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Sclera

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2261. Pressure-induced changes in axial eye length of chick and tree shrew: significance of myofibroblasts in the sclera. (PubMed)

Pressure-induced changes in axial eye length of chick and tree shrew: significance of myofibroblasts in the sclera. To investigate the change in axial eye dimensions resulting from stretching the sclera by acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP).IOP was increased to 100 mm Hg for 1 hour through an intravitreal cannula, while ocular component dimensions were monitored every 10 minutes with A-scan ultrasound in anesthetized animals (10 chicks and 10 tree shrews). In addition (...) , immunocytochemical detection of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) using a monoclonal antibody was conducted in the sclera of the tree shrew and the chick.In both species, axial eye length immediately and significantly (P < 0.0001) increased on elevation of IOP to 100 mm Hg: chick to 103.9%, tree shrew to 101.2% (mean percentage of original measured at 15 mm Hg). After 1 hour of maintained pressure, chick eyes showed a further significant increase in axial length (to 108.6%), but axial length of tree shrew

2004 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2262. Interaction of lumican with aggrecan in the aging human sclera. (PubMed)

Interaction of lumican with aggrecan in the aging human sclera. Lumican is a keratan sulfate proteoglycan originally identified in cornea, but present in a variety of connective tissues where it presumably regulates collagen fibril formation and organization. The present study was designed to describe the chemical nature of lumican core protein in the aging human sclera.Western blot analyses, immunohistochemistry, and immunoaffinity chromatography were used to detect and purify the lumican core (...) protein from tissue extracts from human donors 6 to 89 years of age. Treatment of lumican with chondroitinase ABC, keratanase-I and -II, and/or endo-beta-galactosidase was used to determine the degree of glycosylation of the lumican core protein.Lumican was present in the human sclera as a 70- to 80-kDa core protein with short unsulfated lactosaminoglycan side chains. In addition, on Western blots, a larger >200-kDa species was apparent that was immunologically related to lumican. This high-molecular

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2004 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2263. Prostaglandin FP agonists alter metalloproteinase gene expression in sclera. (PubMed)

Prostaglandin FP agonists alter metalloproteinase gene expression in sclera. The present study was undertaken to determine whether exposure of the sclera to prostaglandin (PG)F(2alpha) or to the PGF(2alpha) analogue latanoprost acid alters mRNA for matrix metalloproteinases.Fifteen human eye bank eyes were studied. Circular pieces of sclera were either immediately preserved in a stabilization reagent or cultured in low-serum DMEM/F-12 medium. The cultures were treated for 24 hours with medium (...) cultures.PGF(2alpha) and latanoprost acid induce coordinated alterations of MMP gene transcription in scleral organ cultures. These results indicate that PGs can directly trigger MMP gene transcription changes within the sclera. These changes support a role for increased MMPs in the enhancement of uveoscleral outflow that occurs after topical treatment with latanoprost.

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2004 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2264. Selective regulation of MMP and TIMP mRNA levels in tree shrew sclera during minus lens compensation and recovery. (PubMed)

Selective regulation of MMP and TIMP mRNA levels in tree shrew sclera during minus lens compensation and recovery. In juvenile tree shrews, a minus-power lens placed in front of the eye produces increased axial elongation and a myopic shift in refractive state that compensates for the power of the lens. Scleral tissue remodeling and modulation of the mechanical properties of the sclera occur during lens compensation. In this study, the time course of changes in scleral mRNA levels of three MMPs (...) and three TIMPs during compensation for a minus lens and during recovery was investigated, to determine which, if any, are temporally associated with changes in the mechanical properties of the sclera and the axial elongation rate.Competitive RT-PCR was used to measure the levels of mRNA for MT1-MMP, MMP-2, MMP-3, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 in the scleras of tree shrews that had received either 1, 2, 4, or 11 days of monocular -5-D lens treatment, or 11 days of -5-D lens treatment followed by 2 or 4

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2005 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2265. Differential gene expression in mouse sclera during ocular development. (PubMed)

