diverse clinical manifestations. We report a case of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease misdiagnosed as intraocular tumor.Case report.A 41-year-old man was referred to our department with a diagnosis of intraocular tumor, presumably choroidal melanoma. Although MR imaging was compatible with choroidal melanoma, he had been (...) observed periodically without treatment because fundus findings were not typical of melanoma and visual function was preserved. He was again referred to us 15 years later due to increased tumor size and visual field disturbance. Transscleral biopsy of the intraocular tumor was attempted to make a histopathological diagnosis. During the biopsy procedure, thick placoid tissue adhering to the sclera was found at a location consistent with the site of the elevated intraocular lesion. Histopathological

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2016 Ocular oncology and pathology

35. Multi-Scale Modeling of Vision-Guided Remodeling and Age-Dependent Growth of the Tree Shrew Sclera During Eye Development and Lens-Induced Myopia (PubMed)

Multi-Scale Modeling of Vision-Guided Remodeling and Age-Dependent Growth of the Tree Shrew Sclera During Eye Development and Lens-Induced Myopia The sclera uses unknown mechanisms to match the eye's axial length to its optics during development, producing eyes with good focus (emmetropia). A myopic eye is too long for its own optics. We propose a multi-scale computational model to simulate eye development based on the assumption that scleral growth is controlled by genetic factors while

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2016 Journal Of Elasticity

36. Details of the Collagen and Elastin Architecture in the Human Limbal Conjunctiva, Tenon's Capsule and Sclera Revealed by Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence Microscopy. (PubMed)

Details of the Collagen and Elastin Architecture in the Human Limbal Conjunctiva, Tenon's Capsule and Sclera Revealed by Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence Microscopy. To investigate the architecture and distribution of collagen and elastin in human limbal conjunctiva, Tenon's capsule, and sclera.The limbal conjunctiva, Tenon's capsule, and sclera of human donor corneal buttons were imaged with an inverted two-photon excited fluorescence microscope. No fixation process was necessary. The laser (...) (Ti:sapphire) was tuned at 850 nm for two-photon excitation. Backscatter signals of second harmonic generation (SHG) and autofluorescence (AF) were collected through a 425/30-nm and a 525/45-nm emission filter, respectively. Multiple, consecutive, and overlapping (z-stack) images were acquired. Collagen signals were collected with SHG, whereas elastin signals were collected with AF.The size and density of collagen bundles varied widely depending on depth: increasing from conjunctiva to sclera

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

37. Estimation of axial curvature of anterior sclera: correlation between axial length and anterior scleral curvature as affected by angle kappa. (PubMed)

Estimation of axial curvature of anterior sclera: correlation between axial length and anterior scleral curvature as affected by angle kappa. BACKGROUND: Though the development and fitting of scleral contact lenses are expanding steadily, there is no simple method to provide scleral metrics for scleral contact lens fitting yet. The aim of this study was to establish formulae for estimation of the axial radius of curvature (ARC) of the anterior sclera using ocular biometric parameters that can (...) the axis line, with good determinant power (72 - 80 %; SPSS ver. 22.0). Angle kappa showed strong correlation with axial length (Pearson's r = -0.813, P <0.001), and the different correlation patterns of nasal and temporal ARC with axial length can be explained by the ocular surface deviation represented by angle kappa.Axial length, ACD, and WTW are useful parameters for estimating the ARC of the anterior sclera, which is important for the haptic design of scleral contact lenses. Angle kappa affects

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2016 BMC Ophthalmology

38. Characterization of Antigen-Presenting Macrophages and Dendritic Cells in the Healthy Human Sclera. (PubMed)

Characterization of Antigen-Presenting Macrophages and Dendritic Cells in the Healthy Human Sclera. The sclera is mainly made of collagen and fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze whether immune cells are present in the healthy human sclera.Ten human anterior episcleral or stromal tissue samples from globe donors were immunohistochemically examined using confocal microscopy. The expression of the macrophage markers CD68, CD163 and CD11b, CD45 (a general leukocyte marker), MHCII (...) immunoreactive for CD68, CD45, MHCII, CCR7, LYVE1, and CD11b. Lower numbers (<20 cells/mm2) were positive for CXCL12, CCR2, and GFAP. The episclera showed a significantly higher number of cells compared to the stroma (P = 0.008). MHCII+ cells could be double positive for CCR7, CD45, CD11c, or CD11b and seldom CXCL12. Macrophages were most likely from the M1 type (CD68+, CD163-).The healthy human sclera contains several macrophage populations, which can function as APCs, with the highest density being present

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

39. The efficacy and safety of posterior scleral reinforcement using genipin cross-linked sclera for macular detachment and retinoschisis in highly myopic eyes. (PubMed)

The efficacy and safety of posterior scleral reinforcement using genipin cross-linked sclera for macular detachment and retinoschisis in highly myopic eyes. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) using genipin cross-linked sclera as the material to treat macular detachment and retinoschisis, both without macular hole, in highly myopic eyes.Twenty-one patients with highly myopic eyes (24 eyes) with macular detachment and retinoschisis were treated (...) ±2.08 mm) after the operation. The retina in 21 eyes (87.5%) was successful reattached and the macular detachment was significantly decreased in two eyes; a macular hole occurred in one eye.For at least a 1 year period of follow-up, PSR with genipin cross-linked sclera was safe and effective to treat macular detachment and retinoschisis in high myopia when a macular hole was not present. The reinforcement effect tended to be stabilised and maintained for 6 months after treatment.Published by the BMJ

2016 British Journal of Ophthalmology

40. Donor sclera-wrapped acrylic orbital implants following enucleation: experience in 179 patients in the Netherlands. (PubMed)

Donor sclera-wrapped acrylic orbital implants following enucleation: experience in 179 patients in the Netherlands. To report the postoperative results after enucleation of using an acrylic orbital implant covered in donor sclera for implantation.We retrospectively analysed the charts of patients who were enucleated between 2007 and 2011. Only patients who received an acrylic implant covered with donor sclera were included.A total of 179 patients were included in our analysis. About 15.6 (...) % experienced postoperative problems of which the majority were related to the position of the eyelid. Only one patient (0.6%) had an exposure of the orbital implant.Placing an acrylic orbital implant covered with donor sclera is a safe and effective method for reconstruction after enucleation.© 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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2016 Acta ophthalmologica

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