Differential gene expression in mouse sclera during ocular development. Ocular development involves changes in extracellular matrix components of the scleral wall as it expands. This study was conducted to determine scleral gene expression profiles during mouse ocular development to identify genes involved in normal scleral growth.Sample sets of pooled sclerae of 3- and 8-week-old mice were microdissected, and total RNA was isolated. After reverse transcription, the cDNA was in vitro (...) transcribed to produce biotin-labeled cRNA. The purified biotin-labeled cRNA samples were hybridized to microarray chips (GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Gene transcript expression profiles were determined, and eight differentially expressed genes between the two age groups underwent further confirmation by real-time PCR analysis.Differential regulation of 4884 gene transcripts in mouse sclera with less than 5% false-discovery rate (FDR) was identified. The top 1000

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2006 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2266. Nondestructive quantification of analyte diffusion in cornea and sclera using optical coherence tomography. (PubMed)

Nondestructive quantification of analyte diffusion in cornea and sclera using optical coherence tomography. Noninvasive functional imaging, monitoring, and quantification of analytes transport in epithelial ocular tissues are extremely important for therapy and diagnostics of many eye diseases. In this study the authors investigated the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noninvasive monitoring and quantification of diffusion of different analytes in sclera and cornea of rabbit (...) eyes.A portable time-domain OCT system with wavelength of 1310 +/- 15 nm, output power of 3.5 mW, and resolution of 25 mum was used in this study. Diffusion of different analytes was monitored and quantified in rabbit cornea and sclera of whole eyeballs. Diffusion of water, metronidazole (0.5%), dexamethasone (0.2%), ciprofloxacin (0.3%), mannitol (20%), and glucose solution (20%) were examined, and their permeability coefficients were calculated by using OCT signal slope and depth-resolved amplitude

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2007 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2267. Modulation of glycosaminoglycan levels in tree shrew sclera during lens-induced myopia development and recovery. (PubMed)

Modulation of glycosaminoglycan levels in tree shrew sclera during lens-induced myopia development and recovery. In juvenile tree shrews, positioning a negative-power lens in front of an eye produces a hyperopic shift in refractive state and causes a compensatory increase in axial length over several days so that the eye is myopic when the lens is removed. During negative lens compensation, the scleral extracellular matrix is remodeled. A biomechanical property of the sclera, creep rate (...) , increases; during recovery from induced myopia, the creep rate decreases below normal levels. Changes in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels, including those of hyaluronan, may participate in these changes in creep rate and, in turn, participate in controlling the axial length and refractive state. This study investigated the unsulfated and sulfated GAG composition of the sclera during compensation for a -5 diopter (D) lens and during recovery.Capillary electrophoresis was used to assess the relative levels

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2007 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2268. Brittle cornea, blue sclera, and red hair syndrome (the brittle cornea syndrome). (PubMed)

Brittle cornea, blue sclera, and red hair syndrome (the brittle cornea syndrome). A syndrome of red hair, blue sclera, and brittle cornea with recurrent spontaneous perforations is presented in 2 siblings of a Tunisian Jewish family. The genetic transmission of this disorder is autosomal recessive. This is the second description of this syndrome, which should be called the 'brittle cornea syndrome'. This syndrome has so far been reported only in Tunisian Jewish families.

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1980 The British journal of ophthalmology

2269. Lax ligament syndrome in children associated with blue sclera and bat ears. (PubMed)

Lax ligament syndrome in children associated with blue sclera and bat ears. The child that is slow to walk causes concern. When cerebral palsy, mental retardation and muscular dystrophy have been excluded, what remains? Thirty five children (19 boys and 16 girls) with hypermobile joints, blue sclera and bat ears (the 'lax ligament syndrome') were referred by general practitioners to a general paediatric outpatient clinic over two years. Three were referred in the first three months of life

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1990 The British Journal of General Practice

2270. Swelling studies on the cornea and sclera: the effects of pH and ionic strength. (PubMed)

Swelling studies on the cornea and sclera: the effects of pH and ionic strength. The biophysical properties of the cornea and sclera depend on the precise maintenance of tissue hydration. We have studied the swelling of the tissues as a function of pH and ionic strength of the bathing medium, using an equilibration technique that prevents the loss of proteoglycans during swelling. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction was used to measure the average intermolecular and interfibrillar spacings (...) , the fibril diameters, and the collagen D-periodicity. We found that both tissues swelled least near pH 4, that higher hydrations were achieved at lower ionic strengths, and that sclera swelled about one-third as much as cornea under most conditions. In the corneal stroma, the interfibrillar spacing increased most with hydration at pH values near 7. Fibril diameters and D-periodicity were independent of tissue hydration and pH at hydrations above 1. Intermolecular spacings in both tissues decreased

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1999 Biophysical journal

2271. Lid lengthening by sclera interposition for eyelid retraction in Graves' ophthalmopathy. (PubMed)

Lid lengthening by sclera interposition for eyelid retraction in Graves' ophthalmopathy. The efficacy of scleral grafts for eyelid lengthening in patients with thyroid related upper and/or lower lid retraction was evaluated in 62 consecutive patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy who underwent lid surgery in the last 3.5 years. Seventy-eight upper and 30 lower lids were lengthened by scleral interposition. A good or acceptable result was achieved in 50% of all operated upper lids after one

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1991 The British journal of ophthalmology

2272. Ultrastructure of the extracellular matrix of bovine dura mater, optic nerve sheath and sclera. (PubMed)

Ultrastructure of the extracellular matrix of bovine dura mater, optic nerve sheath and sclera. The sclera, the outermost sheath of the optic nerve and the dura mater have been investigated histologically and ultrastructurally. Although these tissues appear very similar under the light microscope, being dense connective tissues mainly composed of collagen bundles and a limited amount of cells and elastic fibres, they exhibit subtle differences on electron microscopy. In the dura and sclera (...) also vary with the particular collagen fibril structure. Despite their common embryological derivation, the dura mater, optic nerve sheath and sclera exhibit diversification of their extracellular matrix consistent with the mechanical loads to which these tissues are subjected. Our observations indicate that the outermost sheath of the optic nerve resembles the epineurium of peripheral nerves rather than the dura to which it is commonly likened.

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1992 Journal of anatomy

2273. Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in rabbit sclera after treatment with 7-methylxanthine, theobromine, acetazolamide, or L-ornithine (PubMed)

Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in rabbit sclera after treatment with 7-methylxanthine, theobromine, acetazolamide, or L-ornithine To examine a possible effect of 7-methylxanthine, theobromine, acetazolamide, or L-ornithine on the ultrastructure and biochemical composition of rabbit sclera.Groups of pigmented rabbits, six in each group, were dosed during 10 weeks with one of the substances under investigation, and one untreated group was the control. Samples of anterior and posterior (...) sclera were taken for determination of hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine, proline, proteoglycans, uronic acids and dermatan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, and hyaluronic acid. Sections were examined with electron microscopy, and the diameter of the individual collagen fibrils was measured.Treatment with theobromine produced a significant increase in the contents of hydroxylysine, hydroxyproline, and proline in both anterior and posterior sclera, while 7-methylxanthine increased the contents

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1999 The British journal of ophthalmology

2274. A lattice model for computing the transmissivity of the cornea and sclera. (PubMed)

A lattice model for computing the transmissivity of the cornea and sclera. The method of photonic band structure is used to calculate the frequencies of light that propagate in lattice models of the cornea and sclera of the mammalian eye, providing an explanation for transparency in the cornea that first properly accounts for multiple scattering of light. Each eye tissue is modeled as an ordered array of collagen rods, and photonic band structure methods are used to solve Maxwell's equations (...) exactly for these models, a procedure that automatically effectively includes all orders of multiple scattering. These calculations show that the dispersion relation for the cornea is linear in the visible range, implying that the cornea is transparent. We show that the transmissivity is approximately 97% by using an effective medium approximation derived from the photonic band structure results and applicable in the visible region. In contrast, the dispersion relation for the model in the sclera

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1998 Biophysical journal

2275. Necrotising scleritis after bare sclera excision of pterygium (PubMed)

Necrotising scleritis after bare sclera excision of pterygium To report cases of scleral necrosis after simple pterygium excision in which adjunctive treatment was not used.We reviewed four patients who presented with scleral melt after pterygium excision without the use of adjunctive treatment in the form of beta irradiation, mitomycin C, or thiotepa. Each patient was thoroughly investigated to exclude underlying disease.Certain similarities were found between our patients with pterygium melt (...) and cases of surgically induced necrotising scleritis including the location of melt, associated inflammation, and its response to steroid treatment in the latent period before they presented.Bare sclera pterygium excision can cause surgically induced necrotising scleritis years after the surgery.

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2000 The British journal of ophthalmology

2276. The Time Course of Changes in mRNA Levels in Tree Shrew Sclera during Induced Myopia and Recovery (PubMed)

The Time Course of Changes in mRNA Levels in Tree Shrew Sclera during Induced Myopia and Recovery In tree shrews, visual form deprivation produces increased axial elongation of the deprived eye and a myopic shift in refractive state. A change in scleral extensibility (creep rate) is closely associated with the change in axial elongation rate. These effects may be due to scleral tissue remodeling produced by a change in scleral gene expression. In this study, the authors investigated the time (...) ) in the scleras of tree shrews that had been subjected to 1, 2, 4, or 11 days of monocular form deprivation (MD) or 11 days of MD followed by 2 or 4 days of recovery produced by removal of the MD. Four groups of normal animals provided age-matched normal data.Compared with the control eyes, deprived-eye MMP-2 mRNA levels were higher and MMP-3 levels were lower after 4 days of MD. Deprived-eye collagen mRNA levels were lower than control eye levels after 11 days of MD. The differential effects produced by MD

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2002 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2277. [Prospective study of surgical therapy of pterygium: bare sclera technique vs. free conjunctiva-limbus transplant]. (PubMed)

[Prospective study of surgical therapy of pterygium: bare sclera technique vs. free conjunctiva-limbus transplant]. Many techniques of pterygium surgery with various rates of recurrence are described in the literature. We report on the outcome after pterygium excision with bare-sclera technique compared with free transplantation of limbal conjunctiva. We used the bare-sclera technique in 21 eyes and performed free transplantation of conjunctiva in 34 eyes. The duration of follow-up was 14 (...) months. In patients operated with the bare-sclera technique there were significantly more recurrences (eight vs four, P < 0.025) and cases of development of pyogenic granuloma (four eyes vs no eyes, P < 0.01). In patients with primary surgery and free limbal transplant we found no case of recurrence, but the bare-sclera technique was associated with a recurrence rate of 35.5% (P < 0.01). We recommend free limbal conjunctival transplantation even in patients with primary surgery of a pterygium.

1996 Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft

2278. Effect of pterygium morphology on pterygium recurrence in a controlled trial comparing conjunctival autografting with bare sclera excision. (PubMed)

Effect of pterygium morphology on pterygium recurrence in a controlled trial comparing conjunctival autografting with bare sclera excision. To compare success rates of conjunctival autografting and bare sclera excision for primary and recurrent pterygium in the tropics and to evaluate risk factors for pterygium recurrence.A prospective, controlled clinical trial was performed in which 123 primary and 34 recurrent pterygia, matched for age and pterygium morphology, were randomized in 2 separate (...) studies to receive either bare sclera excision or conjunctival autograft. The surgical procedures were performed by one surgeon and reviewed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery by an independent observer. Pterygium morphology was clinically graded as atrophic, intermediate, or fleshy according to an assessment of pterygium translucency. Risk factors were assessed using likelihood ratio tests. Weibull curves were used to estimate recurrence rates allowing for the interval censoring.In the group

1997 Archives of ophthalmology

2279. Meta-analysis on the recurrence rates after bare sclera resection with and without mitomycin C use and conjunctival autograft placement in surgery for primary pterygium. (PubMed)

Meta-analysis on the recurrence rates after bare sclera resection with and without mitomycin C use and conjunctival autograft placement in surgery for primary pterygium. Bare sclera resection with and without use of mitomycin C and conjunctival autograft placement are three surgical techniques currently in use for the treatment of primary pterygium. The purpose of this study was to determine through a meta-analysis the risk for postoperative pterygium recurrence comparing the three surgical (...) of pterygium recurrence. These were calculated utilising the Mantel-Haenszel method.Five eligible studies with an adequate quality score were retrieved, three comparing bare sclera resection with and without mitomycin C use, one comparing bare sclera resection with conjunctival autograft placement, and one comparing both. The pooled odds ratio for pterygium recurrence in patients who had only bare sclera resection was 6.1 (95% confidence intervals, 1.8 to 18.8) compared with the patients who had

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1998 British Journal of Ophthalmology

2280. The sclera, the prion, and the ophthalmologist (PubMed)

The sclera, the prion, and the ophthalmologist Prions have emerged in the past 5 years as serious transmissible infective agents. Ocular tissue transplantation has come under scrutiny after potential infected tissue was transplanted into healthy patients. In this review we examine the evidence for the risk of transmission of prions after scleral transplantation and explore alternative materials that may be used in ocular surgery.

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2002 The British journal of ophthalmology

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